Saw Soe of Pagan

Last updated
Saw Soe
Queen of the Northern Palace
Tenure30 May 1289 – 17 December 1297
Predecessor Pwa Saw
Successor Yadanabon of Pinya
Pagan (Bagan)
Diedin or after 1334
Spouse Kyawswa of Pagan
Issue Saw Hnit
Min Shin Saw of Thayet
Saw Min Ya of Pinya
Saw Hnaung of Sagaing
Mway Medaw of Pinya
House Pagan
Father Yazathingyan of Pagan
Mother Saw Khin Htut of Pagan
Religion Theravada Buddhism

Saw Soe (Burmese : စောစိုး, pronounced  [sɔ́ só] ) was a principal queen consort of King Kyawswa of the Pagan Dynasty of Burma (Myanmar). [1] The royal chronicles identify her as the chief queen of Kyawswa but historians identify Saw Thitmahti as the chief queen. [2]


The queen was the mother of Viceroy of Pagan Saw Hnit, Governor of Thayet Min Shin Saw, Queen Saw Min Ya of Pinya, Queen Saw Hnaung of Sagaing and Queen Mway Medaw of Pinya. [1] She was also the paternal grandmother of King Swa Saw Ke of Ava.


The following is her ancestry as reported by the Hmannan Yazawin chronicle. [1] She was a descendant of Gen. Nyaung-U Hpi from her father's side and a granddaughter of King Kyaswa from her mother's side.

Related Research Articles

Uzana I of Pinya was king of Pinya from 1325 to 1340. Of Pagan royalty, Uzana inherited a disunited kingdom, which fell apart right after his predecessor Thihathu's death. Not only could he not retake the northern Sagaing Kingdom but he also had little control over his southern vassals. Even in his core power base in present-day central Myanmar (Burma), Uzana faced a serious rival in his half-brother Kyawswa. He ultimately lost the power struggle, and abdicated the throne in 1340 to a regent. He lived out his last years as a monk in Mekkhaya.

Kyawswa I of Pinya King of Pinya

Kyawswa I of Pinya was king of Pinya from 1344 to 1350. His six-year reign briefly restored unity in southern Upper Burma although his authority over his southernmost vassals remained largely nominal. He suddenly died in 1350, and came to be regarded as one of the major Burmese folk spirits, known as Nga-zi Shin Nat.

Kyawswa II of Pinya was king of Pinya from 1350 to 1359. He had little effective control over his southern vassals but agreed to an alliance with Pinya's longtime rival Sagaing to face off the northern Shan state of Mong Mao. In 1358–59, while he tried to help Sagaing in the north, his home region of Kyaukse came under attack first by his erstwhile vassal Toungoo, and later by Mong Mao Shans. He died during the Shan raids.

Narathu of Pinya was king of Pinya from 1359 to 1364. He controlled only around the capital region, and unsuccessfully tried to stop the Mong Mao (Maw) Shan raids of Central Myanmar (Burma) that began in 1359. He reversed his predecessor Kyawswa II's policy of alliance with Sagaing, and later entered into an alliance with Mong Mao as a junior partner to dismember Sagaing. But the policy backfired when Mong Mao forces proceeded to sack Pinya in May 1364. He was brought back to the Shan country, and is remembered as Maw-Pa Min.

Thihapate of Sagaing king of Sagaing from 1352 to 1364. He came to power by being married to the powerful Princess Soe Min Kodawgyi. He led Sagaing during the most tumultuous period of the kingdom (1356−64). Despite a brief period of alliance with Pinya (1357−59), Sagaing had to face near-annual raids by the northern Shan state of Mong Mao (Maw) on its own. He lost power in April 1364 when Maw Shan forces sacked Sagaing. He escaped capture but was soon put to death by his stepson Thado Minbya at Kya-Khat-Wa-Ya, south of Sagaing.

Mi Saw U was a Pagan princess, who was queen of two kings, Kyawswa of Pagan and Thihathu of Pinya, and mother of two kings, Uzana I of Pinya and Kyawswa I of Pinya. Saw U was a daughter of Narathihapate, the last sovereign king of Pagan. Married to her half-brother Kyawswa, Saw U was pregnant with Kyawswa's child (Uzana) in December 1297 when she was seized by Thihathu who had just overthrown Kyawswa. Thihathu raised Uzana as his own child and later selected him as heir apparent. Saw U also gave birth to Thihathu's child, also named Kyawswa. Both Uzana and Kyawswa went on to become kings of Pinya. Her youngest son Nawrahta defected to the Sagaing Kingdom c. 1349 after a disagreement with his brother Kyawswa.

Pinya Kingdom

The Pinya Kingdom was the kingdom that ruled Central Myanmar (Burma) from 1313 to 1365. It was the successor state of Myinsaing, the polity that controlled much of Upper Burma between 1297 and 1313. Founded as the de jure successor state of the Pagan Empire by Thihathu, Pinya faced internal divisions from the start. The northern province of Sagaing led by Thihathu's eldest son Saw Yun successfully fought for autonomy in 1315−17, and formally seceded in 1325 after Thihathu's death.

Shin Bo-Me was a principal queen of four kings of Ava in the early 15th century.

Soe Min Kodawgyi was the chief queen consort of Sagaing from 1352 to 1364. The eldest daughter of the founder of Sagaing Saw Yun was a powerful figure who twice led diplomatic missions to forge a closer alliance with Pinya in the 1350s. She was the mother of Thado Minbya, the founder of the Kingdom of Ava (Inwa).

Saw Omma was the chief queen consort of four consecutive kings of Pinya and Ava Kingdoms from 1350 to 1367. Descended from Pagan and Myinsaing–Pinya royal lines, the queen was well known for her beauty, and was selected as the chief queen of the last three kings of Pinya: Kyawswa II, Narathu and Uzana II. After the death of her fourth husband King Thado Minbya of Ava in 1367, she and her fifth husband Nga Nu unsuccessfully tried to seize the Ava throne. Her brother King Swa Saw Ke, who succeeded Thado Minbya, pardoned her but also married her off to the commander who captured her.

Min Shin Saw was an early 14th-century governor of Thayet in the Pinya Kingdom. He was a son of King Kyawswa of Pagan and the father of King Swa Saw Ke of Ava, Queen Saw Omma of Pinya.

Mway Medaw was a queen consort of King Kyawswa I of Pinya. Of Pagan royalty, she was one of the two principal queens consort of Kyawswa, and she was known as the Queen of the Northern Palace. She was a paternal aunt of King Swa Saw Ke of Ava.

Shin Myat Hla was the chief queen consort of King Mohnyin Thado of Ava from 1426 to 1439. She was also a junior queen of King Minkhaung I of Ava for five months in 1409–10. She was the mother of kings Minye Kyawswa I and Narapati I of Ava. She was also an eight-times great grandmother of King Alaungpaya of Konbaung Dynasty.

Shin Saw Gyi was a chief queen consort of King Swa Saw Ke of Ava. She was also a principal queen of kings Kyawswa II of Pinya and Narathu of Pinya. She was a granddaughter of King Saw Yun, the founder of Sagaing Kingdom, and a sister of King Thado Minbya, the founder of Ava Kingdom. She was originally a queen consort of Swa, and was given the title of Queen of the Northern Palace and Pinya in fief. She became the chief queen after Queen Khame Mi died, and became the Queen of the Southern Palace.

Khame Mi was the first chief queen consort of King Swa Saw Ke of Ava. She is regarded as the mother of King Tarabya, the successor of Swa, by the standard Burmese chronicles despite inscriptional evidence to the contrary.

Pwa Saw was a chief queen consort of King Narathihapate of the Pagan Dynasty of Burma (Myanmar). She is remembered as witty, wise, and beautiful, and as someone who exercised political influence for four decades during one of the most difficult periods in the country's history. Historians are divided as to whether the chronicle narratives contain more myth than fact.

Pwa Saw of Thitmahti was the chief queen consort of King Kyawswa, and of King Saw Hnit of the Pagan Dynasty of Burma (Myanmar). The royal chronicles identify Saw Soe as the chief queen of Kyawswa but historians identify her as the chief queen. She was the mother of Crown Prince Theingapati and Kumara Kassapa.

Min Pale was governor of Paukmyaing in the Kingdom of Ava in the late 14th century. He was a grandson of King Uzana I of Pinya, and was one of the four top commanders of King Swa Saw Ke of Ava. He was the paternal grandfather of King Mohnyin Thado. All the kings of the Konbaung Dynasty claimed descent from him.

Thihapate of Yamethin was governor of Yamethin in the 1330s and the 1340s during the Pinya Period. The second son of King Uzana I of Pinya considered a rebellion against his half-uncle Kyawswa I of Pinya who pushed out his father from power but ultimately decided against it.

Sithu Min Oo was a longtime pretender to the Pinya throne from the 1320s to the 1360s. After Ava replaced Pinya as the new power in present-day central Myanmar in 1365, Sithu entered into an alliance with King Swa Saw Ke of Ava by marrying Swa's daughter Minkhaung Medaw. Kings Mingyi Nyo, Tabinshwehti and Nanda of the Toungoo dynasty were descended from him.


  1. 1 2 3 Hmannan Vol. 1 2003: 360
  2. Ba Shin 1982: 42


Saw Soe of Pagan
Born:c. 1250s Died: in/after 1334
Royal titles
Preceded by
Pwa Saw
Queen of the Northern Palace
Succeeded by
Yadanabon of Pinya
as North Queen of Myinsaing–Pinya