Satakunta

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Satakunta

Satakunnan maakunta
landskapet Satakunta
Satakunta-flag.svg
Flag
Satakunta.vaakuna.svg
Coat of arms
Satakunta sijainti Suomi.svg
Satakunta on a map of Finland
Country Finland
Historical province Satakunta
Capital Pori
Area
  Total8,412.47 km2 (3,248.07 sq mi)
Population
 (2019)
  Total216,752
  Density26/km2 (67/sq mi)
ISO 3166 code FI-17
NUTS 196
Regional animal Eurasian beaver
Regional bird Eurasian blue tit
Regional fish European river lamprey
Regional flower Common Sea-buckthorn
Regional lake Pyhäjärvi
Regional mineral Sandstone
Website satakunta.fi

Satakunta (Swedish : Satakunta [1] ) is a region (Finnish : maakunta Swedish : landskap) of Finland, part of the former Western Finland Province. It borders the regions of Southwest Finland, Pirkanmaa, South Ostrobothnia and Ostrobothnia. The capital city of the region is Pori. The name of the region literally means Hundred. The historical province of the same name was a larger area within Finland, covering modern Satakunta as well as much of Pirkanmaa.

Contents

Municipalities

The region of Satakunta is made up of 16 municipalities, of which 7 have city status (marked in bold).

Politics

Results of the 2019 Finnish parliamentary election in Satakunta: [2]

Heraldry

The arms are crowned by a ducal coronet, though in Finnish tradition this resembles a Swedish count's coronet. Blazon: "Per fess Azure and Or, a bear rampant Sable, armed and langued Gules, crowned Or, holding in both paws a sword Argent, sword handle Or; surmounted by two mullets of seven Argent".

History

Map of the historical province of Satakunta Svpmap satakunda.png
Map of the historical province of Satakunta

According to one theory, Satakunta was a political and military entity already in the Late Iron Age of Finland (550 - 1150 AD). During the 13th century, the Swedish rule was consolidated. At the same time, the coastal strip received some Swedish inhabitants, who however were assimilated in the mainstream Finnish population. The remnant of the influx can be seen in some of the toponyms in coastal Satakunta (e.g. Noormarkku < Swedish : Norrmark). Genetically connections to Scandinavia seem to be relatively strong. Haplogroup I1 (Y-DNA), which is typically Scandinavian, is very common in Satakunta.

During the Middle Ages, the major cities of the province were Ulvila, established in the 14th century and Rauma, established 1442. Due to the rising of land, the former was left inland and lost its access to the sea. Consequently, the city of Pori was founded to the coast by Johan, Grand Duke of Finland in 1558. Administratively, the province lost its function in 1649 when it was combined with Southwest Finland to form Turku and Pori County. In the 19th century, the eastern parts of the province were transferred to the Tavastia County. At the present, the eastern part of the old province has formed the region of Pirkanmaa and the western part forms the region of Satakunta.

Satakunta, with the rest of Finland, was separated from Sweden when Finland was ceded to Russia in 1809. During the era of Autonomy (1809–1917), the province experienced slow industrialization, Pori becoming the most important industrial city of the region. The forest and textile industries dominated the business life. In addition, the merchants of Rauma and Pori had impressively large fleets of sailpowered merchantmen, which made up a large fraction of the total merchant navy of the Russian empire. The large-scale use of sail ships continued until the 1930s, even while the steampower started to dominate the international seatraffic. The building of the TamperePori and KokemäkiRauma railroads connected the province into Finnish inland and diminished the importance of unnavigable Kokemäenjoki river as a means of transport. After this, the ports of Rauma and Pori have remained among the most important export ports for the Finnish industry.

The development of agriculture towards market-based economy was started during the 18th century, when crop rotation and large-scale drainage projects were initiated. At the same time, clearing of forests for agricultural use continued, leading into the formation of a large crofter class (Finnish : torppari), living on small-holdings rented from larger farms. During the 19th century the social divisions among the rural population deepened. Consequently, in Finnish Civil War of 1918, Satakunta formed an important part of Red Finland.

Since independence, the development of Satakunta has followed the general Finnish pattern. The rural areas have suffered from the drain of young population towards population centers, which until the early 1990s benefited the industrial cities of Rauma, Harjavalta and Pori with their surroundings. The metal and forest industries expanded steadily, necessitating the building of the nuclear plant at Olkiluoto. The increase of industrial production was not fully without problems, however. Especially the area around Harjavalta copper–nickel smelting plant suffered heavily from acid rain and Kokemäenjoki became heavily polluted. These problems have been controlled to large extent since the 1980s. [3] [4]

Since the 1990s, the traditional industries of the region have more or less stagnated and the relative importance of her cities has dwindled. One of the perceived reasons for this development has been the fact that Satakunta lacks a university of its own. [5]

Geography

Village of Sorkka in Rauma with typical coastal plain countryside of Satakunta Sorkankyla.jpg
Village of Sorkka in Rauma with typical coastal plain countryside of Satakunta
A young stand of pine forest in Northern Satakunta. A young stand of pine after the first thinning.jpg
A young stand of pine forest in Northern Satakunta.

The exact borders of Satakunta towards Southwest Finland, Ostrobothnia and Southern Tavastia are rather well-defined. However, this is not the case with the Northern Tavastia, i.e. in the modern day region of Pirkanmaa. This is because northern parts of Pirkanmaa were only sparsely inhabited wilderness and the borders of the provinces were never well defined before the introduction of county system in 1634. In that year, the border between Turku and Pori County which included Satakunta, and Uusimaa and Tavastia county was rather arbitrarily drawn in Tammerkoski. To further complicate matters, Tampere with her surroundings was transferred to Tavastia Province in the 19th century. As a result, the region around Ikaalinen and Parkano is variously described as being part of Satakunta, Tavastia, Sata-Häme or Pirkanmaa.

Satakunta is characterized by a strong contrast of coast and inland areas. The southernmost part of the coast is flanked by the archipelago of Rauma but towards north, the number of coastal islands decreases markedly. The seabed is flat and due to this, the still-continuing post-glacial rising is perceivable even during a single person's lifetime. The dominating feature of the northern coast of Satakunta is the delta of Kokemäenjoki northeast of the town of Pori.

The valley of river Kokemäenjoki and the area south of it form one of the most important agricultural regions of Finland. The main crops are rye, barley, potato and sugar beet. On the other hand, north of Kokemäenjoki valley, forests dominate the landscape and population density is much lower than in southern Satakunta. Towards inland, the flat agricultural plain gives way to a more hilly landscape blotted by lakes. In this area, the population centers are located along the most important waterways, as a result of the original inhabitation period.

Economics

In 2019 the biggest tax payers in Satakunta were Boliden Harjavalta, Raumaster, Forchem, Länsi-Suomen Osuuspankki, Oras, Alfa Laval Aalborg and LähiTapiola Lännen. [6]

Related Research Articles

Rauma, Finland Town in Satakunta, Finland

Rauma is a town and municipality of ca. 39,000 inhabitants on the west coast of Finland, 92 kilometres (57 mi) north of Turku, and 50 kilometres (31 mi) south of Pori. Granted town privileges on 17 April 1442, Rauma is known for its paper and maritime industry, high quality lace and the old wooden architecture of its centre, which is a UNESCO world heritage site.

Tavastia (historical province)

Tavastia is a historical province in the south of Finland. It borders Finland Proper, Satakunta, Ostrobothnia, Savonia and Uusimaa.

Western Finland Province Place in Finland

Western Finland was a province of Finland from 1997 to 2009. It bordered the provinces of Oulu, Eastern Finland and Southern Finland. It also bordered the Gulf of Bothnia towards Åland. Tampere was the largest city of the province.

Pori City in Satakunta, Finland

Pori is a city and municipality on the west coast of Finland. The city is located some 10 kilometres (6 mi) from the Gulf of Bothnia, on the estuary of the Kokemäki River, 110 kilometres (68 mi) west of Tampere, 140 kilometres (87 mi) north of Turku and 241 kilometres (150 mi) north-west of Helsinki, the capital of Finland. Pori was established in 1558 by Duke John, who later became John III of Sweden.

The former Province of Western Finland in Finland was divided into seven regions, 34 districts and 192 municipalities.

Kankaanpää Town in Satakunta, Finland

Kankaanpää is a town and municipality of Finland. Kankaanpää was founded in 1865, became a township in 1967 and finally a town in 1972. It is located in the crossroads of Hämeenkangas and Pohjankangas ridges. It belongs to the region of Satakunta. Kankaanpää has a population of about 12,800 inhabitants. Pori is located 53 kilometres (33 mi) southwest of Kankaanpää.

The 17 municipalities of the Satakunta Region in Finland are divided on three sub-regions.

South Ostrobothnia Region of Finland

South Ostrobothnia is one of the 19 regions of Finland. It borders the regions of Ostrobothnia, Central Ostrobothnia, Central Finland, Pirkanmaa, and Satakunta. Among the Finnish regions, South Ostrobothnia is the ninth largest in terms of population. Seinäjoki is the regional centre and by far the largest city in the area.

Kokemäki Town in Satakunta, Finland

Kokemäki is a town and municipality in the Satakunta Region of Finland. The town has a population of 6,990 and covers an area of 531.27 square kilometres (205.12 sq mi) of which 50.04 km2 (19.32 sq mi) is water. The population density is 14.53 inhabitants per square kilometre (37.6/sq mi).

Central Finland Region of Finland

Central Finland is a region in Finland. It borders the regions of Päijät-Häme, Pirkanmaa, South Ostrobothnia, Central Ostrobothnia, North Ostrobothnia, North Savo, and South Savo.

Ulvila Town in Satakunta, Finland

Ulvila is a town and municipality of Finland. It is one of the six medieval cities of Finland, as well as the third oldest in the country. Its position as city it had since the 14th century, was taken over by Pori in the 16th century.

Kokemäenjoki

The Kokemäenjoki is a river in southwestern Finland.

Satakunta University of Applied Sciences

Satakunta University of Applied Sciences (SAMK) is a university of applied sciences in the Satakunta region of Finland. The university is headquartered in Pori and offers additional instruction in Huittinen, Kankaanpää and Rauma. The number of students is 6,000 and the staff about 400.

Sastamala Town in Pirkanmaa, Finland

Sastamala is a town and municipality of Finland. It is located in the Pirkanmaa region. The town has a population of 24,068 and covers an area of 1,531.75 square kilometres (591.41 sq mi) of which 96.14 km2 (37.12 sq mi) is water, making it the largest municipality in the Pirkanmaa region in terms of area. The population density is 18.64 inhabitants per square kilometre (48.3/sq mi). The municipality is unilingually Finnish.

Pori sub-region Sub-region in Satakunta, Finland

Pori sub-region is a subdivision of Satakunta and one of the Sub-regions of Finland since 2009.

Satakunta Museum Historical museum in Pori, Finland

Satakunta Museum, is a historical museum in the city of Pori, Finland. The museum was established in 1888 and it is one of the oldest historical museums in Finland. In 1980 Satakunta Museum was given the status of Regional Museum.

Teljä

Teljä was late Iron Age and early Middle Ages settlement in Finland at the historical province of Satakunta. According to tradition it was located by the river Kokemäenjoki in the present municipality of Kokemäki. It is uncertain whether Teljä was a town-like settlement or more of a market place for Baltic Sea traders.

Kiikka Former municipality in Satakunta, Finland

Kiikka is a locality and former municipality in Pirkanmaa region, Finland. It was consolidated in 1981 with Keikyä into a municipality of Äetsä, which in turn, was consolidated with Vammala and Mouhijärvi into a town of Sastamala in 2009. Kiikka is located by the river Kokemäenjoki, about 10 kilometres south of the Sastamala town center.

Finnish national road 11

Finnish national road 11 is an east–west highway from Nokia of Pirkanmaa to Pori of Satakunta. The road is relatively short, only 101 kilometers, in addition to which the road as a whole is two-lane. Nonetheless, a highway is an important route used by industrial transportation.

References

  1. https://www.stat.fi/meta/luokitukset/maakunta/001-2018/index_sv.html
  2. "Tulospalvelu - Satakunnan Kansa".
  3. Lounais-Suomen metsäohjelma. P. 34. Retrieved 11-19-2007. (in Finnish)
  4. Kokemäenjoen päästötasot romahtaneet. Waternet 1/2007. The magazine is a PR-publication of Finnish chemicals manufacturer, but the fact that the pollution levels of Kokemäenjoki have indeed gone down is correct. Retrieved 11-19-2007. (in Finnish)
  5. Satakunnan alueellinen tavoiteohjelma. Satakuntaliiton julkaisu A:219. Retrieved 11-19-2007. (in Finnish)
  6. "Rauman seudulla paljon suuria yhteisöveron maksajia: Raumaster, Forchem, Osuuspankki, Oras ja niin edelleen". LS24 (in Finnish). 2019-11-04. Retrieved 2021-05-27.

Coordinates: 61°20′N22°00′E / 61.333°N 22.000°E / 61.333; 22.000