|Sejong the Great|
|King of Joseon|
|Coronation||18 September 1418 21)(aged|
|Predecessor||Taejong of Joseon|
|Successor||Munjong of Joseon|
|Regent|| Taejong of Joseon as Former King (1418–1422)|
Munjong of Joseon as Crown Prince (1444–1450)
|Born||15 May 1397|
Hanseong, Kingdom of Joseon
|Died||8 April 1450 52) (aged|
|Issue|| Munjong of Joseon |
Sejo of Joseon
|Father||Taejong of Joseon|
|Religion||Confucianism; later, Buddhism|
"Sejong" in Chinese characters
|Revised Romanization||Sejong Daewang|
|Revised Romanization||I Do|
|Revised Romanization||Won Jeong|
Sejong the Great (Korean pronunciation: [se(ː)dʑoŋ] ; 7 May 1397 – 8 April 1450) was the fourth king of the Joseon dynasty of Korea. He was the third son of King Taejong and Queen consort Min. He was designated as heir-apparent, Crown Prince, after his older brother Prince Yangnyeong was stripped of his title. He ascended to the throne in 1418. During the first four years of his reign, Taejong governed as regent, after which his father-in-law, Sim On, and his close associates were executed.
Joseon dynasty was a Korean dynastic kingdom that lasted for approximately five centuries. It was founded by Yi Seong-gye in July 1392 and was replaced by the Korean Empire in October 1897. It was founded following the aftermath of the overthrow of Goryeo in what is today the city of Kaesong. Early on, Korea was retitled and the capital was relocated to modern-day Seoul. The kingdom's northernmost borders were expanded to the natural boundaries at the rivers of Amnok and Tuman through the subjugation of the Jurchens. Joseon was the last dynasty of Korea and its longest-ruling Confucian dynasty.
Taejong of Joseon was the third king of the Joseon dynasty in Korea and the father of King Sejong the Great.
Grand Prince Yangnyeong was a Joseon dynasty politician and prince. The Grand Prince, first-born son of King Taejong of the Joseon dynasty and his consort Queen Wongyeong, elder brother of Sejong the Great, and ancestor of Syngman Rhee, Korean independence activist and first President of South Korea.
Sejong reinforced Confucian policies and executed major "legal amendments" (공법; 貢法). He also personally created and promulgated the Korean alphabet Hangul, encouraged advancements of scientific technology, and instituted many other efforts to stabilize and improve prosperity. He dispatched military campaigns to the north and instituted the Samin policy (사민정책; 徙民政策) to attract new settlers to the region. To the south, he subjugated Japanese pirates and captured Tsushima Island (also known as Daema Island in the Korean language).
The Korean alphabet, known as Hangul, has been used to write the Korean language since its creation in the 15th century by King Sejong the Great. It may also be written as Hangeul following the standard Romanization.
Wokou were pirates who raided the coastlines of China and Korea from the 4th century to the 16th century. The wokou came from Japanese, Korean, and Chinese ethnicities which varied over time and raided the mainland from islands in the Sea of Japan and East China Sea. Wokou activity in Korea declined after the Gihae Eastern Expedition of the Joseon in 1419, but continued in Ming China and peaked during the Jiajing wokou raids in the mid-1500s, but Chinese reprisals and strong clamp downs on pirates by Japanese authorities saw the wokou virtually disappear by the 1600s.
The Ōei Invasion, known as the Gihae Eastern Expedition in Korea, was a 1419 invasion from Joseon against pirate bases on Tsushima Island, which is located in the middle of the Tsushima Strait between the Korean Peninsula and Kyushu.
During his reign from 1418 to 1450, he governed along with his father, the King Emeritus Taejong from 1418 to 1422, then governing as the sole monarch from 1422 to 1450. Since 1442, the king was increasingly ill so his son Crown Prince Munjong acted as regent for him.
Munjong of Joseon was the fifth King of the Joseon Dynasty, who ruled Korea from 1450 to 1452. He was the eldest son of King Sejong and succeeded him in 1450, but died of disease two years later. He was succeeded by his son, Danjong of Joseon.
Although the appellation "the Great" / "(대왕;大王)" was given posthumously to almost every ruler of Goryeo and Joseon, this title is usually associated with Gwanggaeto and Sejong.
Goryeo was a Korean kingdom founded in 918, during a time of national division called the Later Three Kingdoms period, that unified and ruled the Korean Peninsula until 1392. Goryeo achieved what has been called a "true national unification" by Korean historians as it not only unified the Later Three Kingdoms but also incorporated much of the ruling class of the northern kingdom of Balhae, who had origins in Goguryeo of the earlier Three Kingdoms of Korea. The name "Korea" is derived from the name of Goryeo, also spelled Koryŏ, which was first used in the early 5th century by Goguryeo.
Gwanggaeto the Great was the nineteenth monarch of Goguryeo. His full posthumous name means "Entombed in Gukgangsang, Broad Expander of Domain, Peacemaker, Supreme King", sometimes abbreviated to Hotaewang. His era name is Yeongnak and he is occasionally recorded as Yeongnak Taewang. Gwanggaeto's imperial reign title meant that Goguryeo was on equal standing as an empire with the imperial dynasties in China.
Sejong was born on 7 May 1397, the third son of King Taejong.When he was twelve, he became Grand Prince Chungnyeong (충녕대군). As a young prince, Sejong excelled in various studies and was favored by King Taejong over his two older brothers.
As the third son of Taejong, Sejong's ascension to the throne was unique. Taejong's eldest son, Yangnyeong (양녕대군), was named heir apparent in 1404. However, Yangnyeong's free spirited nature as well as his preference for hunting and leisure activities resulted in his removal from the position of heir apparent in June 1418. Though it is said that Yangnyeong abdicated in favor of his younger brother, there are no definitive records regarding Yangnyeong's removal. Taejong's second son Grand Prince Hyoryeong became a monk upon the elevation of his younger brother Sejong.
An heir apparent or heiress apparent is a person who is first in a line of succession and cannot be displaced from inheriting by the birth of another person. An heir presumptive, by contrast, is someone who is first in line to inherit a title but who can be displaced by the birth of a more eligible heir.
Following the removal of Yangnyeong as heir apparent, Taejong moved quickly to secure his youngest son's position as heir apparent. The government was purged of officials who disagreed with the removal of Yangnyeong. In August 1418, Taejong abdicated in favour of Sejong. However, even in retirement Taejong continued to influence government policy. Sejong's surprising political skill and creativity did not become apparent until after Taejong's death in 1422.
King Sejong revolutionized the Korean government by appointing people from different social classes as civil servants. Furthermore, he performed official government events according to Confucianism, and he encouraged people to behave according to the teachings of Confucianism. As a result, Confucianism became the social norm of Korea at the time. He also published books about Confucianism.
At first, he suppressed Buddhism by banning all Buddhist monks from Seoul, drastically reducing the power and wealth of the Buddhist hierarchy,but later he alleviated his action by building temples and accepting Buddhism by making a test to become a monk (Seung-gwa).
In 1427, Sejong also ordered a decree against the Huihui (Korean Muslim) community that had had special status and stipends since the Yuan dynasty. The Huihui were forced to abandon their headgear, to close down their "ceremonial hall" (Mosque in the city of Kaesong) and worship like everyone else. No further mention of Muslims exist during the era of the Joseon.
In relationship with the Chinese Ming, he made some successful agreements that benefited Korea. In relationship with Jurchen people, he installed 10 military posts, 4 counties and 6 garrisons (hangul: 사군육진 hanja: 四郡六鎭), in the northern part of the Korean Peninsula.
He maintained good relations with Japan by opening three ports and allowing trade with them. But he also suppressed Tsukishima island with military forces in order to stop pirating in the South Sea (East China Sea) since Tsushima island was a base for Japanese pirates.
King Sejong was an effective military planner. He created various military regulations to strengthen the safety of his kingdom,supported the advancement of Korean military technology, including cannon development. Different kinds of mortars and fire arrows were tested as well as the use of gunpowder.
In May 1419, King Sejong, under the advice and guidance of his father Taejong, embarked upon the Gihae Eastern Expedition, the ultimate goal of this military expedition to remove the nuisance of Japanese pirates who had been operating out of Tsushima Island. During the expedition, 245 Japanese were killed, and another 110 were captured in combat, while 180 Korean soldiers were killed. 146 Chinese and 8 Korean kidnapped were liberated by this expedition. In September 1419 a truce was made and the Korean army returned to Korea, but the Treaty of Gyehae was signed in 1443, in which the Daimyo of Tsushima promised to pay tribute to the King of Joseon; in return, the Joseon court rewarded the Sō clan with preferential rights regarding trade between Japan and Korea.
In 1433, Sejong sent Kim Jongseo (hangul: 김종서, hanja: 金宗瑞), a prominent general, north to destroy the Jurchens (later known as the Manchus). Kim's military campaign captured several castles, pushed north, and expanded Korean territory, to the Songhua River.4 counties and 6 garrisons were established to safeguard the people from the Jurchens.
Sejong is credited with great advances in science during his reign.He wanted to help farmers so he decided to create a farmer's handbook. The book—the Nongsa jikseol (hangul: 농사직설, hanja: 農事直說)—contained information about the different farming techniques that he told scientists to gather in different regions of Korea. These techniques were needed in order to maintain the newly adopted methods of intensive, continuous cultivation in Korean agriculture.
During his rule, Jang Yeong-sil (hangul: 장영실, hanja: 蔣英實) became known as a prominent inventor. Jang was naturally a creative and smart thinker as a young person. However, Jang was at the bottom of the social class. Sejong noticed Jang's skill and immediately called him to his court in Seoul. Upon giving Jang a government position and funding for his inventions, officials protested, believing a person from the lower classes should not rise to power among nobles. Sejong instead believed Jang merited support because of his ability. Jang created new significant designs for water clocks, armillary spheres, and sundials.In 1442, Jang made one of the world's first standardized rain gauges named Cheugugi; it was the idea of Munjong, Sejong's son and heir. This model has not survived, since the oldest existing East Asian rain gauge is one made in 1770, during the reign period of King Yeongjo. According to the Daily Records of the Royal Secretariat (hangul: 승정원일기, hanja:承政院日記) King Yeongjo wanted to revive the glorious times of King Sejong the Great, and so read chronicles of Sejong's era. When he came across mention of a rain gauge, King Yeongjo ordered a reproduction. Since there is a mark of the Qing Dynasty ruler Qianlong (r. 1735–1796) of China, dated 1770, this Korean-designed rain gauge is sometimes misunderstood as having been imported from China.
Sejong also wanted to reform the Korean calendar system, which was at the time based upon the longitude of the Chinese capital.Sejong, for the first time in Korean history, had his astronomers create a calendar with the Joseon capital of Seoul as the primary meridian. This new system allowed Korean astronomers to accurately predict the timing of solar and lunar eclipses.
In the realm of traditional Korean medicine, two important treatises were written during the reign of Sejong. These were the Hyangyak jipseongbang and the Euibang yuchwi, which historian Kim Yongsik says represents 'Koreans' efforts to develop their own system of medical knowledge, distinct from that of China.'
In 1426, Sejong the Great enacted a law that granted government nobi women 100 days of maternity leave after childbirth, which, in 1430, was lengthened by one month before childbirth. In 1434, Sejong also granted the husbands 30 days of paternity leave.
In order to provide equality and fairness in taxation for the common people, Sejong the Great issued a royal decree to administer a nationwide public opinion poll regarding a new tax system called Gongbeop in 1430. Over the course of 5 months, the poll surveyed 172,806 people, of which approximately 57% responded with approval for the proposed reform.
Sejong depended on the agricultural produce of Joseon's farmers, so he allowed them to pay more or less tax according to fluctuations of economic prosperity or hard times. Because of this, farmers could worry less about tax quotas and work instead at surviving and selling their crops. Once the palace had a significant surplus of food, King Sejong then distributed food to poor peasants or farmers who needed it.
In 1429 Nongsa-jikseol (hangul: 농사직설, hanja: 農事直說, "Explanations of Agriculture") was compiled under the supervision of King Sejong. It was the first book about Korean farming, dealing with agricultural subjects such as planting, harvesting, and soil treatment.
Although most government officials opposed usage of hangul, lower classes embraced it, became literate, and were able to communicate with one another in writing.
Sejong's personal writings are also highly regarded. He composed the famous Yongbi Eocheon Ga ("Songs of Flying Dragons", 1445), Seokbo Sangjeol ("Episodes from the Life of Buddha", July 1447), Worin Cheon-gang Jigok ("Songs of the Moon Shining on a Thousand Rivers", July 1447), and the reference Dongguk Jeong-un ("Dictionary of Proper Sino-Korean Pronunciation", September 1447).
In 1420 Sejong established the Hall of Worthies (집현전; 集賢殿; Jiphyeonjeon) at the Gyeongbokgung Palace. It consisted of scholars selected by the king. The Hall participated in various scholarly endeavors, of which the best known may be the compilation of the Hunmin Jeongeum .
King Sejong the Great profoundly affected Korean history with his personal creation and introduction of hangul, the native phonetic writing system for the Korean language.
Before the creation of Hangul, people in Korea (known as Joseon at the time) primarily wrote using Classical Chinese alongside phonetic writing systems based on Chinese script that predated Hangul by hundreds of years, including idu, hyangchal, gugyeol, and gakpil. [ citation needed ]However, due to the fundamental differences between the Korean and Chinese languages, and the large number of characters that needed to be learned, there was much difficulty in learning how to write using Chinese characters for the lower classes, who often lacked the privilege of education. To assuage this problem, King Sejong created the unique alphabet known as Hangul to promote literacy among the common people. His intention was to establish a cultural identity for Korea through its unique script.
King Sejong created the Korean alphabet (which numbered 28 letters at its introduction, of which four letters have become obsolete), with the explicit goal being that Koreans from all classes would read and write. Each consonant letter is based on a simplified diagram of the patterns made by the human speech organs (the mouth, tongue and teeth) when producing the sound related to the character, while vowels were formed by combinations of dots and lines representing heaven (a circular dot), earth (a horizontal line) and humanity (a vertical line). Morphemes are built by writing the characters in syllabic blocks. The blocks of letters are then strung together linearly.
Hangul was completed in 1443 and published in 1446 along with a 33-page manual titled Hunmin Jeong-eum, explaining what the letters are as well as the philosophical theories and motives behind them.The Hunmin Jeong-eum purported that anyone could learn Hangul in a matter of days. People previously unfamiliar with Hangul can typically pronounce Korean script accurately after only a few hours of study.
Sejong was blinded years later by diabetes complications that eventually took his life in 1450. He was buried at the Yeong Mausoleum (영릉; 英陵). His successor was his first son, Munjong. Sejong judged that his sickly son, Munjong, was unlikely to live long and on his deathbed asked the Hall of Worthies scholars to look after his young grandson, Danjong. As predicted, Munjong died two years after his accession, and political stability enjoyed under Sejong disintegrated when Danjong became the sixth king of Joseon at the age of twelve. Eventually, Sejong's second son, Sejo, usurped the throne from Danjong in 1455. When the six martyred ministers were implicated in a plot to restore Danjong to throne, Sejo abolished the Hall of Worthies, and executed Danjong and several ministers who served during Sejong's reign.
The street Sejongno and the Sejong Centre for the Performing Arts, both located in central Seoul, are named after King Sejong.
King Sejong is on the Korean 10,000 won bill, along with the various scientific products made under his reign.
In early 2007, the Republic of Korea government decided to create a special administrative district from part of the present Chungcheongnam-do Province, near what is presently Daejeon. The district was named Sejong Special Autonomous City.
The life of Sejong was depicted in the KBS Korean historical drama King Sejong the Great in 2008.Sejong is also depicted in the 2011 SBS drama Deep Rooted Tree .
|Joseon dynasty monarchs|
Sejong the Great is one of the six linguistic scholars, with Samuel Johnson,Jacob Grimm, Wilhelm Grimm, Elias Lönnrot, and Vuk Stefanović Karadžić depicted as a portrait in a national currency.
A 9.5-meter-high (31 ft) bronze statue of King Sejong was placed in 2009 on a concrete pedestal on the boulevard of Gwanghwamun Square and directly in front of the Sejong Center for the Performing Arts in Seoul. The sculptor was Kim Young-won. The pedestal contains one of several entrances to the 3,200 square meter, underground museum exhibit entitled "The Story of King Sejong". It was dedicated on Hangul Day in celebration of the 563rd anniversary of the invention of the Korean alphabet by King Sejong.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Sejong the Great .|
Kim (occasionally romanized as Gim is the most common surname in the Korean Peninsula, accounting for 21.5%of the total population. Kim is written as "김" gim in both North and South Korea. The hanja for Kim can also be transliterated as Hangul: 금 geum "metal, iron, gold". The Kim family is also the ruling family in North Korea.
Sukjong of Joseon was the 19th king of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea from 1674 to 1720. A skilled politician, he caused multiple changes of political alliance throughout his reign, switching among the Southerner, Westerner, Soron, and Noron political factions.
Seong Sammun (1418–1456) was a scholar-official of early Joseon who rose to prominence in the court of King Sejong the Great. He was executed after being implicated in a plot to dethrone King Sejo and restore his predecessor King Danjong, and is known as one of the sayuksin with reference to this plot.
Jeongjong of Joseon, born Yi Bang-gwa, whose changed name is Yi Gyeong, was the second king of Joseon Dynasty (1399–1400). He was the second son of the founder and first king of the dynasty, King Taejo of Joseon.
Danjong of Joseon was the sixth king of the Joseon Dynasty. He was forced to abdicate by his uncle, who became Sejo of Joseon, and exiled to Yeongwol County, where he was later put to death and his remains are buried.
Sejo of Joseon was the seventh king of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea. He was the son of king Sejong andbrother of Munjong of Joseon and uncle of Danjong of Joseon, against whom he led a coup d'état to became king himself in 1455.
Jeong In-ji was a Korean Neo-Confucian scholar, historian who served as Vice Minister of Education or Deputy Chief Scholar during the reign of King Sejong the Great, Minister of Rites during the reign of King Munjong and Danjong, Left or Second State Councillor or Vice Prime Minister from 1453 to 1455 during the reign of King Danjong, and Chief State Councillor or Prime Minister from 1455 to 1458 during the reign of King Sejo. He was nicknamed Hagyeokjae (학역재).
The Great King, Sejong is a 2008 South Korean historical television series depicting the life of the fourth king of Joseon, Sejong the Great. Considered one of the greatest kings in Korean history, Sejong created Hangul, the Korean alphabet. The series aired on Korean Broadcasting System from January 5 to December 7, 2008 on Saturdays and Sundays at 21:30 for 86 episodes. Episodes 1 to 26 aired on KBS1, and episodes 27 to 86 aired on KBS2.
Queen Soheon was queen consort to King Sejong of Joseon and the mother of King Munjong of Joseon and King Sejo of Joseon.
Hwang Hui was a politician of the Goryeo dynasty and Joseon Dynasty, who once served as prime minister of the Joseon Dynasty from 1431 to 1449.
Queen Jeonghui or Queen Jung-Hee, also known as Queen Dowager Jaseong (자성왕대비), was Queen Consort to King Sejo of Joseon and the mother of Sejo's successor King Yejong of Joseon. Following her husband's death in 1468, she served as regent for her weak son from 1468 to 1469 and co-regent for her young grandson from 1469 to 1477, along with her daughter-in-law, Grand Queen Dowager Insu. She was from the Papyeong Yun clan.
Royal Noble Consort Suk of the Haeju Choi clan was one of the best known royal concubines of King Sukjong of Joseon.
Jang Yeong-sil (Hangul: 장영실) is a 2016 South Korean historical drama television series starring Song Il-gook, Kim Yeong-cheol, Kim Sang-kyung and Park Sun-young. It replaced The Jingbirok: A Memoir of Imjin War and aired on KBS1 from January 2, 2016 to March 26, 2016 on Saturdays and Sundays at 21:40 (KST) for 24 episodes.
Princess Gyeonghye (1435–1473), also known as Princess Pyeongchang before her marriage, was a Joseon princess and the eldest child of Munjong of Joseon. She served as guardian for her brother, Danjong of Joseon, when he ascended the throne underage.
Royal Noble Consort Hwi of the Old Andong Kim Clan (1410–1429), also known as Deposed Consort Kim, was a consort of the Joseon crown prince, but was demoted to commoner and thrown out of the palace after she used witchcraft to gain her husband's affection.
Queen Hyeondeok of the Andong Kwon Clan was the primary consort of the crown prince of Joseon. She died giving birth to the future Danjong of Joseon and was posthumously honoured as Queen Hyeondeok, later demoted by Sejo of Joseon after he deposed her son, then restored by Seongjong of Joseon.
Tears of the Dragon is a South Korean historical television series. It aired on KBS1 from November 24, 1996 to May 31, 1998 for 159 episodes. The series spans from the foundation of Joseon to the reign of King Sejong.
They later devised three different systems for writing Korean with Chinese characters: Hyangchal, Gukyeol and Idu. These systems were similar to those developed later in Japan and were probably used as models by the Japanese.
Sejong the GreatBorn: 6 May 1397 Died: 18 May 1450
| King of Joseon |
with Taejong (1418–1422)