Sao Shwe Thaik

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Sao Shwe Thaik
စဝ်ရွှေသိုက်

Sao Shwe Thaik.jpg
Speaker of the Chamber of Nationalities
In office
1952–1960
1st President of Burma
In office
4 January 1948 16 March 1952
Preceded by George VI as the King of British Burma Hubert Rance
(as Governor of British Burma)
Succeeded by Ba U
Saopha of Yawnghwe
In office
8 March 1929 2 March 1962
Preceded bySao Maung
Succeeded byNone (abolished)
Personal details
Born16 October 1895
Yawnghwe, Federated Shan States, British Burma
Died21 November 1962 (1962-11-22) (aged 67)
Rangoon, Burma
Political party AFPFL
Spouse(s) Sao Nang Hearn Kham
Mya Win
Nyunt May
Children Hso Khan Pha
ParentsSir Sao Maung
Alma mater Shan Chiefs School, Taunggyi

Sao Shwe Thaik (Burmese : စဝ်ရွှေသိုက်, Burmese pronunciation:  [saʔ ʃwè θaiʔ] ; 16 October 1895 – 21 November 1962) was the first president of the Union of Burma and the last Saopha of Yawnghwe. His full royal style was Kambawsarahta Thiri Pawaramahawuntha Thudamaraza. He was a well-respected Shan political figure in Burma. His residence in Nyaung Shwe (Yawnghwe), the Haw, is now the "Buddha Museum" and is open to the public.

Burmese language language spoken in Myanmar

The Burmese language is the Sino-Tibetan language spoken in Myanmar where it is an official language and the language of the Bamar people, the country's principal ethnic group. Although the Constitution of Myanmar officially recognizes the English name of the language as the Myanmar language, most English speakers continue to refer to the language as Burmese, after Burma, the older name for Myanmar. In 2007, it was spoken as a first language by 33 million, primarily the Bamar (Burman) people and related ethnic groups, and as a second language by 10 million, particularly ethnic minorities in Myanmar and neighboring countries.

Yawnghwe former Shan state in what is today Burma

Yawnghwe, known as Nyaungshwe in Burmese, was a Shan state in what is today Myanmar. It was one of the most important of the Southern Shan States. Yawnghwe state included the Inle Lake. The administrative capital was Taunggyi, located in the northern part of the state. The Agent of the British government, the Superintendent of the Southern Shan States, resided at Taunggyi and the king's palace was at Yawnghwe.

Shan people ethnic group

The Shan are a Tai ethnic group of Southeast Asia. The Shan live primarily in the Shan State of Burma (Myanmar), but also inhabit parts of Mandalay Region, Kachin State, and Kayin State, and in adjacent regions of China, Laos, Assam and Thailand. Though no reliable census has been taken in Burma since 1935, the Shan are estimated to number 4–6 million, with CIA Factbook giving an estimate of five million spread throughout Myanmar.

Contents

Early life

Born on 16 October 1895, [note 1] Shwe Thaik was educated at the Shan Chiefs School in Taunggyi. He then entered the British military service during World War I, and also served in the Northeast Frontier Service from 1920–1923. In September 1927, he was chosen as successor to his uncle as saopha of Yawnghwe by the Federated Shan States' Council of Ministers. [1] He officially assumed office on 8 March 1929. [2] He again served in the military service from 1939 to 1942. He was married five times; his best-known wife was the first, Sao Nang Hearn Hkam, sister of the Saopha of North Hsenwi Sao Hom Hpa. [3] He had a total of three children.

Taunggyi City in Shan State, Myanmar

Taunggyi is the capital and largest city of Shan State, Myanmar (Burma) and lies on the Thazi-Kyaingtong road at an elevation of 4,712 feet, just north of Shwenyaung and Inle Lake within the Myelat region. Taunggyi is the fifth largest city of Myanmar, and has an estimated population of 380,665 as of 2014.The city is famous for its hot air balloon festival held annually on the full moon day of Tazaungmon.

North Hsenwi

North Hsenwi was a Shan state in the Northern Shan States in what is today Burma. The capital was Lashio town which was also the headquarters of the superintendent of the Northern Shan State. North Hsenwi, with an area of 6330 m², had a population in 1901 of 118,325 persons and an estimated revenue of £6000.

President

Sap Shwe Thaik became the president of the Union of Burma on 4 January 1948 at its independence, served as the head of state until 16 March 1952. The following is his first presidential address to the nation on the day of independence, 4 January 1948. [4]

A head of state is the public persona who officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state. Depending on the country's form of government and separation of powers, the head of state may be a ceremonial figurehead or concurrently the head of government. In a parliamentary system the head of state is the de jure leader of the nation, and there is a separate de facto leader, often with the title of prime minister. In contrast, a semi-presidential system has both heads of state and government as the leaders de facto of the nation.

Let us rejoice at the independence which has come to us today, the result of sacrifices undergone by us and those who preceded us in the years that have passed. Let us rejoice also that the independence has come not as a result of armed conflict but as the fruit of friendly negotiations with that great nation whose political bonds we replace by mutual consent to-day with the stronger bonds of friendship and goodwill.
Today is for us not only a day of freedom but also a day of reunion. For a long time, the principal races of Burma, the Kachins and the Chins have tended to look upon themselves as separate national units. Of late, a nobler vision, the vision of a Union of Burma, has moved our hearts, and we stand united to-day as one nation determined to work in unity and concord for the advancement of Burma’s interests and for the speedy attainment of her due position as one of the great nations of the world. It is unity which has brought our struggle for independence to this early fruition and may unity continue to be the watchword for every member of the Sovereign Independent Republic to be henceforth known as the Union of Burma.

Excerpt from "the White Umbrella" by Patricia Elliot (Pg. 206–207) On 4 January 1949, a mass rally was held outside City Hall to mark the first anniversary of Independence Day. As head of state, (he) addressed the crowd. To his credit, he didn't serve up the previous year's menu of brave words and high purpose. Instead he issued a warning.

Co-operation and understanding cannot come about so long as the element of violence or threat of violence exists, for violence has no counterpart in freedom, and liberty ends where violence begins. The progressive retreat of democracy in the world today is mainly due to the worship by nations of the cult of physical force. The deterioration in this direction has been such that the much-vaunted democracies are nowadays hardly distinguishable from totalitarian states.

He made a direct stab at his own country's (deteriorating political situation with insurgencies and armed conflicts).

Speaker of the Chamber of Nationalities

After this term as president, he was the speaker of the Chamber of Nationalities, the upper house, from 1950 to 1962. [5] In the military coup of March 1962 he was arrested by the Union Revolutionary Council headed by General Ne Win and died in prison in November 1962. One of his sons, 17 at that time, was killed in the March 1962 military coup, apparently the only casualty on the day of the coup. [1]

The Chamber of Nationalities was the upper house of the bicameral Union Parliament of Burma (Myanmar) from 1948 to 1962. Under the 1947 Constitution, bills initiated and passed by the lower house, the Chamber of Deputies, were to be sent to the Chamber of Nationalities for review and revision. The Chamber of Nationalities was primarily formed to give minorities within Burma some political power in the national government.

The Union Revolutionary Council was the supreme governing body of Burma from 2 March 1962, following the overthrow of U Nu's civilian government, to 3 March 1974, with the promulgation of the 1974 Constitution of Burma and transfer of power to the People's Assembly, the country's new unicameral legislature.

Ne Win Burmese politician and general

Ne Win was a Burmese politician and military commander who served as Prime Minister of Burma from 1958 to 1960 and 1962 to 1974, and also President of Burma from 1962 to 1981. Ne Win was Burma's dictator during the Socialist Burma period from 1962 to 1988.

Notes

  1. His birth year is reported as either 1894 or 1896. (Seekins 2006: 410–411) gives 1894. (Sarpay Beikman 1952) says that he was born on 16 October 1896 in the Burmese year of 1257. But both cannot be true since 1257 ME lasted between 15 April 1895 and 14 April 1896, and 16 October 1896 fell in 1258 ME; thus, he was born either on 16 October 1895 (14th waning of Thadingyut 1257 ME), or a year later on 16 October 1896 (10th waxing of Thadingyut 1258 ME). His name Shwe Thaik, assuming he was named according to traditional Burmese naming customs, suggests he was born on a Wednesday. Since 16 October 1895 was a Wednesday and 16 October 1896 was a Friday, he was probably born on Wednesday, 16 October 1895.

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Sao Kya Seng politician

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References

  1. 1 2 Seekins 2006: 410–411
  2. (Kyaw 2013)
  3. Hsenwi (Shan Princely State)
  4. "Sap Shwe Thaike's first presidential address to the nation, on January 4, 1948". The Irrawaddy. Archived from the original on 20 July 2010. Retrieved 25 July 2010.
  5. Houtman, Gustaaf (1990). Traditions of Buddhist Practice in Burma. School of Oriental and African Studies, London University. p. 275.

Bibliography

Sarpay Beikman originated as the Burmese Translation Society. Its first President was Prime Minister U Nu, who started a Burmese translation job at Judson College. The purpose was to translate world culture, literature, education for the Burmese public. In 1963 the society was absorbed into the Ministry of Information's Printing and Publishing Enterprise as the Sarpay Beikman Literature House, and the mandate was extended to encourage local writers and to print and publish books of all types. The society presents the annual Sarpay Beikman Manuscript Awards and Burma National Literature Awards for excellent new unpublished and published writing in various categories.

International Standard Book Number Unique numeric book identifier

The International Standard Book Number (ISBN) is a numeric commercial book identifier which is intended to be unique. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.

Political offices
Preceded by
Hubert Rance
(Governor of Burma)
President of Burma
1948–1952
Succeeded by
Ba U