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|King of Joseon|
|Reign||11 June 1455 – 23 September 1468|
|Predecessor||Danjong of Joseon|
|Successor||Yejong of Joseon|
|Born||2 November 1417|
|Died||23 September 1468 50)(aged|
|Father||Sejong the Great|
|Revised Romanization||Li Yu|
Sejo of Joseon (Korean : 조선 세조, 2 November 1417 – 23 September 1468, r. 1455–1468) was the seventh king of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea. He was the son of King Sejong and brother of Munjong of Joseon and uncle of Danjong of Joseon, against whom he led a coup d'état to become king himself in 1455.
Born in 1417 as Yi Yu, King Sejong the Great's second son, he showed great ability at archery, horse riding and martial arts. He was also a brilliant military commander, though he never went to the battlefront himself. He became Grand Prince Suyang (수양대군, 首陽大君) in 1428, the name by which he was better known.
Following King Sejong's death, Suyang's ill brother, Munjong, took the throne but soon died. The crown passed to his 12-year-old son, Danjong. The new emperor was too young to rule the nation, and all political processes were controlled by then-premier Hwangbo In and General Kim Jongseo, who was vice-premier. As Kim Jongseo and his faction used the chance to extend the power of court officials against many royal family members, the tension between Kim and Suyang greatly increased; not only Suyang himself, but his younger brother, Grand Prince Anpyeong, also sought an opportunity to take control of the kingdom.
Suyang surrounded himself with trusted allies, including his famous adviser, Han Myung-hoi. Han advised Suyang to take over the government in a coup, and on 10 November (10th day of the 10th lunar month) 1453, he killed Kim Jongseo and his faction, thereby taking the reins of power into his own hands. After the coup he arrested his own brother, Anpyeong, first sending him into exile, then sentencing him to death.
Finally in 1455 he forced his powerless young nephew, Danjong, to abdicate, declaring himself seventh king of the Joseon dynasty. Later he demoted Danjong to prince and ordered him to be poisoned after his younger brother, Grand Prince Geumsung, and later six scholars including Seong Sam-mun, Pak Paeng-nyeon, and Yi Gae plotted to remove Suyang from power in an attempt to put Danjong back on the throne.
Despite having snatched the throne from his young nephew and killing many people in the process, he proved himself one of the most able rulers and administrators in Korean history. First, he strengthened the monarchy established by King Taejong by weakening the power of the prime minister and bringing staff directly under the king's control. He also strengthened the administrative system, which had also been introduced by Taejong, enabling the government to determine exact population numbers and to mobilize troops effectively. Just like Taejong, he was a hardliner with regards to foreign policy and attacked the Jurchens on the northern front in 1460 (오랑캐/兀良哈) and 1467 (호리개/胡里改). He also revised the land ordinance to improve the national economy. He executed scholars from King Sejong's era for plotting against him, but encouraged publication of history, economics, agricultural, and religious books.
Most importantly, he compiled the Grand Code for State Administration, which became the cornerstone of dynastic administration and provided the first form of constitutional law in a written form in Korea. He died in 1468, and the throne passed to his sickly son, Yejong.
|Joseon dynasty monarchs|
Sejo of Joseon compiled a number of books based on his interests. One includes Seokbosangjeol , a biography of Gautama Buddha.He also created two other books:
Sejong the Great was the fourth king of the Joseon dynasty of Korea. He was the third son of King Taejong and Queen consort Min. He was designated as heir-apparent, Crown Prince, after his older brother Prince Yangnyeong was stripped of his title. He ascended to the throne in 1418. During the first four years of his reign, Taejong governed as regent, after which his father-in-law, Sim On, and his close associates were executed.
Gwanghae-gun or Prince Gwanghae was the fifteenth king of the Joseon dynasty. His personal name was Yi Hon. As he was deposed in a coup d'état, later official historians did not give him a temple name like Taejo or Sejong.
Taejo of Joseon, born 李成桂 was the founder and the first king of the Joseon dynasty of Korea. After ascension to the throne, he changed his name to 李旦. He reigned from 1392 to 1398, and the main figure in the overthrowing of the Goryeo Dynasty.
Taejong of Joseon was the third king of the Joseon dynasty in Korea and the father of King Sejong the Great.
Munjong of Joseon was the fifth King of the Joseon Dynasty, who ruled Korea from 1450 to 1452. He was the eldest son of King Sejong and succeeded him in 1450, but died of disease two years later. He was succeeded by his son, Danjong of Joseon.
Jeongjong of Joseon, born Yi Bang-gwa, whose changed name is Yi Gyeong, was the second king of Joseon Dynasty (1399–1400). He was the second son of King Taejo of Joseon, the founder and first king of the dynasty.
Danjong of Joseon was the sixth king of the Joseon Dynasty. He was forced to abdicate by his uncle, who became Sejo of Joseon, and exiled to Yeongwol County, where he was later put to death and his remains are buried.
Yejong of Joseon was the 8th king of the Joseon Dynasty Korea. He succeeded his father, King Sejo in 1468 at 18 years of age, but was too physically ill to govern, and died a year later.
Seongjong of Joseon was the ninth king of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea. He succeeded King Yejong in 1469 and ruled until 1494.
The six martyred ministers or Sayuksin were six ministers of the Joseon Dynasty who were executed by King Sejo in 1456 for plotting to assassinate him and restore the former king Danjong to the throne.
Ha Wiji (1387–1456) was a scholar-official of the early Joseon Dynasty, and is remembered as one of the six martyred ministers. He was born to a yangban family of the Jinju Ha lineage. He passed the lower national service examination in 1435 and received the top score on the higher examination in 1438. He was appointed to the Hall of Worthies by Sejong, and became the leader (gyori) of that institution in 1442. He participated in the editing of histories and other texts.
Yi Gae (1417–1456) was a scholar-official of the Joseon Dynasty and one of the six martyred ministers. He was born to a yangban family of the Hansan Yi lineage, and was the great-grandson of Goryeo period philosopher Yi Saek.
Jeong In-ji was a Korean Neo-Confucian scholar, historian who served as Vice Minister of Education or Deputy Chief Scholar during the reign of King Sejong the Great, Minister of Rites during the reign of King Munjong and Danjong, Left or Second State Councillor or Vice Prime Minister from 1453 to 1455 during the reign of King Danjong, and Chief State Councillor or Prime Minister from 1455 to 1458 during the reign of King Sejo. He was nicknamed Hagyeokjae (학역재).
Queen Soheon was queen consort to King Sejong of Joseon and the mother of King Munjong of Joseon and King Sejo of Joseon.
Queen Jeonghui or Queen Jung-Hee, also known as Queen Dowager Jaseong (자성왕대비), was Queen Consort to King Sejo of Joseon and the mother of Sejo's successor King Yejong of Joseon. Following her husband's death in 1468, she served as regent for her weak son from 1468 to 1469 and co-regent for her young grandson from 1469 to 1477, along with her daughter-in-law, Grand Queen Dowager Insu. She was from the Papyeong Yun clan.
Grand Prince Yangnyeong was a Joseon dynasty politician and prince. The Grand Prince, first-born son of King Taejong of the Joseon dynasty and his consort Queen Wongyeong, elder brother of Sejong the Great, and ancestor of Syngman Rhee, Korean independence activist and first President of South Korea.
Crown Prince Uigyeong or Deokjong of Joseon or Prince Dowon was a crown prince of the Korean Joseon Dynasty.
Kim Jongseo, was a prominent military official and politician of the early Joseon Dynasty. His ancestral home was Suncheon (順天).He was also known under the names Gukgyeong(國卿) and Jeoljae(節齋), and his posthumous name is Chungik(忠翼). In 1405, he passed the state examination and became a rank 13 official. He served King Sejong the Great as a general during the campaign against the Jurchens. In 1453, he was assassinated on the order of Prince Suyang along with his two sons. His tomb is located near Sejong City.
Princess Gyeonghye (1435–1473), also known as Princess Pyeongchang before her marriage, was a Joseon princess and the eldest child of Munjong of Joseon. She served as guardian for her brother, Danjong of Joseon, when he ascended the throne underage.
Queen Hyeondeok of the Andong Gwon Clan was the primary consort of the crown prince of Joseon. She died giving birth to the future Danjong of Joseon and was posthumously honoured as Queen Hyeondeok, later demoted by Sejo of Joseon after he deposed her son, then restored by Seongjong of Joseon.
Sejo of JoseonBorn: 1417 Died: 1468
| King of Joseon |
11 June 1455 – 23 September 1468