Seán T. O'Kelly

Last updated

Seán T. O'Kelly
O Ceallaigh.jpg
2nd President of Ireland
In office
25 June 1945 24 June 1959
Taoiseach
Preceded by Douglas Hyde
Succeeded byÉamon de Valera
Tánaiste
In office
29 December 1937 14 June 1945
TaoiseachÉamon de Valera
Preceded byNew office
Succeeded by Seán Lemass
Minister for Finance
In office
16 September 1939 14 June 1945
TaoiseachÉamon de Valera
Preceded by Seán MacEntee
Succeeded by Frank Aiken
Minister for Local Government and Public Health
In office
9 March 1932 8 September 1939
TaoiseachÉamon de Valera
Preceded by Richard Mulcahy
Succeeded by P. J. Ruttledge
Vice-President of the Executive Council
In office
9 March 1932 29 December 1937
PresidentÉamon de Valera
Preceded by Ernest Blythe
Succeeded byOffice abolished
Minister for Irish
In office
29 June 1920 26 August 1921
PresidentÉamon de Valera
Preceded byNew office
Succeeded byOffice abolished
Ceann Comhairle of Dáil Éireann
In office
22 January 1919 16 August 1921
Deputy
Preceded by Count Plunkett
Succeeded by Eoin MacNeill
Teachta Dála
In office
July 1937  25 June 1945
Constituency Dublin North-West
In office
August 1923   July 1937
Constituency Dublin North
In office
August 1923   May 1921
Constituency Dublin Mid-West
In office
December 1918   May 1921
Constituency Dublin College Green
Personal details
Born
Seán Thomas O'Kelly

(1882-08-25)25 August 1882
Abbotstown, Dublin, Ireland
Died23 November 1966(1966-11-23) (aged 84)
Blackrock, Dublin, Ireland
Cause of death Congestive heart failure
Resting place Glasnevin Cemetery,
Glasnevin, Dublin, Ireland
Nationality Irish
Political party Fianna Fáil
Spouse(s)
  • Mary Kate Ryan
    (m. 1928; d. 1934)
  • Phyllis Ryan
    (m. 1936; d. 1966)
Parents
  • Samuel O'Kelly
  • Catherine O'Dea
Alma mater University College Dublin
Profession

Seán Thomas O'Kelly (Irish : Seán Tomás Ó Ceallaigh; 25 August 1882 – 23 November 1966), originally John T. O'Kelly, was an Irish Fianna Fáil politician who served as the second President of Ireland from June 1945 to June 1959. He also served as Tánaiste from 1937 to 1945, Minister for Finance from 1939 to 1945, Minister for Local Government and Public Health from 1932 to 1939, Vice-President of the Executive Council from 1932 to 1937, Minister for Irish from 1920 to 1921 and Ceann Comhairle of Dáil Éireann from 1919 to 1921. He served as a Teachta Dála (TD) from 1923 to 1945. [1]

Irish language Goidelic language spoken in Ireland and by Irish people

Irish is a Goidelic language of the Celtic and Indo-European language family, originating in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish people. Irish is spoken as a first language in substantial areas of counties Galway, Kerry, Cork and Donegal, smaller areas of Waterford, Mayo and Meath, and a few other locations, and as a second language by a larger group of non-habitual speakers across the country.

Fianna Fáil, officially Fianna Fáil – The Republican Party, is a conservative political party in Ireland.

Tánaiste deputy prime minister of Ireland

The Tánaiste is the deputy head of the government of Ireland and thus holder of its second-most senior office. The Tánaiste is appointed by the President of Ireland on the advice of the Taoiseach. The current office holder is Simon Coveney, TD, who was appointed on 30 November 2017.

Contents

Early life

O'Kelly was born in inner-city Dublin, although his exact place of birth is disputed. [2] [3] Baptised as John, [4] he was the eldest son of Samuel O'Kelly, a boot and shoemaker of Berkley Road, [5] by his marriage to Catherine O'Dea, and had three sisters and four brothers, two of whom were educated by Patrick Pearse[ clarification needed ] at St Enda's school.

Dublin capital and largest city in Ireland

Dublin is the capital and largest city of Ireland. It is on the east coast of Ireland, in the province of Leinster, at the mouth of the River Liffey, and is bordered on the south by the Wicklow Mountains. It has an urban area population of 1,173,179, while the population of the Dublin Region, as of 2016, was 1,347,359, and the population of the Greater Dublin Area was 1,904,806.

O'Kelly's first school was the Sisters of Charity, in Mountjoy Street (1886–90), then the Christian Brothers School in St Mary's Place (1890–94). His senior school education was at O'Connell School, a Christian Brothers school in North Richmond Street (1894–98). O'Kelly joined the National Library of Ireland in 1898 as a junior assistant to T. W. Lyster, remaining there until 1902, and becoming a subscriber to the Celtic Literary Society. [6] The same year, he joined the Gaelic League, becoming a member of the governing body in 1910 and general secretary in 1915. He was appointed manager of An Claidheamh Soluis, which included amongst its editors the revolutionary leaders of Sinn Féin. [7]

Sisters of Charity name for Roman Catholic religious communities

Many religious communities have the term Sisters of Charity in their name. Some Sisters of Charity communities refer to the Vincentian tradition, or in America to the tradition of Saint Elizabeth Ann Seton, but others are unrelated. The rule of Vincent de Paul for the Daughters of Charity has been adopted and adapted by at least sixty founders of religious institutes for sisters around the world.

The O’Connell School is a secondary and a primary school for boys located on North Richmond Street in Dublin, Ireland. The school, named in honour of the leader of Catholic Emancipation, Daniel O’Connell, has the distinction of being the oldest surviving Christian Brothers school in Dublin, having been first established in 1829. It is now under the trusteeship of the Edmund Rice Schools Trust.

National Library of Ireland

The National Library of Ireland is the Republic of Ireland's national library located in Dublin, in a building designed by Thomas Newenham Deane. The Minister for Culture, Heritage and the Gaeltacht is the member of the Government of Ireland responsible for the library.

Active revolutionist in Sinn Féin

He went to work almost immediately for Arthur Griffith, at the Gaelic League on the organization's administration papers. He came to Griffith's notice the previous years joining the IRB as a member of the esoteric Bartholomew Teeling Circle from 1901. O'Kelly joined Sinn Féin, then a small dual-monarchist, capitalist party, immediately at its inception in 1905 as one of its founders. He became a joint-honorary secretary of the movement from 1908, remaining in the post until 1925. In 1906, he was elected to Dublin Corporation, and retained the seat for Inns Quay Ward until 1924. One acolyte campaigner was Thomas Kelly, who joined him in pressing the government for improved municipal drainage schemes for Dublin's slums.

Arthur Griffith Irish politician and writer, founder of Sinn Fein

Arthur Joseph Griffith was an Irish writer, newspaper editor and politician who founded the political party Sinn Féin. He led the Irish delegation at the negotiations that produced the 1921 Anglo-Irish Treaty, and served as President of Dáil Éireann from January 1922 until his death in August 1922.

Sinn Féin is a left-wing Irish republican political party active in both the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland.

Dublin Corporation

Dublin Corporation, known by generations of Dubliners simply as The Corpo, is the former name given to the city government and its administrative organisation in Dublin between 1661 and 1 January 2002. It is now known as Dublin City Council.

Like Father O'Flanagan, O'Kelly was chosen to make an Irish language address to the Pope Pius X, in 1908. Both men were bilingual party members promoting Irish culture. O'Kelly was one of the establishing members of the Irish Volunteers in 1913. In August 1914, he agitated to suppress the landing of arms at Kilesole, County Wicklow.

Pope Pius X Catholic Pope and saint

Pope Pius X, born Giuseppe Melchiorre Sarto, was head of the Roman Catholic Church from August 1903 to his death in 1914. Pius X is known for vigorously opposing modernist interpretations of Catholic doctrine, promoting liturgical reforms and orthodox theology. He directed the production of the 1917 Code of Canon Law, the first comprehensive and systemic work of its kind.

Irish Volunteers Irish nationalist military organisation

The Irish Volunteers, sometimes called the Irish Volunteer Force or Irish Volunteer Army, was a military organisation established in 1913 by Irish nationalists. It was ostensibly formed in response to the formation of the Ulster Volunteers in 1912, and its declared primary aim was "to secure and maintain the rights and liberties common to the whole people of Ireland". The Volunteers included members of the Gaelic League, Ancient Order of Hibernians and Sinn Féin, and, secretly, the Irish Republican Brotherhood (IRB). Increasing rapidly to a strength of nearly 200,000 by mid-1914, it split in September of that year over John Redmond's commitment to the British War effort, with the smaller group retaining the name of "Irish Volunteers".

County Wicklow County in the Republic of Ireland

County Wicklow is a county in Ireland. The last of the traditional 32 counties to be formed, as late as 1606, it is part of the Mid-East Region and is also located in the province of Leinster. It is named after the town of Wicklow, which derives from the Old Norse name Víkingaló, which means "Vikings' Meadow". Wicklow County Council is the local authority for the county. The population of the county was 142,425 at the 2016 census.

In March 1915, O'Kelly went to New York City, to inform Clan Na Gael of the plans for a rising in Dublin by the IRB. Patrick Pearse appointed O'Kelly to be his Staff Captain in preparation for whenever the insurrection would take place.[ citation needed ]

New York City Largest city in the United States

The City of New York, usually called either New York City (NYC) or simply New York (NY), is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2018 population of 8,398,748 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles (784 km2), New York is also the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 19,979,477 people in its 2018 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 22,679,948 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural, financial, and media capital of the world, and exerts a significant impact upon commerce, entertainment, research, technology, education, politics, tourism, art, fashion, and sports. The city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.

Patrick Pearse Irish revolutionary, shot by the British Army in 1916

Patrick Henry Pearse was an Irish teacher, barrister, poet, writer, nationalist, republican political activist and revolutionary who was one of the leaders of the Easter Rising in 1916. Following his execution along with fifteen others, Pearse came to be seen by many as the embodiment of the rebellion.

Easter Rising

It was during the Easter Rising that O'Kelly met Mary Ryan. She was arrested on 18 May 1916, with her sister Nell for unspecified offences to be incarcerated in Mountjoy Prison. Historians have argued that she may have been confused with her sister, Min Ryan. Kit, as Mary Ryan was known, was Professor of French at University College Dublin. She shared her house with her sisters at 19 Ranelagh Road, Dublin, which O'Kelly visited. They were married in 1918. [8]

O'Kelly was at the heart of the party operation. He was one of a handful of men who might have known of the "All-Ireland" Volunteer HQ at Athenry, County Galway, according to Liam Ó Briain involved in marshalling the rebellion in the western hills from Limerick across the Shannon. [9] He was also responsible for springing Bulmer Hobson from the custody of the IRB. [10] Thereafter Hobson mysterious "disappearance" became the moment when "a devoted son" of Ireland was excluded from the movement; but O'Kelly may have saved his life. [11] During the Rising he was in and out of the GPO, and was requested to set up as "Civil Administrator of the Government of the Republic" with four others. [12] The project never proceeded, as perhaps no attempt was made to anticipate preparations for a political structure free from Britain. [13]

After the Easter Rising in 1916, O'Kelly was gaoled, released, and re-arrested. He was sent to Reading Gaol, and then escaped from detention in HM Prison Eastwood Park in Britain, and returned to Ireland. "Sinn Fein became a cloak for Volunteer meetings" [14] Sinn Féin won a landslide victory.

1918 general election

O'Kelly was elected a Sinn Féin Member of Parliament (MP) for Dublin College Green, in the 1918 general election. [15] In his role as Secretary, O'Kelly was tasked with preparing the Sinn Féin Executive Council for the Dáil Éireann Constituent Assembly, which had been agreed at the Ard Fheis in October 1918. Along with other Sinn Féin MPs he refused to take his seat in the UK House of Commons. Instead they set up an Irish Parliament, called Dáil Éireann, in Dublin. O'Kelly served as Ceann Comhairle (chairman) of the First Dáil. [16] O'Kelly published the Democratic Programme, he himself had edited. It appealed to a wider mission statement for independence and separatism, which was not sanctioned by the electorate. In fact, it was a skeleton document borrowed on the back of Pearse's martyrdom, written in the late leader's style, from the Labour leader Thomas Johnson. [17]

O'Kelly's approach to US President Woodrow Wilson to visit Dublin in 1919 on his way to Versailles, France, was roundly rejected. Wilson was already withdrawing from the Self-Determination League, making his critics label O'Kelly as 'pompous.' Despite the US Senate resolution in June, the President would not break his commitment to the Big Four for unanimity. [18] He also served as the Irish Republic's envoy, demanding recognition of the Republic and its admittance to the post-World War I peace treaty negotiations at Paris Peace Conference. While this request to Clemenceau was sincere, it naively ignored the fact that France and Britain had been allied for the previous four years. [19] [20] O'Kelly was followed to Paris as envoy by the eminently better-qualified George Gavan Duffy, who was from a titled family of barristers and diplomats. [21] In 1920, O'Kelly relocated to Italy, where he met with Pope Benedict XV, briefing the pontiff on the political situation in Ireland. At the same time, O'Kelly met with the future dictator of Italy, Benito Mussolini, who helped the Irishman and other Sinn Féin emissaries to source weapons for use by the IRA. [22]

Close friend of de Valera

O'Kelly was a close associate of Éamon de Valera, who served variously as President of Dáil Éireann (Prime Minister from April 1919 to August 1921) and President of the Republic (from August 1921 to January 1922). As with de Valera, he opposed the Anglo-Irish Treaty, signed by representatives of the British and Irish governments in December 1921.

When de Valera resigned as President of the Republic on 6 January 1922, O'Kelly returned from Paris to Dublin, to try to negotiate a compromise, whereby de Valera could return to the presidency. A furious de Valera turned down the offer and ordered O'Kelly to return to Paris.

During the Irish Civil War, O'Kelly was in jail until December 1923. Afterwards he spent the next two years as a Sinn Féin envoy to the United States.

A founder of Fianna Fáil

In 1926, when de Valera left Sinn Féin to establish Fianna Fáil, O'Kelly returned to Ireland and was appointed a vice-president of the new republican party. In March 1927, he became editor of The Nation and played a significant role building up support for the new party before the June 1927 Irish general election. [23]

In 1932, when de Valera, having won that year's general election, was appointed President of the Executive Council (Prime Minister of the Irish Free State) he made O'Kelly his deputy, as Vice-President of the Council from 1933. [24] He was also named Minister for Local Government. O'Kelly earned a controversial reputation over his key role in attempts to publicly humiliate the then Governor-General of the Irish Free State, James McNeill. Stunts such as withdrawing the Irish Army's band from playing at diplomatic functions which the Governor-General attended, or in one notorious case the sight of O'Kelly and Defence Minister Frank Aiken storming out of a diplomatic function at the French Legation when McNeill, the guest of honour, had arrived, damaged O'Kelly's reputation and image, particularly when the campaign backfired.

McNeill published his correspondence on the issue with de Valera, making de Valera appear foolish, before resigning and leaving de Valera with the task of choosing a new Governor-General, an embarrassing situation for a politician who had tried his best to avoid any association with the office. To the surprise of many, O'Kelly's was not among the names considered for the office. It is not known for certain, but suspicion rests on O'Kelly's membership of a Catholic fraternal organisation, the Knights of Columbanus, which de Valera suspected had a source in the cabinet. O'Kelly matched the bill, perhaps through indiscretions rather than deliberate actions. However O'Kelly was not made Governor-General, the post instead going to the former Fianna Fáil TD, Domhnall Ua Buachalla from County Kildare, who would be the last Governor-General of the Irish Free State.

Considered for President of Ireland in 1938

With the enactment of a new constitution in 1937, O'Kelly remained the second in command in the government, with the new title of Tánaiste.

In 1938, again O'Kelly's position in cabinet became a focus for speculation, as rumours swept Leinster House (the seat of Parliament) that de Valera intended making O'Kelly the Fianna Fáil choice to become President of Ireland, the office which had replaced the governor-generalship in the new Constitution of Ireland. Again the justification for de Valera nominating one of his senior ministers for the presidency, were rumours that someone in cabinet was, either deliberately or accidentally, letting information slip to the Catholic Church through the Knights of Columbanus. It came as anger and surprise to De Valera to find out that O'Kelly was a member of this masonic-type organization. [25]

De Valera had on a number of occasions ordered O'Kelly to resign from the Knights, only to find that he would rejoin later. However, the apparent entry of the popular Lord Mayor of Dublin, Alfie Byrne, into the presidential race (in fact he eventually failed to get nominated) and the belief that neither O'Kelly nor any other politician could beat Byrne (ironically a close friend of O'Kelly) led to all party agreement, on the opposition Fine Gael's suggestion, that the office go to Douglas Hyde, a Protestant, as an appreciation for his contribution to Irish society. An Irish language enthusiast, Hyde had founded the Conradh na Gaeilge, known in English as the Gaelic League, a cultural organisation promoting the preservation of the Irish language, music, dancing and traditions.

Minister for Finance

O'Kelly was appointed Minister for Finance in 1941. [26] He secured the passing of The Central Bank Act in 1942. [27] On 17 July 1942, at the fifth and final stage of the Dáil debate on the "Central Banking Bill", he argued that the owner of the credit issued by the Central Bank of Ireland, should be the private property of the joint stock banker and not the property of the people of Ireland. This debate was carried out when only five Deputies were present in the Dáil. [28]

President of Ireland

The inauguration of Sean T. O'Kelly as President of Ireland in 1945.
The 2nd Cavalry Squadron of the Blue Hussars escort the President, who travelled in the late Queen Alexandra's landau. The Landau and the Hussars were later scrapped. Sean T. O'Kelly being escorted to his inauguration as President of Ireland in 1945.jpg
The inauguration of Seán T. O'Kelly as President of Ireland in 1945.
The 2nd Cavalry Squadron of the Blue Hussars escort the President, who travelled in the late Queen Alexandra's landau. The Landau and the Hussars were later scrapped.
President Sean T. O'Kelly, An Tostal, 1954.
Outside the GPO, President O'Kelly receives the salute from the new Garda recruits during the Tostal celebrations of 1954. Tostal1954.jpg
President Seán T. O'Kelly, An Tóstal, 1954.
Outside the GPO, President O'Kelly receives the salute from the new Garda recruits during the Tostal celebrations of 1954.

O'Kelly was the Fianna Fáil candidate for President of Ireland in 1945. He defeated two other candidates. [26] However, he came up just short of a majority on the first count.

O'Kelly's most famous faux pas occurred during a state visit to the Vatican City, when in a breach with standard protocol, he told the media of Pope Pius XII's personal opinions on communism. The resulting row strained relationships between Pope Pius and Joseph Stalin.

O'Kelly was reelected on 25 June 1952, this time unopposed. During his second term he visited many nations in Europe and addressed the United States Congress in 1959. [29] He retired at the end of his second term in 1959, to be replaced by his old mentor and former Taoiseach, Éamon de Valera.

O'Kelly did not refer any Bills to the Supreme Court, under Article 26 of the Constitution of Ireland. He convened a meeting of the Council of State in 1947, to consider whether Part III of the Health Bill, 1947 – which provided the basis for the Mother and Child Scheme — should be referred, but he decided against doing so. [30]

He dissolved the Dáil on four occasions (in 1948, 1951, 1954 and 1957). On each occasion the Taoiseach who advised him to do so (de Valera in the first and third cases, and John A. Costello in the other two) had not been formally defeated in a Dáil vote in a manner showing a loss of support by a majority of TDs. Therefore, under Article 13.2.3° of the Constitution, O'Kelly had no discretion to refuse to act on their advice to dissolve. A more complex case occurred however in 1949, when the First Inter-Party Government was defeated in a snap Dáil vote on a financial measure due to the absence of a number of Government TDs. O'Kelly was advised by the Secretary to the President, Michael McDunphy, that had Costello requested a dissolution, he could have refused it–thus forcing Costello to resign. However Costello considered that the vote failed by accident (due to a mistake by the party whips), and opted to reintroduce the measure the following morning, rather than seek a dissolution. With all TDs present this time, the vote carried. McDunphy later changed his mind and in the files on the event concluded that O'Kelly could not have refused a dissolution because the loss had merely been a technical loss, not an actual decision by the Dáil to vote against the government.[ citation needed ]

Visit to United States

O'Kelly was the first President of Ireland to visit the United States of America, when from 16–31 March 1959, he was the guest of President Dwight Eisenhower. He was invited to address both houses of Congress. [29] This was important to Ireland as it showed that the new republic and its head of state were recognised by the United States. Historian Joe Lee has stated that the visit signified an end to a period of distrust between Ireland and the United States, following World War II. [31] Both Ireland and America had been neutral countries when the war began, but the US joined the conflict in 1941. But Ireland continued to remain neutral, which annoyed American politicians during the war, and afterwards. The invitation to President O'Kelly to address Congress meant that Ireland had been forgiven by the larger power. [32]

O'Kelly and Catholicism

O'Kelly was known to be a devout Catholic. At key times he was criticised by de Valera of being the "Church's man" in the cabinet, either deliberately or accidentally leaking information to the Knights of Saint Columbanus.[ citation needed ] O'Kelly made a point of ensuring that his first state visit, following the declaration of the Republic of Ireland in 1949, was to the Vatican City to meet Pope Pius XII, a visit which, as mentioned, created controversy when the famously talkative O'Kelly inadvertently revealed the Pope's private views on communism. Consequently, he was not awarded the papal Order of Christ which he coveted.[ citation needed ]

"A model President"

Sean Tomas O Ceallaigh; 25 August 1882 - 23 November 1966, was the second President of Ireland (1945-1959) Sean T O'Ceallaig.jpg
Seán Tomás Ó Ceallaigh; 25 August 1882 – 23 November 1966, was the second President of Ireland (1945–1959)

Éamon de Valera worried about O'Kelly's drinking habits, which were much commented on during his career. O'Kelly drank a lot, and often, yet his behaviour remained dignified and above reproach and he never caused any scandal. [33] The author, Monsignor Pádraig Ó Fiannachta, reported that President O'Kelly kept barrels of draught Guinness stout on tap in Áras an Uachtaráin. [34]

O'Kelly was a short man with a tall second wife. [35] [36] When attending a football match once in Croke Park, he was on the field to throw in the ball. A member of the crowd shouted, "Cut the grass, we can't see the President!" [37]

On his retirement as President of Ireland in 1959, he was described as a "model President" by the normally hostile Irish Times newspaper. Though controversial, the diminutive O'Kelly was widely seen as genuine and honest, albeit tactless.

He died on 23 November 1966, at the age of 84, fifty years after the Easter Rising that first brought him to prominence. He is buried in Glasnevin Cemetery, Dublin.

Marriages

In 1918, O'Kelly married Mary Kate, known as Kit, the daughter of John Ryan, a farmer of Tomcoole, near Taghmon, County Wexford. [5] Kit was an assistant professor of modern languages at the National University. [38] They remained married until her death in 1934, aged 55. They had no children. In 1936, O'Kelly married his late wife's younger sister, Philomena Frances Ryan (1895–1983), known as Phyllis, after gaining a papal dispensation to do so. A chemist and public analyst, she was forty-three when they married. [38] She lost her first child and was unable to have any more. [39]

One of Mary Kate and Phyllis's brothers was the Fianna Fáil Minister James Ryan, while another sister, Mary Josephine, known as Min, was married to the Fine Gael leader General Richard Mulcahy. [38]

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References

  1. "Mr. Seán T. O'Kelly". Oireachtas Members Database. Retrieved 11 February 2012.
  2. The Irish Dictionary of National Biography indicates that he was born at 4 Lower Wellington Street, Dublin. Another source says at 55 Wellington Street. Yet another source: http://www.glasnevintrust.ie/visit-glasnevin/interactive-map/sean-t-okelly/ - states that he was born in Capel Street
  3. Cowell, John (1980). Where they lived in Dublin. O'Brien Press Limited. ISBN   978-0-905140-43-8.
  4. Frederic Logan Paxson, Postwar years; normalcy, 1918-1923 (Cooper Square Publishers, 1966), p. 34
  5. 1 2 Debrett's House of Commons, and the Judicial Bench (1922), p. 123: "Sean Tomas O'Kelly, el. son of Samuel O'Kelly, of Berkley Road, Dublin; b. Aug. 25th, 1883; ed. at O'Connell Schs., Dublin: m. 1918, Mary Kate, da. of John Ryan, of Wexford ; is Sec. to Gaelic League, a Member of Municipal Council, Dublin"
  6. Irish Dictionary of National Biography
  7. Charles Townshend, "Easter 1916: The Irish Rebellion" (Penguin 2006), p. 412.
  8. Sinead McCoole, "No Ordinary Women: Irish Female Activists in the Revolutionary Years 1900-1923" (O'Brien 2004). p.54-55.
  9. Irish Bureau of Military History (BMH) WS 6 (Liam O'Briain)
  10. F.X.Martin (ed.), "1916 - Myth, Fact and Mystery', Studia Hibernica, 7 (1967) pp.88-9.
  11. Townshend, p.137-8.
  12. a single issue of the "Irish War News", 25 April 1916.
  13. Seán T. O'Kelly, '1916 before and after', National Library of Ireland (NLI) Ms 27692; Townshend, p.161.
  14. M.Laffan, "Resurrection in Ireland: The Sinn Fein Party, 1916-1923", p.31, cited in C.Townshend, "The Republic". p.33.
  15. "Seán T. O'Kelly". ElectionsIreland.org. Retrieved 11 February 2012.
  16. Townshend, p.64.
  17. C Townshend, p.66, citing J.J.Lee, Ireland 1912-1985: Politics and Society (Cambridge 1989), p.41.
  18. Townshend, p.68.
  19. Letter to Clemenceau Feb 1919
  20. O'Kelly and Gavan Duffy to Clemenceau, June 1919
  21. Townshend, p.69.
  22. Mark Phelan, 'Prophet of the Oppressed Nations': Gabriele D'Annunzio and the Irish Republic, 1919-21, History Ireland, 21:5 (Sep./Oct. 2013) http://www.historyireland.com/18th-19th-century-history/gabriele-dannunzio-irish-republic-1919-21/
  23. Brian P. Murphy, 'O'Kelly, Seán Thomas (1882–1966)', Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004; online edn, Jan 2011
  24. Townshend, p.33.
  25. W.J.McCormack, "Blackwell Companion to Modern Irish Culture" (2001), p.524.
  26. 1 2 Townshend, p.463.
  27. "Central Bank Act, 1942". Irish Statute Book. Retrieved 14 April 2013.
  28. Dáil Éireann – Volume 88 – 17 July 1942 – Committee on Finance. – Central Bank Bill, 1942—Fifth Stage Archived 7 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  29. 1 2 The six Irish leaders who have addressed joint sessions of the U.S. Congress are Seán T. O'Kelly (18 March 1959), Éamon de Valera (28 May 1964), Liam Cosgrave (17 March 1976), Garret FitzGerald (15 March 1984), John Bruton (11 September 1996), and Bertie Ahern (30 April 2008).
  30. Kelly, Hogan and Whyte The Irish Constitution (4th ed., LexisNexis Butterworth, 2003) par 4.5.110. Health Act, 1947 Part III "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 3 May 2006. Retrieved 17 May 2006.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link).
  31. J.J.Lee, "Ireland 1912-1985: Politics and Society (Cambridge 1989),
  32. Uachtaráin – Séan T. Ó Ceallaigh (51m 00s) on YouTube Television documentary by TG4, 2007.
  33. Uachtaráin – Séan T. Ó Ceallaigh (28m 10s) on YouTube Television documentary by TG4, 2007.
  34. Uachtaráin – Séan T. Ó Ceallaigh (47m 35s) on YouTube Television documentary by TG4, 2007.
  35. Uachtaráin – Séan T. Ó Ceallaigh (46m 42s) on YouTube Television documentary by TG4, 2007.
  36. Uachtaráin – Séan T. Ó Ceallaigh (48m 03s) on YouTube Television documentary by TG4, 2007.
  37. Uachtaráin – Séan T. Ó Ceallaigh (47m 05s) on YouTube Television documentary by TG4, 2007.
  38. 1 2 3 The Ryans of Tomcoole at nli.ie, accessed 12 May 2015
  39. Uachtaráin – Séan T. Ó Ceallaigh (41m 16s) on YouTube Television documentary by TG4, 2007.

Sources

Parliament of the United Kingdom
Preceded by
John Dillon Nugent
(IPP)
Sinn Féin MP for Dublin College Green
1918–1922
Succeeded by
Constituency abolished
Oireachtas
New constituency Sinn Féin Teachta Dála for Dublin College Green
1918–1921
Succeeded by
Constituency abolished
New constituency Sinn Féin Teachta Dála for Dublin Mid
1921–1923
Succeeded by
Constituency abolished
New constituency Sinn Féin (Anti-Treaty) Teachta Dála for Dublin North
1923–1926
Succeeded by
O'Kelly joins Fianna Fáil as a founder member
Preceded by
O'Kelly was previously a member of Sinn Féin
Fianna Fáil Teachta Dála for Dublin North
1926–1937
Succeeded by
Constituency abolished
New constituency Fianna Fáil Teachta Dála for Dublin North-West
1937–1945
Succeeded by
Vivion de Valera
(Fianna Fáil)
Political offices
Preceded by
Count Plunkett
Ceann Comhairle of Dáil Éireann
1919–1921
Succeeded by
Eoin MacNeill
New office Minister for Irish
1920–1921
Succeeded by
Office abolished
Preceded by
Ernest Blythe
Vice-President of the Executive Council
1932–1937
Succeeded by
Office of Tánaiste
Preceded by
Office of Vice-President of the Executive Council
Tánaiste
1937–1945
Succeeded by
Seán Lemass
Preceded by
Richard Mulcahy
Minister for Local Government and Public Health
1932–1939
Succeeded by
P. J. Ruttledge
Preceded by
Seán MacEntee
Minister for Finance
1939–1945
Succeeded by
Frank Aiken
Preceded by
Douglas Hyde
President of Ireland
1945–1959
Succeeded by
Éamon de Valera