Sariska Tiger Reserve

Last updated

Sariska Tiger Reserve
IUCN category IV (habitat/species management area)
Sariska Tiger Reserve, Alwar.jpg
Jungle in Sariska Tiger Reserve
Rajasthan relief map.svg
Red pog.svg
Location Alwar District, Rajasthan, India
Nearest city Alwar
Coordinates 27°19′3″N76°26′13″E / 27.31750°N 76.43694°E / 27.31750; 76.43694 Coordinates: 27°19′3″N76°26′13″E / 27.31750°N 76.43694°E / 27.31750; 76.43694
Area881 km2 (340 sq mi)
Governing bodyGovernment of Rajasthan

Sariska Tiger Reserve is a tiger reserve in Alwar district, Rajasthan, India. It stretches over an area of 881 km2 (340 sq mi) comprising scrub-thorn arid forests, dry deciduous forests, grasslands, and rocky hills. This area was a hunting preserve of the Alwar state and was declared a wildlife sanctuary in 1958. It was given the status of a tiger reserve making it a part of India's Project Tiger in 1978. The wildlife sanctuary was declared a national park in 1982, with a total area of about 273.8 km2 (105.7 sq mi). [1] It is the first reserve in the world with successfully relocated tigers. It is an important biodiversity area in the Northern Aravalli leopard and wildlife corridor.


The park is situated 106 km (66 mi) away from Hindaun, 107 km (66 mi) from Jaipur and 200 km (120 mi) from Delhi. [2] It is a part of the Aravalli Range and the Khathiar-Gir dry deciduous forests ecoregion. [3] It is rich in mineral resources, such as copper. In spite of the Supreme Court's 1991 ban on mining in the area, marble mining continues to threaten the environment. [4]

General information

Water body within the Sariska Reserve, Rajasthan. Water body within the Sariska Reserve, Rajasthan.jpg
Water body within the Sariska Reserve, Rajasthan.


The dominant tree in the forests is dhok ( Anogeissus pendula). Other trees include the salar ( Boswellia serrata ), kadaya (Sterculia urens), dhak ( Butea monosperma ), gol ( Lannea coromandelica ), ber ( Ziziphus mauritiana ) and khair ( Acacia catechu ). Bargad ( Ficus benghalensis ), arjun ( Terminalia arjuna ), gugal ( Commiphora wightii ) or bamboo. Shrubs are numerous, such as kair ( Capparis decidua ), adusta ( Adhatoda vesica ) and jhar ber ( Ziziphus nummularia ).[ citation needed ]


Apart from the Bengal tiger, the reserve harbours many wildlife species including Indian leopard, jungle cat, caracal, striped hyena, golden jackal, chital, sambar deer, nilgai, wild boar, small Indian civet, Javan mongoose, ruddy mongoose, honey badger, Rhesus macaque and Northern plains gray langur and Indian hare. [5] Bird species present include grey partridge, white-throated kingfisher, Indian peafowl, bush quail, sandgrouse, treepie, golden-backed woodpecker, crested serpent eagle and the Indian eagle-owl.[ citation needed ]

In 2003, 16 tigers lived in the reserve. In 2004, it was reported that no tigers were sighted in the reserve, and that no indirect evidence of tiger presence was found such as pug marks, scratch marks on trees, scats. The Rajasthan Forest Department explained that "the tigers had temporarily migrated outside the reserve and would be back after monsoon season". Project Tiger staff backed this assumption. In January 2005, it was reported that there were no tigers left in Sariska. [6]

In July 2008, two tigers from Ranthambhore National Park were relocated to Sariska Tiger Reserve. Another female tiger was relocated in February 2009. [7]

In 2012, two tiger cubs and their mother were spotted in the reserve bringing the total number of tigers to seven with five adults. [8] In July 2014, two more cubs were spotted, so that there were 11 tigers in total. [9]

As of October 2018, there were 18 tigers including five cubs. [10] By 2020, the tiger population in the reserve has risen to 20. [11]

Relocation efforts

Tiger in the Sariska Tiger Reserve. The collar around its neck is used to track and monitor it. The Last Hunter 2.jpg
Tiger in the Sariska Tiger Reserve. The collar around its neck is used to track and monitor it.

In 2005, the Government of Rajasthan, in cooperation with the Government of India and Wildlife Institute of India, planned the re-introduction of tigers to Sariska and also the relocation of villages. [12] Plans to construct a bypass were also discussed. [13] It was decided to import one male and two females from Ranthambore National Park. [14] The Wildlife Institute of India along with the Government of Rajasthan started tracking the relocated tigers with the help of ISRO's reconnaissance satellites. [15] The first aerial translocation of the male tiger from Ranthambhore to Sariska was carried out on 28 June 2008 by helicopter. [16]

Only two of the four villages' experts were actually moved, though the second, Kankwari, was shifted long after the tigers were re-introduced. However, Kankwari fort has been renovated by the state tourism department, which can possibly violate wildlife protection norms. [17] The first relocated village was Bhagani. Also, the diversion of roads crossing the reserve, an issue critical to the survival of its wildlife, continues to be a problem. [18]

One more tigress was shifted to Sariska from Ranthambhore in February 2009. [19] On 28 July 2010, another tigress was brought from Ranthambhore National Park. Totaling five tigers — two males and three females — were living in the reserve until November 2010 when the first relocated tiger died [20] due to poisoning. [21]

Unfortunately, the first three of the relocated tigers came from one father. Moreover, the first two tigresses have the same mother. [22] [23]

Places of interest

Sariska Palace, a former royal hunting lodge Sariska Palace.jpg
Sariska Palace, a former royal hunting lodge

See also

Related Research Articles

Rajasthan State in north-western India

Rajasthan is a state in northern India. It covers 342,239 square kilometres (132,139 sq mi) or 10.4 percent of India's total geographical area. It is the largest Indian state by area and the seventh largest by population. It is on India's northwestern side, where it comprises most of the wide and inhospitable Thar Desert and shares a border with the Pakistani provinces of Punjab to the northwest and Sindh to the west, along the Sutlej-Indus River valley. It is bordered by five other Indian states: Punjab to the north; Haryana and Uttar Pradesh to the northeast; Madhya Pradesh to the southeast; and Gujarat to the southwest. Its geographical location is 23.3 to 30.12 North latitude and 69.30 to 78.17 East longitude, with the Tropic of Cancer passing through its southernmost tip.

Project Tiger Tiger conservation programme in India (1973-present)

Project Tiger is a tiger conservation programme launched in April 1973 by the Government of India during Prime Minister Indira Gandhi's tenure. The project aims at ensuring a viable population of the Bengal tiger in its natural habitats, protecting it from extinction, and preserving areas of biological importance as a natural heritage that represent the diversity of ecosystems across the tiger's range in the country. The project's task force visualised these tiger reserves as breeding nuclei, from which surplus animals would migrate to adjacent forests. Funds and commitment were mustered to support the intensive program of habitat protection and rehabilitation under the project. During the tiger census of 2006, a new methodology was used extrapolating site-specific densities of tigers, their co-predators and prey derived from camera trap and sign surveys using GIS. Based on the result of these surveys, the total tiger population was estimated at 1,411 individuals ranging from 1,165 to 1,657 adult and sub-adult tigers of more than 1.5 years of age. Owing to the project, the number of tigers increased to 2,603–3,346 individuals by 2018.

Bengal tiger Tiger population in Indian subcontinent

The Bengal tiger is a population of the Panthera tigris tigris subspecies. It ranks among the biggest wild cats alive today. It is considered to belong to the world's charismatic megafauna.

Aravalli Range Mountain range in western India

The Aravalli Range is a mountain range in Northern-Western India, running approximately 670 km (430 mi) in a south-west direction, starting near Delhi, passing through southern Haryana and Rajasthan, and ending in Gujarat. The highest peak is Guru Shikhar at 1,722 metres (5,650 ft). The Aravalli Range is considered as the oldest fold mountain system in the world, having its origin in the Proterozoic era.

Ranthambore National Park National park in Rajasthan, India

Ranthambore National Park is a national park in Rajasthan, India, with an area of 1,334 km2 (515 sq mi). It is bounded to the north by the Banas River and to the south by the Chambal River. It is named after the historic Ranthambore Fort, which lies within the park.

Khathiar–Gir dry deciduous forests

The Khathiar–Gir dry deciduous forests is a mostly arid ecoregion in northwestern India that stretches over 103,100 sq mi (267,000 km2) across Gujarat, Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh. The dry deciduous forests in the region are dominated by teak, and thorny trees and scrub in drier areas.

Kumbhalgarh Wildlife Sanctuary

Kumbhalgarh Wildlife Sanctuary is located in the Rajsamand District of Rajasthan State in western India. It surrounds the Kumbhalgarh fortress and covers an area of 610.528 km2 (236 sq mi). The sanctuary extends across the Aravalli Range, covering parts of Rajsamand, Udaipur, and Pali districts, ranging from 500 to 1,300 metres in elevation. It is part of the Khathiar-Gir dry deciduous forests ecoregion.

Panna National Park National Park in India

Panna National Park is a national park located in Panna and Chhatarpur districts of Madhya Pradesh in India. It has an area of 542.67 km2 (209.53 sq mi). It was declared in 1994 as the twenty second Tiger reserve of India and the fifth in Madhya Pradesh, Panna was given the Award of Excellence in 2007 as the best maintained national park of India by the Ministry of Tourism of India. It is notable that by 2009, the entire tiger population had been eliminated by poaching with the collusion of forest department officials.

Mount Abu Wildlife Sanctuary mount Abu wildlife sanctuary is located in one of the oldest mountain ranges of India

Mount Abu Wildlife Sanctuary is located in one of the oldest mountain ranges of India, the Aravalli range. It was declared a wildlife sanctuary in 1980.

Bhadra Wildlife Sanctuary Protected area and tiger reserve in Karnataka, India

Bhadra Wildlife Sanctuary is a protected area and tiger reserve as part of the Project Tiger, situated in Chikkamagaluru district, 23 km (14 mi) south of Bhadravathi city, 38 km (24 mi) 20 km from Tarikere town, northwest of Chikkamagaluru and 283 km from Bengaluru city in Karnataka state, India. Bhadra sanctuary has a wide range of flora and fauna and is a popular place for day outings. The 1,875 m (6,152 ft) above MSL Hebbe Giri is the highest peak in the sanctuary.

Indian leopard Leopard subspecies

The Indian leopard is a leopard subspecies widely distributed on the Indian subcontinent. The species Panthera pardus is listed as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List because populations have declined following habitat loss and fragmentation, poaching for the illegal trade of skins and body parts, and persecution due to conflict situations. The Indian leopard is one of the big cats occurring on the Indian subcontinent, along with the Asiatic lion, Bengal tiger, snow leopard and clouded leopard. In 2014, a national census of leopards around tiger habitats was carried out in India except the northeast. 7,910 individuals were estimated in surveyed areas and a national total of 12,000-14,000 speculated.

Mukundara Hills National Park

Mukundara Hills National Park is a national park in Rajasthan, India with an area of 759.99 km2 (293.43 sq mi). It was established in 2004 and consists of three wildlife sanctuaries: Darrah Wildlife Sanctuary, National Chambal Sanctuary, and Jawahar Sagar Wildlife Sanctuary. It is located in the Khathiar-Gir dry deciduous forests.

Private protected areas of India refer to protected areas inside India whose land rights are owned by an individual or a corporation / organization, and where the habitat and resident species are offered some kind of protection from exploitative activities like hunting, logging, etc. The Government of India did not provide any legal or physical protection to such entities, but in an important amendment introduced by the Wildlife (Protection) Amendment Act of 2002, has agreed to protect communally owned areas of ecological value.

Pench Tiger Reserve

Pench Tiger Reserve or Pench National Park is one of the premier tiger reserves of India and the first one to straddle across two states - Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra. The reference to Pench is mostly to the tiger reserve in Madhya Pradesh.

Fateh Singh Rathore

Fateh Singh Rathore was an Indian tiger conservationist. Fateh Singh joined the Indian Forest Service in 1960 and was part of the first Project Tiger team. He was widely acknowledged as the tiger guru for his legendary knowledge of the big cat. He worked over 50 years in wildlife conservation. Rathore was noted for his pioneering relocation of villages from inside the Ranthambhore National Park in 1973–75. Largely because of Mr. Rathore, "Ranthambhore became the place which brought the tiger to the consciousness of people the world over."

Bor Wildlife Sanctuary Wildlife sanctuary in Maharashtra, India

Bor Tiger Reserve is a wildlife sanctuary which was declared as a tiger reserve in July 2014. It is located near Hingani in Wardha District in the Indian state of Maharashtra. It is a home to a variety of wild animals. The reserve covers an area of 138.12 km2 (53.33 sq mi). which includes the drainage basin of the Bor Dam.

Umred Pauni Karhandla Wildlife Sanctuary

Umred-Pauni-Karhandla Wildlife Sanctuary, about 50 km from Nagpur and 60 km from Bhandara, is spread over Pauni Tahsil of Bhandara district and Umred, Kuhi and Bhivapur Taluka of Nagpur district. This sanctuary has a connection with Tadoba Andhari Tiger Reserve through the forest along Wainganga river. The sanctuary is home to resident breeding tigers, herds of Gaur, wild dogs and rare animals like flying squirrels, pangolins and honey badgers.

Tiger poaching in India has seriously impacted the probability of survival of tigers in India. About 3,000 wild tigers now survive compared with 100,000 at the turn of the 20th century. This abrupt decimation in population count was largely due to the slaughter of tigers by colonial and Indian elite, during the British Raj period, and indeed following India's independence. Most of those remaining, about 1,700, are India's Bengal tigers. Project Tiger in India had been hailed as a great success until it was discovered that the initial count of tigers had been seriously flawed.

T-24 (tiger)

T-24, also known as Ustad, is a tiger who lived in Ranthambore National Park, India. He allegedly killed four humans and was put into captivity.

Machali (tigress)

Machali, also known as Machli or Machhli, was a Bengal tigress who lived in Ranthambore National Park in India. She played a key role in the regeneration of the tiger population in the park in the early 2000s, and was celebrated with titles such as Queen Mother of Tigers, Tigress Queen of Ranthambore, Lady of the Lakes, and Crocodile Killer. She was considered India's most famous tigress and on her death, was considered the oldest living tigress in the wild.


  1. "Sariska National Park – complete detail – updated" . Retrieved 7 February 2017.
  2. "Sariska National Park, Sariska Tiger Reserve". Archived from the original on 8 June 2007.
  3. "Khathiar-Gir dry deciduous forests". Terrestrial Ecoregions. World Wildlife Fund. Retrieved 29 January 2017.
  4. "Illegal mining threatens Sariska". The Times of India . 2010. Archived from the original on 3 November 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2011.
  5. 1 2 Mondal, K.; Gupta, S.; Qureshi, Q.; Sankar, K. (2011). "Prey selection and food habits of leopard (Panthera pardus fusca) in Sariska Tiger Reserve, Rajasthan, India". Mammalia. 75 (2): 201–205. doi:10.1515/mamm.2011.011. S2CID   83984484.
  6. "Have you seen a tiger at Sariska since June? If yes, you're the only one". Indian Express . 2005. Archived 2007-09-29 at the Wayback Machine
  7. Sankar, K.; Qureshi, Q.; Nigam, P.; Malik, P. K.; Sinha, P. R.; Mehrotra, R. N.; Gopal, R., Bhattacharjee, S., Mondal, K. and Gupta, S. (2010). "Monitoring of reintroduced tigers in Sariska Tiger Reserve, Western India: preliminary findings on home range, prey selection and food habits". Tropical Conservation Science. 3 (3): 301–318. doi: 10.1177/194008291000300305 .
  8. Sharma, R. (2012). "Sariska reserve gets tiger number 007". The Times of India . Archived from the original on 19 October 2013. Retrieved 31 December 2017.
  9. "Two tiger cubs spotted in Rajasthan's Sariska Tiger Reserve". Bihar Prabha. Retrieved 20 July 2014.
  10. "Tigress ST-12 gives birth to 3 cubs at Sariska". The Times of India. Retrieved 23 October 2018.
  11. Khati, D. S. (2020). "How the lockdown impacted our tiger reserves | Analysis". Hindustan Times. Retrieved 13 June 2020.
  12. "Rajasthan plots return of big cats". The Times of India . 9 September 2005. Archived from the original on 23 October 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2011.
  13. "Sariska on road to recovery, literally". The Times of India . 27 November 2006. Archived from the original on 23 October 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2011.
  14. "Sariska to get three tigers". The Times of India . 7 March 2008. Archived from the original on 23 October 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2011.
  15. Huggler, J. (2006). "India turns to spy technology to save tigers". The Independent . Archived from the original on 2 August 2009. Retrieved 6 October 2011.
    • Sharma, S. (2015). Sariska: The Tiger Reserve Roars Again. New Delhi: Niyogi Books. ISBN   9789383098712.
  16. Mazoomdaar, J. "Now, Who's Crouching?". Open Magazine. Retrieved 6 October 2011.
  17. "Sariska Tiger Reserve vetoes road conversion proposal". The Times of India . 2008. Archived from the original on 23 October 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2011.
  18. "National : Young tigress at home in Sariska". The Hindu . 2009. Archived from the original on 10 March 2009. Retrieved 6 October 2011.
  19. Mazoomdaar, J. "Dispatched to Die". Open Magazine. Retrieved 6 October 2011.
  20. "Sariska Tiger Was Poisoned: Forensic Report". Outlook . Retrieved 6 October 2011.
  21. Mazoomdaar, J. "Conservation: the New Killer". Open Magazine. Retrieved 6 October 2011.
  22. "Proved: Siblings sent to mate in Sariska". Hindustan Times. 2010. Archived from the original on 21 October 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2011.

Further reading