Sara Sara

Last updated
Sara Sara
Sara Sara Volcano.jpg
Sara Sara and Lake Parinacochas in front of it
Highest point
Elevation 5,505 m (18,061 ft)
Prominence 2,060 m (6,760 ft) [1]
Listing Ultra
Coordinates 15°19′46″S73°26′41″W / 15.32944°S 73.44472°W / -15.32944; -73.44472 Coordinates: 15°19′46″S73°26′41″W / 15.32944°S 73.44472°W / -15.32944; -73.44472
Geography
Peru physical map.svg
Red triangle with thick white border.svg
Sara Sara
Parent range Andes

Sara Sara [2] [3] is a 5,505-metre-high (18,061 ft) [2] [3] volcano lying between Lake Parinacochas and Ocoña River in Peru. [2] It is situated in the Parinacochas Province, Puyusca District, and in the Paucar del Sara Sara Province, in the districts of Pausa and Sara Sara. [4]

Contents

Geography and geomorphology

Sara Sara lies in the Parinacochas and Paucar del Sara Sara Provinces of the Ayacucho Region, Peru. [5] The town of Pausa lies 12 kilometres (7.5 mi) away from the volcano, and agriculture occurs in the valleys of the area. [6] The mountain was worshipped by local populations in and before Inca time, and the Inca performed human sacrifices on it. [7]

The volcano is 5,505 metres (18,061 ft) high. [8] It consists of a complex of lava domes and lava flows superposed on older stratovolcanoes. [9] The vents are aligned in north-northeast-south-southwest direction and are accompanied by lateral lava domes. These vents were the source of lava flows and block-and-ash flows generated by the collapse of lava domes. [10] A pyroclastic cone of recent age is found on the mountain. [11] Glacial cirques are found on Sara Sara's western and eastern flanks. [12]

Geology

Sara Sara is the northernmost volcano of the Central Volcanic Zone of the Andes. [9]

The volcano is part of a 30 kilometres (19 mi) long, fault-controlled chain of volcanoes, which includes Cerro Grande, Yarihuato, Puca Ccasa, Sara Sara, Puca Puca and Cerro Queñuapunco. [9]

The basement is formed by Precambrian and Paleozoic rocks, which are covered by Mesozoic and Cenozoic sediments and volcanites. [9]

During its history, Sara Sara has produced andesite, dacite and trachyandesite, with dacite predominating during Quaternary eruptions. [5] Phenocrysts in the rocks include hornblende and plagioclase, and both their quantity and chemistry varied between various stages of activity. [13]

Quaternary moraines and Holocene active and inactive rock glaciers have been described and mapped [14] showing two distinct stages with snow line depression of 3-400 and 600 m compared to the present respectively.

Climate

The climate shows altitudinal zonation, with temperatures ranging from 20–6 °C (68–43 °F) in the valleys to freezing temperatures above 5,200 metres (17,100 ft). Precipitation is seasonal and mostly falls during summer, at higher elevations in the form of hail and snow. [15]

Trees grow at lower elevations, while only ichu and quinua are present above 4,000 metres (13,000 ft). Alfalfa and maize are cultivated at lower altitudes. [15]

Eruption history

Sara Sara was active in the form of the lower Barroso and Lampa Volcanics. [5] A first stage built up the paleo-Sara Sara edifice in the form of columnar jointed lava flows; a date obtained on this stage is 1.62 million years ago. The Lampa Volcanics were erupted by lateral vents northeast of the volcano and later buried by its eruption products and exposed by the Huanca Huanca river. [10] During the Quaternary, explosive eruptions in a lava dome complex formed a pyroclastic fan which was later in part buried by lava flows. [5] Fresh lava and pyroclastic flows imply recent activity, [6] with two pyroclastic flows dated to 44,500 and 49,200 years before present. [16]

Sara Sara is currently classified as a dormant volcano. Future eruptive activity could generate lahars, lava flows, Plinian eruption deposits and pyroclastic flows. [5] Aside from Pausa, other towns and Lake Parinacochas (an important source of water for the region) are located close to the volcano. [6]

Hot springs are found northeast of Sara Sara in the Quilcata valley and close to the town of Chacaraya, implying the presence of a shallow magma chamber. [6]

Archeology

The Spanish priest Cristobal de Albornoz noted in 1583 that Sara Sara was one of the most important sacred places in the southern part of Peru, with 2,000 colonists sent by the Inca emperor for its service. The American archaeologist Johan Reinhard surveyed a site on its summit in 1983 and he and Peruvian archaeologist Jose Antonio Chavez led a team that uncovered more than a dozen statues and a female Inca mummy (later nicknamed Sarita) on the summit in 1996. Their expedition was transmitted "live" over the Internet. [17] The findings made on Sara Sara are currently stored at the Museo de Santuarios Andinos in Arequipa.

The archaeological group of Sara Sara was recommended to be declared a National Cultural Heritage in 2003. [18]

Further reading

Reinhard, Johan (2005). The Ice Maiden: Inca Mummies, Mountain Gods, and Sacred Sites in the Andes. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic Society. ISBN   0-7922-6838-5.

See also

Related Research Articles

Department of Ayacucho Departments of Peru

Ayacucho is a department of Peru, located in the south-central Andes of the country. Its capital is the city of Ayacucho. The region was one of the hardest hit by terrorism in the 1980s during the guerrilla war waged by Shining Path known as the internal conflict in Peru.

Falso Azufre complex volcano at the border of Argentina and Chile

Falso Azufre is a complex volcano at the border of Argentina and Chile.

Lascar (volcano) volcano (stratovolcano)

Lascar is a stratovolcano within the Central Volcanic Zone of the Andes, a volcanic arc that spans the countries of Peru, Bolivia, Argentina and Chile. It is the most active volcano in the region, with records of eruptions going back to 1848. It is composed of two separate cones with several summit craters. The westernmost crater of the eastern cone is presently active. Volcanic activity is characterized by constant release of volcanic gas and occasional vulcanian eruptions.

Incahuasi mountain in Argentina

Incahuasi is a volcanic mountain in the Andes of South America. It lies on the border of the Argentine province of Catamarca, and the Atacama Region of Chile. Incahuasi has a summit elevation of 6,621 metres (21,722 ft) above sea level.

Ampato dormant Peruvian volcano

Ampato is a dormant 6,288-metre (20,630 ft) stratovolcano in the Andes of southern Peru. It lies about 70–75 kilometres (43–47 mi) northwest of Arequipa and is part of a north-south chain that includes the volcanoes Hualca Hualca and Sabancaya, the last of which has been active in historical time.

Yucamane volcano in Peru

Yucamane, Yucamani or Yucumane is an andesitic stratovolcano in the Tacna Region of southern Peru. It is part of the Peruvian segment of the Central Volcanic Zone, one of the three volcanic belts of the Andes generated by the subduction of the Nazca plate beneath the South America plate. Peru's active volcanoes Ubinas, Sabancaya and El Misti are also part of the Central Volcanic Zone.

Auquihuato mountain

Auquihuato is a cinder cone in the Andes of Peru, 4,980 metres (16,339 ft) high. It is situated in the Ayacucho Region, Paucar del Sara Sara Province, on the border of the districts Colta and Oyolo. Auquihuato lies northeast of Sara Sara volcano.

Solimana (volcano) volcano in Peru

Solimana is a volcanic massif in the Andes of Peru, South America, that is approximately 6,093 metres (19,990 ft) high. It is considered an extinct stratovolcano that is part of the Central Volcanic Zone, one of the volcanic belts of the Andes. It features a caldera as well as traces of a sector collapse and subsequent erosion. The volcano is glaciated.

Andagua volcanic field A volcanic field in Peru

The Andagua volcanic field is a volcanic field in southern Peru which includes a number of cinder cones/scoria cones, lava domes and lava flows which have filled the Andagua valley. The volcanic field is part of a larger province that clusters around the Colca River and is mostly of Pleistocene age, although the Andagua sector also features volcanic cones with historical activity. Volcanic activity in the field has flooded the Andahua valley with lava flows, damming local watersheds. The Andahua valley segment of the larger volcanic province was declared a geopark in 2015.

Cerro Chao

Cerro Chao is a lava flow complex associated with the Cerro del León volcano in the Andes. It is the largest known Quaternary silicic volcano body and part of the most recent phase of activity in the Altiplano–Puna volcanic complex.

Coropuna Volcano in Peru

Coropuna is a dormant compound volcano located in the Andes mountains of southeast-central Peru. The upper reaches of Coropuna consist of several perennially snowbound conical summits, lending it the name Nevado Coropuna in Spanish. The complex extends over an area of 240 square kilometres and its highest summit reaches an altitude of 6,377 metres above sea level. This makes the Coropuna complex the third-highest of Peru and highest of the Western Range of the Peruvian Andes. Its thick ice cap is the most extensive in Earth's tropical zone, with several outlet glaciers stretching out to lower altitudes. Below an elevation of five thousand metres, there are various vegetation belts which include trees, peat bogs, grasses and also agricultural areas and pastures.

Firura mountain in Peru

Firura is an extinct volcano of the Central Andean Volcanic Belt, located in the Arequipa Region of southern Peru. Together with Sara Sara, Solimana and Coropuna it forms one of the Central Andean volcanoes. It is in the Andes, north of the Pucuncho Basin.

Fueguino is a volcanic field in Chile. The southernmost volcano in the Andes, it lies on Tierra del Fuego's Cook Island and also extends over nearby Londonderry Island. The field is formed by lava domes, pyroclastic cones, and a crater lake.

Sabancaya Peruvian stratovolcano

Sabancaya is an active 5,976-metre-high (19,606 ft) stratovolcano in the Andes of southern Peru, about 70 kilometres (43 mi) northwest of Arequipa. It is considered part of the Central Volcanic Zone of the Andes, one of the three distinct volcanic belts of the Andes. The Central Volcanic Zone includes a number of volcanoes, some of which like Huaynaputina have had large eruptions and others such as Sabancaya and Ubinas have been active in historical time. Sabancaya forms a volcanic complex together with Hualca Hualca to the north and Ampato to the south and has erupted andesite and dacite. It is covered by a small ice cap which leads to a risk of lahars during eruptions.

Apacheta-Aguilucho volcanic complex

Apacheta-Aguilucho volcanic complex is a volcanic complex in Chile. It consists of two volcanoes Cerro Apacheta and Cerro Aguilucho, which are constructed mainly by lava flows and surrounded by outcrops of lava. A sector collapse and its landslide deposit are located on Apacheta's eastern flank. Two lava domes are associated with the volcanic complex, Chac-Inca and Pabellón.

Tutupaca volcano in Peru

Tutupaca is a volcano in the region of Tacna in Peru. It is part of the Peruvian segment of the Central Volcanic Zone, one of several volcanic belts in the Andes. Tutupaca consists of three overlapping volcanoes formed by lava flows and lava domes made out of andesite and dacite, which grew on top of older volcanic rocks. The highest of these is usually reported to be 5,815 metres (19,078 ft) tall and was glaciated in the past.

Ticsani volcano in Peru

Ticsani is a volcano in Peru. It consists of two volcanoes that form a complex: "old Ticsani", which is a compound volcano that underwent a large collapse in the past and shed 15–30 cubic kilometres (3.6–7.2 cu mi) of mass down the Rio Tambo valley; the other is a complex of three lava domes which were emplaced during the Holocene. The last eruption occurred after the 1600 eruption of neighbouring Huaynaputina.

Ubinas volcano in Peru

Ubinas is a stratovolcano in the Moquegua Region of southern Peru, 60 kilometres (37 mi) east of the city of Arequipa. Part of the Central Volcanic Zone of the Andes, it is 5,672 metres (18,609 ft) above sea level. The volcano's summit is cut by a 1.4-kilometre (0.87 mi) wide and 150-metre (490 ft) deep caldera, which itself contains a smaller crater. Below the summit, Ubinas has the shape of an upwards-steepening cone with a prominent notch on the southern side. The gently sloping lower part of the volcano is also known as Ubinas I and the steeper upper part as Ubinas II; they represent different stages in the geologic history of Ubinas.

Chachani volcano in Peru

Chachani is a volcanic complex in southern Peru, 22 kilometres (14 mi) northwest of the city of Arequipa. Part of the Central Volcanic Zone of the Andes, it is 6,057 metres (19,872 ft) above sea level. It consists of several lava domes and individual volcanoes such as Nocarane, along with lava shields such as the Airport Domes. Underneath Chachani lies a caldera.

Casiri (Tacna) volcano in Peru

Casiri is a mountainous complex in the Barroso mountain range in the Andes of Peru, about 5,650 metres (18,537 ft) high, and is located in the Tacna Region. Casiri, also known as Paucarani, is a volcano consisting of four individual volcanic edifices with lava domes; the southeasternmost edifice has been active during the Holocene, producing thick lava flows that have overrun moraines of Pleistocene age and the youngest of which has been dated to 2,600 ± 400 years ago. Although no historical eruptions are known, the volcano is considered to be potentially active.

References

  1. Sara Sara on Peakbagger.com
  2. 1 2 3 Peru 1:100 000, Pausa (31-p). IGN (Instituto Geográfico Nacional - Perú).
  3. 1 2 Biggar, John (2005). The Andes: A Guide for Climbers. Andes. p. 108. ISBN   9780953608720.
  4. escale.minedu.gob.pe - UGEL map of the Parinacochas Province (Ayacucho Region)
  5. 1 2 3 4 5 Morche & Núñez Juárez 1998, p. 1.
  6. 1 2 3 4 Morche & Núñez Juárez 1998, p. 3.
  7. Schreiber, Katharina (1 January 2004). "Sacred Landscapes and Imperial Ideologies: The Wari Empire in Sondondo, Peru". Archeological Papers of the American Anthropological Association. 14 (1): 137. doi:10.1525/ap3a.2004.14.131. ISSN   1551-8248.
  8. Morche & Núñez Juárez 1998, p. 4.
  9. 1 2 3 4 Morche & Núñez Juárez 1998, p. 9.
  10. 1 2 Morche & Núñez Juárez 1998, p. 10.
  11. Morche & Núñez Juárez 1998, pp. 3-4.
  12. Morche & Núñez Juárez 1998, p. 7.
  13. Morche & Núñez Juárez 1998, p. 19.
  14. Dornbusch U (1997) Geomorphological investigations on the late glacial glaciation in the western Andes of South Peru between 14°25’S and 15°30’S, inferable climatic conditi ons and their comparison with newly compiled data on the recent distribution of temperature, precipitation and snowline altitudes in south Peru south of 12°S. (translated title).PhD (Dr rer nat). Freie Universitaet Berlin, Berlin. Available at: DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.15202.48329. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/261099272_Geomorphological_investigations_on_the_late_glacial_glaciation_in_the_western_Andes_of_South_Peru_between_1425'S_and_1530'S_inferable_climatic_conditi_ons_and_their_comparison_with_newly_compiled_data
  15. 1 2 Morche & Núñez Juárez 1998, pp. 5-6.
  16. Juvigné, Etienne; Thouret, Jean-Claude; Loutsch, Isabelle; Lamadon, Sébastien; Frechen, Manfred; Fontugne, Michel; Rivera, Marco; Dávila, Jasmine; Mariño, Jersy (1 June 2008). "Retombées volcaniques dans des tourbières et lacs autour du massif des Nevados Ampato et Sabancaya (Pérou méridional, Andes Centrales)". Quaternaire (in French). 19 (2): 159. doi:10.4000/quaternaire.3362. ISSN   1142-2904.
  17. "NOVA Online | Ice Mummies of the Inca".
  18. El Peruano, Normas Legales, p. 243765, May 8, 2003, Lima

Sources