Sao Shwe Thaik
|Speaker of the Chamber of Nationalities|
|1st President of Burma|
4 January 1948 –16 March 1952
|Preceded by|| George VI as the King of British Burma Hubert Rance |
(as Governor of British Burma)
|Succeeded by||Ba U|
|Saopha of Yawnghwe|
8 March 1929 –2 March 1962
|Preceded by||Sao Maung|
|Succeeded by||None (abolished)|
|Born||16 October 1895|
Yawnghwe, Federated Shan States, British Burma
|Died||21 November 1962 67) (aged|
|Spouse(s)|| Sao Nang Hearn Kham |
|Children||Hso Khan Pha|
|Parents||Sir Sao Maung|
|Alma mater||Shan Chiefs School, Taunggyi|
Sao Shwe Thaik (Burmese : စဝ်ရွှေသိုက်, Burmese pronunciation: [saʔ ʃwè θaiʔ] ; 16 October 1895 – 21 November 1962) was the first president of the Union of Burma and the last Saopha of Yawnghwe. His full royal style was Kambawsarahta Thiri Pawaramahawuntha Thudamaraza. He was a well-respected Shan political figure in Burma. His residence in Nyaung Shwe (Yawnghwe), the Haw, is now the "Buddha Museum" and is open to the public.
The Burmese language is the Sino-Tibetan language spoken in Myanmar where it is an official language and the language of the Bamar people, the country's principal ethnic group. Although the Constitution of Myanmar officially recognizes the English name of the language as the Myanmar language, most English speakers continue to refer to the language as Burmese, after Burma, the older name for Myanmar. In 2007, it was spoken as a first language by 33 million, primarily the Bamar (Burman) people and related ethnic groups, and as a second language by 10 million, particularly ethnic minorities in Myanmar and neighboring countries.
Yawnghwe, known as Nyaungshwe in Burmese, was a Shan state in what is today Myanmar. It was one of the most important of the Southern Shan States. Yawnghwe state included the Inle Lake. The administrative capital was Taunggyi, located in the northern part of the state. The Agent of the British government, the Superintendent of the Southern Shan States, resided at Taunggyi and the king's palace was at Yawnghwe.
The Shan are a Tai ethnic group of Southeast Asia. The Shan live primarily in the Shan State of Burma (Myanmar), but also inhabit parts of Mandalay Region, Kachin State, and Kayin State, and in adjacent regions of China, Laos, Assam and Thailand. Though no reliable census has been taken in Burma since 1935, the Shan are estimated to number 4–6 million, with CIA Factbook giving an estimate of five million spread throughout Myanmar.
Born on 16 October 1895,Shwe Thaik was educated at the Shan Chiefs School in Taunggyi. He then entered the British military service during World War I, and also served in the Northeast Frontier Service from 1920–1923. In September 1927, he was chosen as successor to his uncle as saopha of Yawnghwe by the Federated Shan States' Council of Ministers. He officially assumed office on 8 March 1929. He again served in the military service from 1939 to 1942. He was married five times; his best-known wife was the first, Sao Nang Hearn Hkam, sister of the Saopha of North Hsenwi Sao Hom Hpa. He had a total of three children.
Taunggyi is the capital and largest city of Shan State, Myanmar (Burma) and lies on the Thazi-Kyaingtong road at an elevation of 4,712 feet, just north of Shwenyaung and Inle Lake within the Myelat region. Taunggyi is the fifth largest city of Myanmar, and has an estimated population of 380,665 as of 2014.The city is famous for its hot air balloon festival held annually on the full moon day of Tazaungmon.
North Hsenwi was a Shan state in the Northern Shan States in what is today Burma. The capital was Lashio town which was also the headquarters of the superintendent of the Northern Shan State. North Hsenwi, with an area of 6330 m², had a population in 1901 of 118,325 persons and an estimated revenue of £6000.
Sap Shwe Thaik became the president of the Union of Burma on 4 January 1948 at its independence, served as the head of state until 16 March 1952. The following is his first presidential address to the nation on the day of independence, 4 January 1948.
A head of state is the public persona who officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state. Depending on the country's form of government and separation of powers, the head of state may be a ceremonial figurehead or concurrently the head of government. In a parliamentary system the head of state is the de jure leader of the nation, and there is a separate de facto leader, often with the title of prime minister. In contrast, a semi-presidential system has both heads of state and government as the leaders de facto of the nation.
Excerpt from "the White Umbrella" by Patricia Elliot (Pg. 206–207) On 4 January 1949, a mass rally was held outside City Hall to mark the first anniversary of Independence Day. As head of state, (he) addressed the crowd. To his credit, he didn't serve up the previous year's menu of brave words and high purpose. Instead he issued a warning.
He made a direct stab at his own country's (deteriorating political situation with insurgencies and armed conflicts).
After this term as president, he was the speaker of the Chamber of Nationalities, the upper house, from 1950 to 1962.In the military coup of March 1962 he was arrested by the Union Revolutionary Council headed by General Ne Win and died in prison in November 1962. One of his sons, 17 at that time, was killed in the March 1962 military coup, apparently the only casualty on the day of the coup.
The Chamber of Nationalities was the upper house of the bicameral Union Parliament of Burma (Myanmar) from 1948 to 1962. Under the 1947 Constitution, bills initiated and passed by the lower house, the Chamber of Deputies, were to be sent to the Chamber of Nationalities for review and revision. The Chamber of Nationalities was primarily formed to give minorities within Burma some political power in the national government.
The Union Revolutionary Council was the supreme governing body of Burma from 2 March 1962, following the overthrow of U Nu's civilian government, to 3 March 1974, with the promulgation of the 1974 Constitution of Burma and transfer of power to the People's Assembly, the country's new unicameral legislature.
Ne Win was a Burmese politician and military commander who served as Prime Minister of Burma from 1958 to 1960 and 1962 to 1974, and also President of Burma from 1962 to 1981. Ne Win was Burma's dictator during the Socialist Burma period from 1962 to 1988.
Prince Hso Khan Pha of Yawnghwe was a consulting geologist who lived in exile in Canada. He was a son of Sao Shwe Thaik, the Saopha of Yawnghwe and Sao Nang Hearn Kham, the Mahadevi (consort). Sao Shwe Thaik was the first President of the democratic and newly independent Union of Burma from 1948-52.
Saopha, Sao Pha, Chaopha, Jaopha, sawbwa, or saw-bwa was a royal title used by the hereditary rulers of the Tai Kingdoms Of Ahom kingdom, Shan kingdom, Dai kingdom, Thai kingdom and Tai-Khamti people. Shan is the semi-independent Shan States in what today is Eastern Myanmar (Burma). It may also be used for rulers of similar Tai/Dai states in neighbouring countries, notably including China's Yunnan Province.
The Shan States (1885–1948) were a collection of minor Shan kingdoms called mueang whose rulers bore the title saopha in British Burma. They were analogous to the princely states of British India.
Laihka State was a state in the central division of the Southern Shan States of Burma, with an area of 3711 km².
Sao Sāimöng or Sao Sāimöng Mangrāi was a member of the princely family of Kengtung State. He was a government minister in Burma soon after independence; he was also a scholar, historian and linguist. His wife, Mi Mi Khaing, was also a scholar and writer.
The Panglong Conference, held in February 1947, was an historic meeting that took place at Panglong in the Shan States in Burma between the Shan, Kachin and Chin ethnic minority leaders and Aung San, head of the interim Burmese government. Aung Zan Wai, Pe Khin, Bo Hmu Aung, Sir Maung Gyi, Dr. Sein Mya Maung and Myoma U Than Kywe were among the negotiators of the historical Panglong Conference negotiated with Bamar representative General Aung San and other ethnic leaders in 1947. All these leaders unanimously decided to join the Union of Burma. On the agenda was the united struggle for independence from Britain and the future of Burma after independence as a unified republic.
Hpaung Daw U Pagoda, also spelt Hpaung Daw Oo or Phaung Daw Oo) is a notable Buddhist site in Myanmar, located on the Inle Lake in Shan State.
During the first years of post-independence Burma, insurgencies by the Red Flag Communists led by Thakin Soe, the White Flag Communists led by Thakin Than Tun, the Yèbaw Hpyu led by Bo La Yaung, a member of the Thirty Comrades, army rebels calling themselves the Revolutionary Burma Army (RBA) led by communist officers Bo Zeya, Bo Yan Aung and Bo Yè Htut – all three of them members of the Thirty Comrades, Arakanese, and the Karen National Union (KNU).
The Shan State Army was one of the largest insurgent groups that fought government forces in Shan State, Myanmar (Burma). The SSA was founded in 1964 after the merging of two existing insurgent groups.
Momeik, also known as Mong Mit in Shan, is a town situated on the Shweli River in northern Shan State of Myanmar (Burma).
Hsipaw, is the principal town of Hsipaw Township in Shan State, Myanmar on the banks of the Duthawadi River. It is 200 km (124 mi) north-east of Mandalay.
Panglong, also known as Pinlon, is a town in Loilem Township of Loilem District, southern Shan State, Myanmar. The town is also home to Panglong University.
Hsipaw (သီႇပေႃႉ) was a Shan state in what is today Myanmar. Its capital was Hsipaw town. Hsipaw State was perhaps one of the most well known and powerful saopha Shan States.
Mongmit or Möngmit was a Shan state in the Northern Shan States in what is today Burma. The capital was Mongmit town. The state included the townships of Mongmit and Kodaung.
Sao Nang Hearn Kham, Daw Hearn Kham was the Mahadevi of Yawnghwe one of the most important Shan States. Her husband Sao Shwe Thaik was the 23d and last Saopha of Yawnghwe and became the first President of Burma and she became the very 1st First Lady of Myanmar. She had five children with him.
Sao Kya Seng or Sao Kya Hseng was a politician, a mining engineer, an agriculturalist and the last saopha of Hsipaw State, Myanmar, from 1947 to 1959. He studied mining engineering at the Colorado School of Mines in Golden, Colorado, United States, from 1949 to 1953. He graduated with a BSc degree in 1953 and then married. His bride, Sao Nang Thu Sandi or Inge Eberhard, a German-speaking Austrian student who had received a Fulbright Scholarship in 1951, was studying at Colorado Women's College, a constituent college of University of Denver. In 1954, he returned to Burma with her, and they had two daughters, Mayari and Kennari.
Sarpay Beikman originated as the Burmese Translation Society. Its first President was Prime Minister U Nu, who started a Burmese translation job at Judson College. The purpose was to translate world culture, literature, education for the Burmese public. In 1963 the society was absorbed into the Ministry of Information's Printing and Publishing Enterprise as the Sarpay Beikman Literature House, and the mandate was extended to encourage local writers and to print and publish books of all types. The society presents the annual Sarpay Beikman Manuscript Awards and Burma National Literature Awards for excellent new unpublished and published writing in various categories.
The International Standard Book Number (ISBN) is a numeric commercial book identifier which is intended to be unique. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.
(Governor of Burma)
| President of Burma |