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Sardar (Persian : سردار, Persian pronunciation: [særˈdɑr] , 'commander', literally 'headmaster'), also spelled as Sirdar, Sardaar, Shordar or Serdar, is a title of nobility that was originally used to denote princes, noblemen, and other aristocrats. It has also been used to denote a chief or leader of a tribe or group. It is used as a Persian synonym of the Arabic title Emir .
The term and its cognates originate from Persian sardār ( سردار ) and have been historically used across Persia (Iran), the Ottoman Empire and Turkey (as "Serdar"), Mesopotamia (now Iraq), Syria, South Asia (Pakistan, India, Bangladesh and Nepal), the Caucasus, Central Asia, the Balkans and Egypt (as "Sirdar").
The term sardar was used by Sikh leaders and generals who held important positions in various Sikh Misls of the Sikh Empire. The sardar is still used by Sikhs widely. In India and its neighbouring countries, respected Sikh males are called sardars. Sardar was also used to refer to generals of the Maratha Empire. After the decline of feudalism, sardar later indicated a Head of State, a Commander-in-chief, and an army military rank. As a military rank, a sardar typically marked the Commander-in-Chief or the highest-ranking military officer in an army, akin to the modern Field Marshal, General of the Army or Chief of Army. The more administrative title Sirdar-Bahadur denoted a Governor-General or Chief Minister of a remote province, akin to a British Viceroy.
In Himalayan mountaineering, a sirdar is a local leader of the Sherpas.Among other duties, he records the heights reached by each Sherpa, which factors into their compensation.
The Durrani Empire, also called the Sadozai Kingdom and the Afghan Empire, was an Afghan empire founded and built by Ahmad Shah Abdali in parts of Central Asia, the Middle East and South Asia. At its maximum extent, the empire ruled over the modern-day countries of Afghanistan and Pakistan, as well as parts of northeastern and southeastern Iran, eastern Turkmenistan, and northwestern India. Next to the Ottoman Empire, the Durrani Empire was the greatest Muslim empire of the second half of the eighteenth century.
Emir, sometimes transliterated amir, amier, or ameer, is a word of Arabic origin that can refer to a male monarch, aristocrat, holder of high-ranking military or political office, or other person possessing actual or ceremonial authority. The title has a long history of use in the Arab World, East Africa, West Africa, Afghanistan, and the Indian subcontinent. In the modern era, when used as a formal monarchical title, it is roughly synonymous with "prince", applicable both to a son of a hereditary monarch, and to a reigning monarch of a sovereign principality, namely an emirate. The feminine form is emira, a cognate for princess. Prior to its use as a monarchical title, the term "emir" was historically used to denote a "commander", "general", or "leader". In contemporary usage, "emir" is also sometimes used as either an honorary or formal title for the head of an Islamic, or Arab organisation or movement.
The Peshwa was the appointed Prime Minister of the Maratha Empire of the Indian subcontinent. Originally, the Peshwas served as subordinates to the Chhatrapati ; later, under the Bhat family, they became the de facto leaders of the Maratha Confederacy with the Chhatrapati becoming a nominal ruler. During the last years of the Maratha Empire, the Peshwas themselves were reduced to titular leaders, and remained under the authority of the Maratha nobles and the British East India Company.
Prataprao Gujar born in Khatav which is located in Satara district in a Sardar family of Gujar Maratha clan. He was Senapati of Chatrapati Shivaji Maharaj's army. After his death, his daughter was married with the second son of Chatrapati Shivaji Maharaj named Rajaram, who was later to be the Empress of the Maratha Empire, Maharani Jankibai.
The Second Anglo-Sikh War was a military conflict between the Sikh Empire and the British East India Company that took place in 1848 and 1849. It resulted in the fall of the Sikh Empire, and the annexation of the Punjab and what subsequently became the North-West Frontier Province, by the East India Company.
Shrimant Peshwa Balajirao Bhat, also known as Nana Saheb, was the 8th Peshwa of the Maratha Empire in India. He was appointed as Peshwa in 1740 upon the death of his illustrious father, the Peshwa Bajirao I.
Mir is a rare ruler's title in princely states and an aristocratic title generally used to refer to a person who is a descendant of a commander in medieval Muslim tradition.
Pilajirao Gaekwad was a Maratha general. He is considered to be the founder of the Gaekwad dynasty of the Maratha Empire, who became Maharaja of Baroda.
The Durrani dynasty was founded in 1747 by Ahmad Shah Durrani at Kandahar, Afghanistan. He united the different Pashtun tribes and created the Durrani Empire with his Baloch allies, which at its peak included the modern-day Afghanistan, Pakistan, as well as some parts of northeastern Iran, eastern Turkmenistan, and northwestern India including the Kashmir region. The Durranis were replaced by the Barakzai dynasty during the early half of the 19th century.
The misls were the twelve sovereign states of the Sikh Confederacy, which rose during the 18th century in the Punjab region in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent and is cited as one of the causes of the weakening of the Mughal Empire prior to Nader Shah's invasion of India in 1738–1740.
Serdar was a military rank in the Ottoman Empire and a noble rank in Montenegro and Serbia. Serdars especially served at the borders of Ottoman Empire. They were responsible for security of lands. For example, Yakup Ağa who was the father of Barbaros from Yenice.
Serdar is the Turkic spelling of the Persian masculine given name Sardar which generally means "commander " but could also bear the meaning "field marshal". It may refer to:
The Jamrud Fort is located beside Bab-e-Khyber at the entrance to the Khyber Pass from the Peshawar side in the tribal district of Khyber KPK, Pakistan. After death of Sardar General Hari Singh Nalwa Khalsa Sarkar Wazir Jawahar Singh nominated Sardar General Gurmukh Singh Lamba as chief administrative and military commander to restore and consolidate the Khalsa army gains. General Sardar Gurmukh Singh Lamba,nominated as chief Administrative & military commander to consolidate gains of Khalsa Sarkar.
Senapati is a title in ancient India denoting the rank of military commander or general of the army.
Ranoji Bhoite was a Maratha chieftain of the Bhoite clan who lived in the 18th century. The Commander in Chief of the Maratha army. He was a contemporary of Ranoji Shinde, Dattaji Shinde, and others. Bhoite was an active Commander in Maratha's North India Campaign. Some Maratha leaders survived after the Panipat battle and created their own kingdoms, but Bhoite did not. He served under King Shahu in the Satara Kingdom.
Dabhade is a Koli and Maratha clan found largely in Maharashtra, India. They were originally centered on Talegaon Dabhade, but became the Maratha chiefs of Gujarat. A family belonging to the Dabhade clan held the hereditary title of senapati (commander-in-chief) and several jagirs in Gujarat until 1751. That year, Umabai Dabhade and her relatives were arrested for a rebellion against the Peshwa, and were stripped of their titles.
Umabai Dabhade was a prominent member of the Maratha Dabhade clan. The members of her family held the hereditary title senapati (commander-in-chief), and controlled several territories in Gujarat. After the deaths of her husband Khande Rao and her son Trimbak Rao, she exercised executive powers while her minor son Yashwant Rao remained the titular senapati. Her unsuccessful rebellion against Peshwa Balaji Baji Rao resulted in the downfall of the Dabhade family.
Khanderao Dabhade is the founding patriarch of the Sarsenapati Dabhade family of Talegaon Dabhade. He was the eldest of the two sons of Yesaji Dabhade and the grandson of Bajaji Dabhade. He was conferred the hereditary title of Sardar Senapati by Shahuji, the grandson of Shivaji on 11 January 1717. ]
Ispahsālār or sipahsālār, in Arabic rendered as isfahsalār (إسفهسلار) or iṣbahsalār (إصبهسلار), was a title used in much of the Islamic world during the 10th–15th centuries, to denote the senior-most military commanders but also as a generic general officer rank.
Damaji Rao Gaekwad was the second Maharaja of Baroda reigning from 1732 to 1768 until his death.