|National Seal of the Republic of Korea |
|Armiger||Republic of Korea|
|Adopted||25 October 2011 (inaugural version from 5 May 1949)|
The National Seal of the Republic of Korea (Korean : 대한민국의 국새; Hanja : 大韓民國의 國璽) is a governmental seal used for purposes of state in South Korea. The seal is carved with characters called injang .
Since the late 20th century the seal's design consists of South Korea's official name written in Korean characters inside of a square; during the 20th century Chinese characters were used.
Following the establishment of the South Korean state in August 1948, its government adopted in May 1949 a new state seal, or guksae (Korean : 국새; 國璽). It is used in promulgation of constitutions, designation of cabinet members and ambassadors, conference of national orders and important diplomatic documents.
The seal's design has been modified multiple times over the years. The first version of the seal, used until the early 1960s, used Hanja characters.In the late 20th century, the lettering was changed to use only Korean characters.
The current seal is the fifth version and was designed in September 2011, being adopted in October 2011.
Chinese characters, also called Hanzi, are logograms developed for the writing of Chinese. They have been adapted to write other East-Asian languages, and remain a key component of the Japanese writing system where they are known as kanji. Chinese characters are the oldest continuously used system of writing in the world. By virtue of their widespread current use in East Asia, and historic use throughout the Sinosphere, Chinese characters are among the most widely adopted writing systems in the world by number of users.
Hanja is the Korean name for a traditional writing system consisting mainly of Traditional Chinese characters that was incorporated and used since the Gojoseon period. More specifically, it refers to the Traditional Chinese characters incorporated into the Korean language with Korean pronunciation.
A Korean name consists of a family name followed by a given name, as used by the Korean people in both South Korea and North Korea. In the Korean language, ireum or seongmyeong usually refers to the family name (seong) and given name together.
A dispute exists over the international name for the body of water which is bordered by Japan, Korea and Russia. In 1992, objections to the name Sea of Japan were first raised by North Korea and South Korea at the Sixth United Nations Conference on the Standardization of Geographical Names. The Japanese government supports the exclusive use of the name "Sea of Japan" (日本海), while South Korea supports the alternative name "East Sea", and North Korea supports the name "Korean East Sea". Currently, most international maps and documents use either the name Sea of Japan by itself, or include both the name Sea of Japan and East Sea, often with East Sea listed in parentheses or otherwise marked as a secondary name. The International Hydrographic Organization, the governing body for the naming of bodies of water around the world, in 2012 decided it was still unable to revise the 1953 version of its publication S-23 – Limits of Oceans and Seas, which includes only the single name "Sea of Japan", to include "East Sea" together with "Sea of Japan".
There are various names of Korea in use today, all derived from ancient kingdoms and dynasties. The modern English name "Korea" is an exonym derived from the name Goryeo, also spelled Koryŏ, and is used by both North Korea and South Korea in international contexts. In the Korean language, the two Koreas use different terms to refer to the nominally unified nation: Chosŏn in North Korea and Hanguk in South Korea. Ethnic Koreans living in China and Japan also use the term Chosŏn to refer to Korea.
The flag of the Republic of China (中華民國國旗), also known as the Blue Sky, White Sun, and a Wholly Red Earth (青天白日滿地紅) and retroactively, the National Flag of China consists of a red field with a blue canton bearing a white disk surrounded by twelve triangles; said symbols symbolize the sun and rays of light emanating from it, respectively.
The flag of South Korea, also known as the Taegukgi, has three parts: a white rectangular background, a red and blue Taegeuk in its center, and four black trigrams, one in each corner. Flags similar to the current Taegeukgi were used as the national flag of Korea by the Joseon dynasty, the Korean Empire, and the Korean government-in-exile during Japanese rule. South Korea adopted the Taegukgi as its national flag when it gained independence from Japan on 15 August 1948.
A seal, in an East and Southeast Asian context, is a general name for printing stamps and impressions thereof which are used in lieu of signatures in personal documents, office paperwork, contracts, art, or any item requiring acknowledgement or authorship. In the western world they were traditionally known by traders as chop marks or simply chops. The process started in China and soon spread across East Asia. China, Japan and Korea currently use a mixture of seals and hand signatures, and, increasingly, electronic signatures.
Korean calligraphy, also known as Seoye, is the Korean tradition of artistic writing. Calligraphy in Korean culture involves both Hanja and Hangul.
The National Emblem of the Republic of Korea consists of the taegeuk symbol present on the South Korean national flag surrounded by five stylized petals and a ribbon bearing the inscription of the official Korean name of the country, in Korean characters. The Taegeuk represents peace and harmony. The five petals all have meaning and are related to South Korea's national flower, the Hibiscus syriacus, or Rose of Sharon.
The Heirloom Seal of the Realm, also known in English as the Imperial Seal of China, is a Chinese jade seal carved out of Heshibi, a sacred piece of jade.
The population of Koreans in China include millions of descendants of Korean immigrants with People's Republic of China citizenship, as well as smaller groups of South and North Korean expatriates, totaling roughly 2.3 million people as of 2009, making it the largest ethnic Korean population living outside the Korean Peninsula.
The Great Seal of Japan is one of the national seals of Japan and is used as the official seal of state.
The Republic of China calendar or Minguo calendar is one of the calendars used in the Greater China area. The calendar uses 1912, the year of the establishment of the Republic of China (ROC), as the first year. The term "minguo" simply means "republic". The ROC calendar follows the tradition of using the sovereign's era name and year of reign, as did previous Chinese dynasties. Months and days are numbered according to the Gregorian calendar. The ROC calendar has been in wide use in the ROC since 1912, including in early official documents.
Korean mixed script, known in Korean as hanja honyong, Hanja-seokkeosseugi, 'Chinese character mixed usage,' or gukhanmun honyong, 'national Sino-Korean mixed usage,' is a form of writing the Korean language that uses a mixture of the Korean alphabet or hangul and hanja, the Korean name for Chinese characters. The distribution on how to write words usually follows that all native Korean words, including grammatical endings, particles and honorific markers are generally written in hangul and never in hanja. Sino-Korean vocabulary or hanja-eo, either words borrowed from Chinese or created from Sino-Korean roots, were generally always written in hanja although very rare or complex characters were often substituted with hangul. Although the Korean alphabet was introduced and taught to people beginning in 1446, most literature until the early twentieth century was written in literary Chinese known as hanmun.
The Chinese family of scripts are writing systems descended from the Chinese Oracle Bone Script and used for a variety of languages in East Asia. They include logosyllabic systems such as the Chinese script itself, and adaptations to other languages, such as Kanji (Japanese), Hanja (Korean), Chữ nôm (Vietnamese) and Sawndip (Zhuang). More divergent are Tangut, Khitan large script, and its offspring Jurchen, as well as the Yi script and possibly Korean Hangul, which were inspired by Chinese although not directly descended from it. The partially deciphered Khitan small script may be another. In addition, various phonetic scripts descend from Chinese characters, of which the best known are the various kana syllabaries, the zhuyin semi-syllabary, nüshu, and some influence on hangul.
The traditional periodization of Korean distinguishes:
A guksae or oksae (국새,옥새) is an official seal made for used in lieu of signatures in personal documents, office paperwork, contracts, art, or any item requiring acknowledgment or authorship in South Korea. Guksae is carved with characters called injang. With the establishment of the South Korean state in 1948, its government created a new state seal, or guksae. It is used in promulgation of constitution, designation of cabinet members and ambassadors, conference of national orders and important diplomatic documents.
The Korean alphabet, known as Hangul (Hangeul) in South Korea and Chosŏn'gŭl in North Korea, is a writing system for the Korean language created by King Sejong the Great in 1443. The letters for the five basic consonants reflect the shape of the speech organs used to pronounce them, and they are systematically modified to indicate phonetic features; similarly, the vowel letters are systematically modified for related sounds, making Hangul a featural writing system.
There are two National Seals of the Republic of China (中華民國國璽), namely the Seal of the Republic of China (中華民國之璽) and the Seal of Honour (榮典之璽). The Seal of the Republic of China is the official seal of the state. The Seal of Honour is used by the head of state in the conferring of honours.