Sea of Marmara

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Sea of Marmara
Sea of Marmara map.png
Map of the Sea of Marmara
LocationEurope and Asia
Coordinates 40°41′12″N28°19′7″E / 40.68667°N 28.31861°E / 40.68667; 28.31861 Coordinates: 40°41′12″N28°19′7″E / 40.68667°N 28.31861°E / 40.68667; 28.31861
Type Inland Sea
Native nameMarmara Denizi
Primary inflows Simav River, Biga Çayı, Nilüfer River
Primary outflows Turkish Straits
Catchment area 11,500 km2 (4,400 sq mi)
Basin  countries Turkey
Surface area11,350 km2 (4,380 sq mi)
Average depth494 m (1,621 ft)
Max. depth1,370 m (4,490 ft)
Water volume3,378 km3 (810 cu mi)
Islands Marmara Island, Avşa, İmralı, Prince Islands, Paşalimanı and Ekinlik Island
Settlements Istanbul, Bursa, İzmit, Tekirdağ, Balıkesir, Çanakkale, and Yalova
Photograph of the Sea of Marmara from space (STS-40, 1991). The sea is the light-colored body of water. STS040-610-50.jpg
Photograph of the Sea of Marmara from space (STS-40, 1991). The sea is the light-colored body of water.
This astronaut photograph highlights the metropolitan area of Izmit along the northern and eastern shores of the Sea of Marmara, at the end of the Gulf of Izmit. Gulf of Izmit, Turkey.JPG
This astronaut photograph highlights the metropolitan area of Izmit along the northern and eastern shores of the Sea of Marmara, at the end of the Gulf of Izmit.
Sea of Marmara - From the dining room of the Rakoczi exile Ebedlohaz - Rodosto, 2014.10.25 (43).JPG
Sea of Marmara – From the dining room of the Rákóczi exile

The Sea of Marmara ( /ˈmɑːrmərə/ ; Turkish : Marmara Denizi; Greek : Θάλασσα του Μαρμαρά, Ancient Greek : Προποντίς, Προποντίδα), also known as the Sea of Marmora or the Marmara Sea, and in the context of classical antiquity as the Propontis, is the inland sea, entirely within the borders of Turkey, that connects the Black Sea to the Aegean Sea, thus separating Turkey's Asian and European parts. The Bosphorus strait connects it to the Black Sea and the Dardanelles strait to the Aegean Sea. The former also separates Istanbul into its Asian and European sides. The Sea of Marmara is a small sea with an area of 11,350 km2 (4,380 sq mi), and dimensions 280 km × 80 km (174 mi × 50 mi). [1] Its greatest depth is 1,370 m (4,490 ft).

Turkish language Turkic language mainly spoken and used in Turkey

Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, and sometimes known as Turkey Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around ten to fifteen million native speakers in Southeast Europe and sixty to sixty-five million native speakers in Western Asia. Outside Turkey, significant smaller groups of speakers exist in Germany, Bulgaria, North Macedonia, Northern Cyprus, Greece, the Caucasus, and other parts of Europe and Central Asia. Cyprus has requested that the European Union add Turkish as an official language, even though Turkey is not a member state.

Greek language Language spoken in Greece, Cyprus and Southern Albania

Greek is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece, Cyprus and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea. It has the longest documented history of any living Indo-European language, spanning more than 3000 years of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the major part of its history; other systems, such as Linear B and the Cypriot syllabary, were used previously. The alphabet arose from the Phoenician script and was in turn the basis of the Latin, Cyrillic, Armenian, Coptic, Gothic, and many other writing systems.

Classical antiquity Age of the ancient Greeks and Romans

Classical antiquity is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome known as the Greco-Roman world. It is the period in which Greek and Roman society flourished and wielded great influence throughout Europe, North Africa and Western Asia.

Contents

Name

The sea takes its name from Marmara Island, which is rich in sources of marble, from the Greek μάρμᾰρον (mármaron), "marble". [2]

Marmara Island island of Turkey

Marmara Island is a Turkish island in the Sea of Marmara. With an area of 117.8 km2 (45.5 sq mi) it is the largest island in the Sea of Marmara and is the second largest island of Turkey after Gökçeada. It is the center of Marmara district in Balıkesir Province. Transportation is possible from Istanbul by ship and ferry, and by motorboat from Tekirdağ and Erdek. Famed for their wine and fish, Marmara and Avsa offer wonderful shorelines. Marmara island is full of historical treasures which increase its attractiveness. The town of "Mermer Plaj" / Marble Beach takes its name from the marbles for which the town is famous and which give the island and the sea their name.

Marble Non-foliated metamorphic rock commonly used for sculpture and as a building material

Marble is a metamorphic rock composed of recrystallized carbonate minerals, most commonly calcite or dolomite. Marble is typically not foliated, although there are exceptions. In geology, the term "marble" refers to metamorphosed limestone, but its use in stonemasonry more broadly encompasses unmetamorphosed limestone. Marble is commonly used for sculpture and as a building material.

The sea's ancient Greek name Propontis derives from pro- (before) and pontos (sea), deriving from the fact that the Greeks sailed through it to reach the Black Sea, Pontos. In Greek mythology, a storm on Propontis brought the Argonauts back to an island they had left, precipitating a battle where either Jason or Heracles killed King Cyzicus, who mistook them for his Pelasgian enemies. [3]

Black Sea Marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Europe and Asia

The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia. It is supplied by a number of major rivers, such as the Danube, Dnieper, Southern Bug, Dniester, Don, and the Rioni. Areas of many countries drain into the Black Sea, including Germany, Russia, Turkey and Ukraine.

Greek mythology body of myths originally told by the ancient Greeks

Greek mythology is the body of myths originally told by the ancient Greeks. These stories concern the origin and the nature of the world, the lives and activities of deities, heroes, and mythological creatures, and the origins and significance of the ancient Greeks' own cult and ritual practices. Modern scholars study the myths in an attempt to shed light on the religious and political institutions of ancient Greece and its civilization, and to gain understanding of the nature of myth-making itself.

Argonauts a band of heroes in Greek mythology

The Argonauts were a band of heroes in Greek mythology, who in the years before the Trojan War, around 1300 BC, accompanied Jason to Colchis in his quest to find the Golden Fleece. Their name comes from their ship, Argo, named after its builder, Argus. "Argonauts" literally means "Argo sailors". They were sometimes called Minyans, after a prehistoric tribe in the area.

Geography

The surface salinity of the sea averages about 22 parts per thousand, which is slightly greater than that of the Black Sea, but only about two-thirds that of most oceans. The water is much more saline at the sea bottom, averaging salinities of around 38 parts per thousand, similar to that of the Mediterranean Sea. This high-density saline water, like that of the Black Sea, does not migrate to the surface. Water from the Susurluk, Biga (Granicus) and Gonen Rivers also reduces the salinity of the sea, though with less influence than on the Black Sea. With little land in Thrace draining southward, almost all of these rivers flow from Anatolia.

Salinity The proportion of salt dissolved in a body of water

Salinity is the saltiness or amount of salt dissolved in a body of water, called saline water. This is usually measured in . Salinity is an important factor in determining many aspects of the chemistry of natural waters and of biological processes within it, and is a thermodynamic state variable that, along with temperature and pressure, governs physical characteristics like the density and heat capacity of the water.

Ocean A body of water that composes much of a planets hydrosphere

An ocean is a body of water that composes much of a planet's hydrosphere. On Earth, an ocean is one of the major conventional divisions of the World Ocean. These are, in descending order by area, the Pacific, Atlantic, Indian, Southern (Antarctic), and Arctic Oceans. The word "ocean" is often used interchangeably with "sea" in American English. Strictly speaking, a sea is a body of water partly or fully enclosed by land, though "the sea" refers also to the oceans.

Mediterranean Sea Sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean between Europe, Africa and Asia

The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant. Although the sea is sometimes considered a part of the Atlantic Ocean, it is usually referred to as a separate body of water. Geological evidence indicates that around 5.9 million years ago, the Mediterranean was cut off from the Atlantic and was partly or completely desiccated over a period of some 600,000 years before being refilled by the Zanclean flood about 5.3 million years ago.

The sea contains the archipelago of the Prince Islands and Marmara Island, Avşa and Paşalimanı.

Archipelago A group of islands

An archipelago, sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of islands, or sometimes a sea containing a small number of scattered islands.

Avşa island

Avşa Island or Türkeli is a Turkish island in the southern Sea of Marmara with an area of about 14 square miles. It was the classical and Byzantine Aphousia or Ophiousa (Οφιούσα) and was a place of exile during the Byzantine period.

Paşalimanı Island, formerly Halone, is a small island in the southern Sea of Marmara in Turkey. The island belongs to the Marmara District of Balıkesir Province in northwestern Turkey. There are five small settlements on the island.

The south coast of the sea is heavily indented, and includes the Gulf of İzmit (Turkish : İzmit Körfezi), the Gulf of Gemlik (Turkish : Gemlik Körfezi), Gulf of Bandırma (Turkish : Bandırma Körfezi) and the Gulf of Erdek (Turkish : Erdek Körfezi). During a storm on December 29, 1999, the Russian oil tanker Volgoneft broke in two in the Sea of Marmara, and more than 1,500 tonnes of oil were spilled into the water.

Gulf of İzmit gulf at the Marmara Sea, Turkey

Gulf of İzmit, anciently, Sinus Astacenus and Olbianus Sinus, also referred to as Izmit Bay, is a bay at the easternmost edge of the Sea of Marmara, in Kocaeli Province, Turkey. In antiquity it was known first as the Gulf of Astacus and later as the Gulf of Nicomedia.

Gulf of Gemlik

The Gulf of Gemlik is an inlet of the Sea of Marmara in the Marmara region of Turkey. The gulf is located in the southwestern part of the sea. Mudanya, Gemlik and Armutlu are the major towns surrounding the gulf.

Turkey straddles two peninsulas: Anatolia in Asia and Thrace in Europe. The surrounding seas are the Black Sea, Sea of Marmara, Aegean Sea and Mediterranean Sea. But the number of gulfs in the north and the south (Mediterranean) is not high, because the mountain ranges lie more or less parallel to the coastline both in the north and in the south. The majority of bays are on the west, where the mountain ranges are perpendicular to the coastline.

The North Anatolian Fault, which has triggered many major earthquakes in recent years, such as the August and November 1999 earthquakes in Izmit and Düzce, respectively, runs under the sea.

Extent

The International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Sea of Marmara as follows: [4]

On the West. The Dardanelles limit of the Aegean Sea [A line joining Kum Kale (26°11'E) and Cape Helles ].
On the Northeast. A line joining Cape Rumili with Cape Anatoli (41°13′N).

Towns and cities

Towns and cities on the Marmara Sea coast include:

Istanbul Province
Istanbul
Adalar
Bakırköy
Bostancı
Kadıköy
Kartal
Kumkapı
Pendik
Üsküdar
Yeşilköy
Zeytinburnu
Büyükçekmece
Kumburgaz
Silivri
Tuzla
Balıkesir Province
Bandırma
Erdek
Gönen
Marmara

Bursa Province

Gemlik
Karacabey
Mudanya

Çanakkale Province

Biga
Gelibolu
Lapseki
Kocaeli Province
Derince
Eskihisar
Gebze
Gölcük
Hereke
İzmit (Pr. Cap)
Karamürsel
Körfez

Tekirdağ Province

Marmara Ereğli
Şarköy
Tekirdağ (Pr. Cap)
Yalova Province
Altınova
Armutlu
Çiftlikköy
Çınarcık
Termal
Yalova (Pr. Cap)

See also

Related Research Articles

Aegean Sea Part of the Mediterranean Sea between the Greek and Anatolian peninsulas

The Aegean Sea is an elongated embayment of the Mediterranean Sea located between the Greek and Anatolian peninsulas. The sea has an area of some 215,000 square kilometres. In the north, the Aegean is connected to the Marmara Sea and the Black Sea by the straits of the Dardanelles and Bosphorus. The Aegean Islands are located within the sea and some bound it on its southern periphery, including Crete and Rhodes. The sea reaches a maximum depth of 3,544 meters, to the east of Crete.

Bosporus strait that forms part of the boundary between Europe and Asia

The Bosporus or Bosphorus is a narrow, natural strait and an internationally significant waterway located in northwestern Turkey. It forms part of the continental boundary between Europe and Asia, and divides Turkey by separating Anatolia from Thrace. It is the world's narrowest strait used for international navigation, the Bosporus connects the Black Sea with the Sea of Marmara, and, by extension via the Dardanelles, the Aegean and Mediterranean seas.

Dardanelles strait in northwestern Turkey

The Dardanelles, also known from Classical Antiquity as the Hellespont (; Classical Greek: Ἑλλήσποντος, romanized: Hellēspontos, lit. 'Sea of Helle'), is a narrow, natural strait and internationally significant waterway in northwestern Turkey that forms part of the continental boundary between Europe and Asia, and separates Asian Turkey from European Turkey. One of the world's narrowest straits used for international navigation, the Dardanelles connects the Sea of Marmara with the Aegean and Mediterranean Seas, while also allowing passage to the Black Sea by extension via the Bosphorus. The Dardanelles is 61 kilometres (38 mi) long, and 1.2 to 6 kilometres wide, averaging 55 metres (180 ft) deep with a maximum depth of 103 metres (338 ft) at its narrowest point abreast the city of Çanakkale.

Geography of Turkey

Turkey is situated in Western Asia (97%) and the Balkans (3%), bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Georgia, and bordering the Aegean Sea and the Mediterranean Sea, between Greece and Syria. The geographic coordinates of the country lie at: 39°00′N35°00′E

Bithynia region in Anatolia

Bithynia was an ancient region, kingdom and Roman province in the northwest of Asia Minor, adjoining the Propontis, the Thracian Bosporus and the Euxine Sea. It bordered Mysia to the southwest, Paphlagonia to the northeast along the Pontic coast, and Phrygia to the southeast towards the interior of Asia Minor.

Balıkesir Province Province of Turkey in West Marmara

Balıkesir Province is a province in northwestern Turkey with coastlines on both the Sea of Marmara and the Aegean. Its adjacent provinces are Çanakkale to the west, İzmir to the southwest, Manisa to the south, Kütahya to the southeast, and Bursa to the east. The provincial capital is Balıkesir. Most of the province lies in the Marmara Region except the southern parts of Bigadiç Edremit, Kepsut, İvrindi, Savaştepe and Sındırgı districts and ones of Ayvalık, Burhaniye, Dursunbey, Gömeç and Havran, that bound the Aegean Region.

Gemlik Place in Bursa, Turkey

Gemlik is a town and district in the Bursa Province in Turkey on the southern gulf of Armutlu Peninsula on the coast of the Sea of Marmara. It is located approximately 29 km (18 mi) from Bursa, not far from Istanbul. Gemlik was called Kios until 1922, when its Greek inhabitants, who composed around 80% of the population, forced to leave Asia Minor as part of the population exchange with Greece. As of 2009, the total population of Gemlik is 100,000.

Gönen Place in Balıkesir, Turkey

Gönen is a district of Balıkesir Province of Turkey, in the southern part of Marmara Sea. The town is mostly known for its therapeutic hot springs, leather processing and rice production.

Gulf of Saros bay in Turkey

Saros Bay or Gulf of Saros is an inlet of the northern Aegean Sea located north of the Gallipoli Peninsula in northwestern Turkey. The Archipelago of Saros is in the gulf. It consists the three small islands - The Big island, The Small island and The Little island.

Turkish Straits Bosporus and Dardanelles straits in Turkey

The Turkish Straits are two internationally significant waterways in northwestern Turkey. The straits create a series of international passages that connect the Aegean and Mediterranean seas to the Black Sea. They consist of the Dardanelles and the Bosphorus. The straits are on opposite ends of the Sea of Marmara. The straits and the Sea of Marmara are part of the sovereign sea territory of Turkey and subject to the regime of internal waters.

Kocaeli Peninsula Turkish peninsula

The Kocaeli Peninsula lies in the northwest corner of Anatolia, Turkey, separating the Black Sea and the Sea of Marmara on the Asian side of the strait of Bosphorus. Approximately one-third of Istanbul, one of the most populous cities of the world, occupies its western part, and İzmit, another big city, is at the easternmost point of the peninsula.

Kapıdağ Peninsula is a tombolo in northwestern Anatolia extending into the Sea of Marmara in Balıkesir Province, Turkey. The peninsula forms the Gulf of Bandırma on its east and the Gulf of Erdek on its west.

Armutlu Peninsula

Armutlu Peninsula is a peninsula extending westward into Marmara Sea in the Anatolian section of Turkey. In addition to Yalova Province, parts of Kocaeli Province and Bursa Province are on the peninsula.

Greek Summer Offensive (1920)

The Greek Summer Offensive of 1920 was an offensive by the Greek army, assisted by British forces, to capture the southern region of the Sea of Marmara and the Aegean Region from the Kuva-yi Milliye of the provisional Turkish national movement government in Ankara. Additionally, the Greek and British forces were supported by the Kuva-yi Inzibatiye of the Ottoman government in Constantinople, which sought to crush the Turkish nationalist forces. The offensive was part of the Greco-Turkish War and was one of several engagements where British troops assisted the advancing Greek army. British troops actively took part in invading coastal towns of the Sea of Marmara. With the approval of the Allies, the Greeks started their offensive on 22 June 1920 and crossed the 'Milne Line'. The 'Milne Line' was the demarcation line between Greece and Turkey, laid down in Paris. Resistance by the Turks was limited, as they had few and ill-equipped troops in western Anatolia. They were also busy on the eastern and southern fronts. After offering some opposition, they retreated to Eskişehir on Mustafa Kemal Pasha's order.

1894 Istanbul earthquake Fatal earthquake in Turkey

The 1894 Istanbul earthquake occurred in the Çınarcık basin or Gulf of Izmit in the Sea of Marmara on 10 July at 12:24pm. The earthquake had an estimated Ms magnitude of 7.0. At least an estimated 1,349 people were killed in towns around the Gulf of Izmit such as Yalova, Sapanca and Adapazarı, and in the nearby city of Constantinople. The main shock caused a tsunami 1.5 metres (4.9 ft) high.

Nara Burnu, formerly Nağara Burnu, in English Nagara Point, and in older sources Point Pesquies, is a headland on the Anatolian side of the Dardanelles Straits, north of Çanakkale.

References

  1. "Marmara, Sea of - Dictionary definition of Marmara, Sea of - Encyclopedia.com: FREE online dictionary". www.encyclopedia.com. Retrieved 3 January 2018.
  2. Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert. "A Greek-English Lexicon". Henry Stuart Jones and Roderick McKenzie. Perseus. Retrieved January 12, 2009.
  3. Parada, Carlos. "Greek Mythology Link". Archived from the original on February 13, 2002. Retrieved April 30, 2001.
  4. "Limits of Oceans and Seas" (PDF) (3rd ed.). International Hydrographic Organization. 1953. Retrieved February 7, 2010.