Savadkuh County

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Savadkuh County

Ŝahrestāne Sawādkuh

Savadkouh
Mazandaran.svg
Counties of Mazandaran Province
IranMazandaran-SVG.svg
Location of Mazandaran Province in Iran
Coordinates: 36°05′N52°55′E / 36.083°N 52.917°E / 36.083; 52.917 Coordinates: 36°05′N52°55′E / 36.083°N 52.917°E / 36.083; 52.917
Country Flag of Iran.svg  Iran
Province Mazandaran
Capital Pol Sefid
Bakhsh (Districts) Central District, Shirgah District
Area
[1]
  Total2,078.00 km2 (802.32 sq mi)
Population
 (2006)
  Total66,430
  Density32/km2 (83/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+3:30 (IRST)
  Summer (DST) UTC+4:30 (IRDT)
Savadkuh County can be found at GEOnet Names Server, at this link, by opening the Advanced Search box, entering "9207257" in the "Unique Feature Id" form, and clicking on "Search Database".
Kangelo, Savadkuh Kangelo castle0.jpg
Kangelo, Savadkuh
Derasele, Savadkuh Derasele, Savadkuh.jpg
Derasele, Savadkuh

Savadkuh County (also Savadkooh and Savadkouh) (Persian : Ŝahrestāne Sawādkuh) is a county in Mazandaran Province in Iran. At the 2006 census, the county's population was 66,430, in 17,918 families. [2] The county is subdivided into two districts: the Central District and Shirgah District. The county has six cities: Zirab, Shirgah, Alasht, and Pol Sefid.

Persian language Western Iranian language

Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi, is a Western Iranian language within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family. It is a pluricentric language primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and some other regions which historically were Persianate societies and considered part of Greater Iran. It is written right to left in the Persian alphabet, a modified variant of the Arabic script.

Counties of Iran administrative division of Iran

The counties of Iran, called shahrestan, are administrative divisions of larger provinces (ostan). The word shahrestan comes from the Persian words šahr and stân. "County", therefore, is a near equivalent to shahrestan.

Mazandaran Province Province in Region 1, Iran

Mazandaran Provincepronunciation ,, is an Iranian province located along the southern coast of the Caspian Sea and in the adjacent Central Alborz mountain range, in central-northern Iran.

Contents

Covering an area of 2,441 square kilometres (942 sq mi), Savâdkuh is at the centre of Mazandaran Province. It is limited northward by Qaemŝahr, westward by Babol, eastward by Sari, southward by the Alborz mountain range and Tehran, and southeast by Semnan province. The main part of this city is located in a valley, in the central Alborz region, where the Tâlâr river passes through it.

Babol City in Mazandaran, Iran

Babol is the capital of Babol County, Mazandaran Province, Iran. Babol is divided into two metropolitan area. At the 2012 census, its population was 219,467, in 66,944 families.

Sari womans draped garment of South Asia

A sari, saree or shari is a women's garment from the Indian subcontinent that consists of a drape varying from five to nine yards in length and two to four feet in breadth that is typically wrapped around the waist, with one end draped over the shoulder, baring the midriff. There are various styles sari manufacture and draping, the most common being the Nivi style, which originated in Deccan region of India. The sari is worn with fitted bodice commonly called a choli and petticoat called parkar or ul-pavadai. In the modern Indian subcontinent, the sari is considered a cultural icon.

Alborz mountain range

The Alborz, also spelled as Alburz, Elburz or Elborz, is a mountain range in northern Iran that stretches from the border of Azerbaijan along the western and entire southern coast of the Caspian Sea and finally runs northeast and merges into the Aladagh Mountains in the northern parts of Khorasan. This mountain range is divided into Western, Central, and Eastern Alborz Mountains. The Western Alborz Range runs south-southeastward almost along the western coast of the Caspian Sea. The Central Alborz runs from west to east along the entire southern coast of the Caspian Sea, while the Eastern Alborz runs in a northeasterly direction towards the northern parts of the Khorasan region southeast of the Caspian Sea. Mount Damavand, the highest mountain in Iran measuring 5,610.0 m, is located in the Central Alborz Mountains.

The tallest summit of Sawādkuh, is Arfa- Kuh, with a height of 3,500 metres (11,500 ft). The most important rivers flowing in this city are Tâlâr and Babol-rud, which originate from the Alborz mountain range standing southeast and southwest of Savâdkuh. These rivers irrigate the farmlands in Babol, Babolsar and Qaemŝahr.Including two areas of mountain in the north and foothill in the south, the mountainous area has a temperate and humid climate, and the weather in the south is dry and cold.

Savâdkuh consists of four cities

Sawâdkuh consists of four cities, Pol Sefid, Zirab, Shirgah and Alasht; two districts Central and Ŝirgâh; and 6 hamlets, Ŝarq o Qarbe Ŝirgâh, Lafur, Sorx-kolâ, Valupei, Rastopei and Kassiliyân. Having 250 seasonal and permanent villages, the language spoken in Savâdkuh is Mazandarani. Its native inhabitants are Shiite Muslims.

Pol Sefid, Mazandaran City in Mazandaran, Iran

Pol-e Sefid is center of Savadkuh County and city in the Central District of Savadkuh County, Mazandaran Province, Iran. At the 2016 census, its population was 8,794, in 2,163 families.

Zirab City in Mazandaran, Iran

Zirab is a city in Savadkuh County, Mazandaran Province, Iran.

Shirgah City in Mazandaran, Iran

Shirgah is a city and capital of Shirgah District, in Savadkuh County, Mazandaran Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 8,529, in 2,269 families.

The farmlands in Savâdkuh are limited because of its large forests and mountainous areas. So the farmers use their crops themselves, including rice, wheat, barley and sugar cane. According to geographical features, the economy of this city is based on apiculture and animal husbandry, more than agriculture.

Historical background

Darius I, the great Achaemenian monarch in his famous inscription in Behistun, mentions Pâtišvâreš as one of the territories under his rule. This Old Persian form subsequently became Middle Persian Pateŝxârgar and, following the Arab conquest, Perso-Arabic Faršavâdjar. The Greek historiographer Strabo records this name as Prâxovâtrâs.

Old Persian is one of the two directly attested Old Iranian languages. Old Persian appears primarily in the inscriptions, clay tablets and seals of the Achaemenid era. Examples of Old Persian have been found in what is now Iran, Romania (Gherla), Armenia, Bahrain, Iraq, Turkey and Egypt, with the most important attestation by far being the contents of the Behistun Inscription. Recent research (2007) into the vast Persepolis Fortification Archive at the Oriental Institute at the University of Chicago have unearthed Old Persian tablets, which suggest Old Persian was a written language in use for practical recording and not only for royal display.

Middle Persian also known as Pahlavi or Parsik, is the Middle Iranian language or ethnolect of southwestern Iran that during the Sasanian Empire (224–654) became a prestige dialect and so came to be spoken in other regions of the empire as well. Middle Persian is classified as a Western Iranian language. It descends from Old Persian and is the linguistic ancestor of Modern Persian.

Strabo Greek geographer, philosopher and historian

Strabo was a Greek geographer, philosopher, and historian who lived in Asia Minor during the transitional period of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire.

In his inscription at Ka'ba-ye Zartosht, the second Sassanid monarch Shapur I, refers to the region as Pâdešxâr. In the Book of Deeds of Ardashir, Son of Babag , it is Patešxâr again. Ebne Esfandiar and Mir Zahirod-Dine Mara‘shi – the old geographers of Mazandaran – give its name as Patešxârgar as a large area in present-day Mazandaran, including Azerbaijan, Gilan, Tabaristan, Kumesh and Damghan.

Kaba-ye Zartosht Kaʿbe-ye Zartuscht

Ka'ba-ye Zartosht is the name of a stone quadrangular and stepped structure in the Naqsh-e Rustam compound beside Zangiabad village in Marvdasht county in Fars, Iran. The Naqsh-e Rustam compound incorporates memorials of the Elamites, the Achaemenids and the Sassanians in itself in addition to the mentioned structure.

Shapur I Shah of Persia

Shapur I, also known as Shapur the Great, was the second shahanshah of the Sasanian Empire. The dates of his reign are commonly given as 240/42 – 270, but it is likely that he also reigned as co-regent prior to his father's death in 242.

Azerbaijan is a country in the Caucasus.

Mohammad Hassan Khan (Etemad Saltaneh's Tadvin Fi Ahval Jebal Ŝervin, History of Savâdkuh) mentions it as the old name of the ancient area of Savâdkuh. They believe that the word "Savad" was distorted and changed to Faršavât. Savâdkuh enjoyed great importance in the history of Tabaristan and even in Iran.

Its tall mountains were the feudal seats of the Bavand dynasty, with which the Karan-Vands were allied. They defended the area against the invasions of the Amawid and Abbasids and tried to preserve their Zoroastrian religion and culture. The existence of numerous fortresses and military fortifications that date to the 8th-10th centuries vindicate this claim. In addition, Lajim tower with its 10th century brick-face inscription in Pahlavi script demonstrates the attention of the Savâdkuhs to the script, language and customs of their ancestors. The population of this region composed many poems, describing the heroic efforts and bravery of their notables.

Language

The languages spoken in Savâdkuh are Mazandarani and Persian, for the major part; and Mazandarani and Persian for the inhabitants of the villages.

Natural attractions

The most important natural attractions of Savâdkuh are: Ŝur Mâst lake, near a village by the same name, Gâzu waterfall in Lafur hamlet, waterfalls of Ŝirgâ and Gaduk, the mountains of Arfa Kuh, Sangâr and Qadamgâ, in Rassto Pei hamlet and Shervin mountain in Valu Pei hamlet; and Alaŝt city.

Historical sites and landmarks

Balu Bridge

Located along the Ŝirgâh-Zirab road, near Talar river, it was made of fired bricks and mortar. The main part of this bridge was destroyed because of breaking, and now two herring-bone-shaped arches remained intact. One of them is 3 metres (9.8 ft) wide and 4.75 metres (15.6 ft) high, and another is 4.5 metres (15 ft) wide and 5.50 metres (18.0 ft) high. According to its architectural features, it probably dates back to before the Safavid dynasty.

Urim Rudbâr Church

This monument was built, following the erection of the northern Iranian railway. It was used for religious ceremonies by foreign personnel. The church consists of a chamber, measuring 4.20 by 5.20 metres (13.8 by 17.1 ft). With a height of 4 metres (13 ft), it houses a prayer niche and four cement candlesticks. The construction was made of stone and cement.

Lajim Tower

Lajim Tower, also known as Tomb Tower of Lajim, [3] is a tall cylindrical tower in the village of Lajim [4] in the province of Mazandaran, Iran. The tower was built around AD 1022. [3] The Lajim inscriptions includes the first documented example of the word qubba referring to the domed structure of the building. [4] There is no doubt that the Lajim Tower was the mausoleum of an unknown Persian prince of Tabaristan [4] .

Kangelo Castle

Kangelo Castle (Persian:قلعه کنگلو) is a historical fortress located in the savadkuh and in the village of Kangelo. The Kangelo Castle during the time The Sassanian Empire was built. According to historians, the castle of Kangelo was used as a place to worship the mirta.

Related Research Articles

The Central District of Savadkuh County is a district (bakhsh) in Savadkuh County, Mazandaran Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 42,679, in 11,396 families. The District has three cities: Pol Sefid, Zirab, and Alasht. The District has four rural districts (dehestan): Kaseliyan Rural District, Rastupey Rural District, Sorkhkola Rural District, and Valupey Rural District.

Afrasi is a village in Lafur Rural District, Shirgah District, Savadkuh County, Mazandaran Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 130, in 32 families.

Emam Kola is a village in Lafur Rural District, Shirgah District, Savadkuh County, Mazandaran Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 287, in 70 families.

Amir Kola is a village in Lafur Rural District, Shirgah District, Savadkuh County, Mazandaran Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its existence was noted, but its population was not reported.

Owbon is a village in Lafur Rural District, Shirgah District, Savadkuh County, Mazandaran Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 122, in 23 families.

Chak Sara village in Mazandaran, Iran

Chak Sara is a village in Lafur Rural District, Shirgah District, Savadkuh County, Mazandaran Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 34, in 17 families.

Deh Kalan village in Mazandaran, Iran

Deh Kalan is a village in Lafur Rural District, Shirgah District, Savadkuh County, Mazandaran Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 210, in 74 families.

Darzi Kola, Savadkuh village in Mazandaran, Iran

Darzi Kola is a village in Lafur Rural District, Shirgah District, Savadkuh County, Mazandaran Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 16, in 7 families.

Galesh Kola, Savadkuh village in Mazandaran, Iran

Galesh Kola is a village in Lafur Rural District, Shirgah District, Savadkuh County, Mazandaran Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 346, in 124 families.

Ghuzak-e Rudbar is a village in Lafur Rural District, Shirgah District, Savadkuh County, Mazandaran Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 44, in 11 families.

Kharkak is a village in Lafur Rural District, Shirgah District, Savadkuh County, Mazandaran Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 102, in 22 families.

Ludasht is a village in Lafur Rural District, Shirgah District, Savadkuh County, Mazandaran Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 61, in 17 families.

Naft Chal, Savadkuh village in Mazandaran, Iran

Naft Chal is a village in Lafur Rural District, Shirgah District, Savadkuh County, Mazandaran Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 340, in 114 families.

Riku is a village in Lafur Rural District, Shirgah District, Savadkuh County, Mazandaran Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 54, in 14 families.

Sang Si is a village in Lafur Rural District, Shirgah District, Savadkuh County, Mazandaran Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 77, in 21 families.

Sharqelet is a village in Lafur Rural District, Shirgah District, Savadkuh County, Mazandaran Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 136, in 38 families.

Tamar, Mazandaran village in Mazandaran, Iran

Tamar is a village in Lafur Rural District, Shirgah District, Savadkuh County, Mazandaran Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 74, in 24 families.

References

  1. Management and Planning Organization of Mazandaran, 2006
  2. "Census of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 1385 (2006)". Islamic Republic of Iran. Archived from the original (Excel) on 2011-11-11.
  3. 1 2 Michailidis, Melanie (2003). "Tomb Tower of Lajim". Aga Khan Visual Archive.
  4. 1 2 3 Blair, Sheila (1992). The Monumental Inscriptions from Early Islamic Iran and Transoxiana. pp. 88–90.