|Depth||1,830 m (6,000 ft)|
Sarma Cave (Georgian :სარმის მღვიმე), located in Gagra District, Abkhazia, Georgia, is the third deepest recorded cave in the world. Its current depth (1830 m) was measured in 2012 by a team led by Pavel Rudko.
Georgian is a Kartvelian language spoken by Georgians. It is the official language of Georgia.
Gagra District is a district of Abkhazia. It corresponds to the Georgian district by the same name. In medieval times, it was known as the southern part of Sadzen. It is located in the western part of Abkhazia, and the river Psou serves as a border with Krasnodar Krai of Russia. Its capital is Gagra, the town by the same name. The population of the Gagra town zone in 1989 was 77,079, but this number dropped dramatically following the collapse of the Soviet Union and the 1992-1993 war in Abkhazia,, to 37,002 at the time of the 2003 census. Ethnic Armenians now constitute a plurality in the district.
Abkhazia, officially the Republic of Abkhazia, is a de facto and partially recognized republic on the eastern coast of the Black Sea, south of the Greater Caucasus mountains, in northwestern Georgia. It covers 8,660 square kilometres (3,340 sq mi) and has a population of around 240,000. Its capital is Sukhumi and it is recognised as a state by Russia, Venezuela, Nicaragua, Nauru and Syria. While Georgia lacks control over Abkhazia, the Georgian government and most United Nations member states consider Abkhazia legally part of Georgia, whose constitution designates the area as the Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia.
A cave or cavern is a natural void in the ground, specifically a space large enough for a human to enter. Caves often form by the weathering of rock and often extend deep underground. The word cave can also refer to much smaller openings such as sea caves, rock shelters, and grottos, though strictly speaking a cave is exogene, meaning it is deeper than its opening is wide, and a rock shelter is endogene.
A sinkhole, also known as a cenote, sink, sink-hole, swallet, swallow hole, or doline, is a depression or hole in the ground caused by some form of collapse of the surface layer. Most are caused by karst processes—for example, the chemical dissolution of carbonate rocks or suffosion processes. Sinkholes vary in size from 1 to 600 m both in diameter and depth, and vary in form from soil-lined bowls to bedrock-edged chasms. Sinkholes may form gradually or suddenly, and are found worldwide.
Krubera Cave is the second deepest known cave on Earth after the Veryovkina Cave. It is located in the Arabika Massif of the Gagra Range of the Western Caucasus, in the Gagra district of Abkhazia, a breakaway region of Georgia, currently under Russian occupation.
At 138.3 miles (222.6 km), Lechuguilla Cave is the eighth-longest explored cave in the world and the second deepest in the continental United States. It is most famous for its unusual geology, rare formations, and pristine condition.
A blue hole is a large marine cavern or sinkhole, which is open to the surface and has developed in a bank or island composed of a carbonate bedrock. Blue holes typically contain tidally influenced water of fresh, marine, or mixed chemistry. They extend below sea level for most of their depth and may provide access to submerged cave passages. Well-known examples can be found in South China Sea, Belize, the Bahamas, Guam, Australia, and Egypt.
Arabika Massif is a glacially eroded karst outcropping of the Gagra Range, Abkhazia in the West Caucasus, by the city of Gagra. The highest elevation is 2,661 metres (8,730 ft).
A pit cave, shaft cave or vertical cave—or often simply called a pit or pot ; jama in South Slavic languages scientific and colloquial vocabulary —is a type of cave which contains one or more significant vertical shafts rather than being predominantly a conventional horizontal cave passage. Pit caves typically form in limestone as a result of long-term erosion by water. They can be open to the surface or found deep within horizontal caves. Among cavers, a pit is a vertical drop of any depth that cannot be negotiated safely without the use of ropes or ladders.
The New Athos Cave also Novoafonskaya, Novy Afon Cave, or New Afon Cave is a karst cave in the Iverian Mountain in Abkhazia (Georgia) near New Athos. It is one of the largest caves in the world with the volume of its void of about 1,000,000 m³.
Mount Anne is a mountain located in the Southwest National Park in south-west region of Tasmania, Australia. The mountain lies within the UNESCO World Heritage-listed Tasmanian Wilderness.
Nuno Gomes is a scuba diver who lives in New York City. Born in Lisbon, his family relocated to Pretoria when he was 14 years old. He is the holder of two world records in deep diving, the cave diving record from 1996 to the present and the sea water record from 2005 to 2014.
Ellison's Cave is a pit cave located in Walker County, on Pigeon Mountain in the Appalachian Plateaus of Northwest Georgia. It is the 12th deepest cave in the United States and features the deepest, unobstructed pit in the continental US named Fantastic Pit. The cave is over 12 miles long and extends 1063 feet vertically.
Gennady Viktorovich Samokhin is a Crimean speleologist who holds the cave diving depth world record at −2,196 meters, attained while exploring the Krubera Cave in 2012. He was educated and works in the Tavrida National V.I. Vernadsky University.
Lamprechtsofen is a limestone karst river cave in Austria. With a depth of 1,632 m (5,354 ft), it is one of the deepest caves in the world. Before the discovery of the Krubera Cave in Georgia, it was the deepest-known cave in the world. Lamprechtsofen is located 2 km (1.2 mi) northwest of Weißbach bei Lofer (Salzburg), Austria, in the Leogang Mountains.
Charles William Steele, Jr., known as “Bill Steele,” is a cave explorer. He is a speleologist who has led and participated in expeditions to many of the longest and deepest caves in the USA, Mexico, and China. He has explored more than 2,500 caves across North America and Asia and has written two books chronicling his expeditions: "Yochib: The River Cave", and "Huautla: Thirty Years in One of the World's Deepest Caves.” TV shows such as National Geographic Explorer, NOVA and How’d They Do That? have aired programs on his expeditions.
Plutomurus ortobalaganensis is the deepest terrestrial animal ever found on Earth, living at 1,980 metres (6,500 ft) below a cave entrance.
Veryovkina Cave is 2212 m deep and is the deepest-known cave on Earth. Its entrance is situated 2309 meters above sea level in Abkhazia, Georgia. The entrance of the cave has a cross section of 3 m × 4 m, and is located in the Arabika Massif, Gagra Mountain Range of the West Caucasus, on the pass between the Krepost and Zont mountains, closer to the slopes of Mt. Krepost. The depth of the entrance shaft is 32 meters.