Sejong the Great

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Sejong the Great
세종대왕
King of Joseon
Reign1418–1450
Coronation 18 September 1418(1418-09-18) (aged 21)
Predecessor Taejong of Joseon
Successor Munjong of Joseon
Regent Taejong of Joseon as Former King (1418–1422)
Munjong of Joseon as Crown Prince (1444–1450)
Born15 May 1397
Hanseong, Kingdom of Joseon [1]
Died8 April 1450(1450-04-08) (aged 52)
Hanseong, Joseon
Consort Queen Soheon
Issue Munjong of Joseon
Sejo of Joseon
Posthumous name
King Sejong Jangheon Yeongmun Yemu Inseong Myeonghyo the Great
세종장헌영문예무인성명효대왕
世宗莊憲英文睿武仁聖明孝大王
Temple name
Sejong
House Jeonju Yi
Father Taejong of Joseon
Mother Queen Wongyeong
ReligionConfucianism; later, Buddhism
Korean name
Sejong (Chinese characters).svg
"Sejong" in Chinese characters
Hangul
Hanja
Revised Romanization Sejong Daewang
McCune–Reischauer Sejong Taewang
Birth name
Hangul
Hanja
Revised Romanization I Do
McCune–Reischauer I To
Childhood name
Hangul
Hanja
Revised Romanization Won Jeong
McCune–Reischauer Wŏn Chŏng

Sejong the Great (Korean pronunciation:  [se(ː)dʑoŋ] ; 7 May 1397 – 8 April 1450) was the fourth king of the Joseon dynasty of Korea. He was the third son of King Taejong and Queen consort Min. He was designated as heir-apparent, Crown Prince, after his older brother Prince Yangnyeong was stripped of his title. He ascended to the throne in 1418. During the first four years of his reign, Taejong governed as regent, after which his father-in-law, Sim On, and his close associates were executed.

Joseon Korean kingdom, 1392 to 1897

Joseon dynasty was a Korean dynastic kingdom that lasted for approximately five centuries. It was founded by Yi Seong-gye in July 1392 and was replaced by the Korean Empire in October 1897. It was founded following the aftermath of the overthrow of Goryeo in what is today the city of Kaesong. Early on, Korea was retitled and the capital was relocated to modern-day Seoul. The kingdom's northernmost borders were expanded to the natural boundaries at the rivers of Amnok and Tuman through the subjugation of the Jurchens. Joseon was the last dynasty of Korea and its longest-ruling Confucian dynasty.

Taejong of Joseon 3rd King of Joseon Dynasty in Korea

Taejong of Joseon was the third king of the Joseon dynasty in Korea and the father of King Sejong the Great.


Grand Prince Yangnyeong was a Joseon dynasty politician and prince. The Grand Prince, first-born son of King Taejong of the Joseon dynasty and his consort Queen Wongyeong, elder brother of Sejong the Great, and ancestor of Syngman Rhee, Korean independence activist and first President of South Korea.

Contents

Sejong reinforced Confucian policies and executed major "legal amendments" (공법; 貢法). He also personally created and promulgated the Korean alphabet Hangul, [2] [3] encouraged advancements of scientific technology, and instituted many other efforts to stabilize and improve prosperity. He dispatched military campaigns to the north and instituted the Samin policy (사민정책; 徙民政策) to attract new settlers to the region. To the south, he subjugated Japanese pirates and captured Tsushima Island (also known as Daema Island in the Korean language).

Hangul Native alphabet of the Korean language

The Korean alphabet, known as Hangul, has been used to write the Korean language since its creation in the 15th century by King Sejong the Great. It may also be written as Hangeul following the standard Romanization.

<i>Wokou</i> pirates who raided the coastlines of China, Japan and Korea, of mixed ethnicities

Wokou were pirates who raided the coastlines of China and Korea from the 4th century to the 16th century. The wokou came from Japanese, Korean, and Chinese ethnicities which varied over time and raided the mainland from islands in the Sea of Japan and East China Sea. Wokou activity in Korea declined after the Gihae Eastern Expedition of the Joseon in 1419, but continued in Ming China and peaked during the Jiajing wokou raids in the mid-1500s, but Chinese reprisals and strong clamp downs on pirates by Japanese authorities saw the wokou virtually disappear by the 1600s.

The Ōei Invasion, known as the Gihae Eastern Expedition in Korea, was a 1419 invasion from Joseon against pirate bases on Tsushima Island, which is located in the middle of the Tsushima Strait between the Korean Peninsula and Kyushu.

During his reign from 1418 to 1450, he governed along with his father, the King Emeritus Taejong from 1418 to 1422, then governing as the sole monarch from 1422 to 1450. Since 1442, the king was increasingly ill so his son Crown Prince Munjong acted as regent for him.

Munjong of Joseon was the fifth King of the Joseon Dynasty, who ruled Korea from 1450 to 1452. He was the eldest son of King Sejong and succeeded him in 1450, but died of disease two years later. He was succeeded by his son, Danjong of Joseon.

Although the appellation "the Great" / "(대왕;大王)" was given posthumously to almost every ruler of Goryeo and Joseon, this title is usually associated with Gwanggaeto and Sejong.

Goryeo Korean dynasty

Goryeo was a Korean kingdom founded in 918, during a time of national division called the Later Three Kingdoms period, that unified and ruled the Korean Peninsula until 1392. Goryeo achieved what has been called a "true national unification" by Korean historians as it not only unified the Later Three Kingdoms but also incorporated much of the ruling class of the northern kingdom of Balhae, who had origins in Goguryeo of the earlier Three Kingdoms of Korea. The name "Korea" is derived from the name of Goryeo, also spelled Koryŏ, which was first used in the early 5th century by Goguryeo.

Gwanggaeto the Great was the nineteenth monarch of Goguryeo. His full posthumous name means "Entombed in Gukgangsang, Broad Expander of Domain, Peacemaker, Supreme King", sometimes abbreviated to Hotaewang. His era name is Yeongnak and he is occasionally recorded as Yeongnak Taewang. Gwanggaeto's imperial reign title meant that Goguryeo was on equal standing as an empire with the imperial dynasties in China.

Life

Early life

Sejong was born on 7 May 1397, the third son of King Taejong. [4] When he was twelve, he became Grand Prince Chungnyeong (충녕대군). As a young prince, Sejong excelled in various studies and was favored by King Taejong over his two older brothers.

As the third son of Taejong, Sejong's ascension to the throne was unique. Taejong's eldest son, Yangnyeong (양녕대군), was named heir apparent in 1404. However, Yangnyeong's free spirited nature as well as his preference for hunting and leisure activities resulted in his removal from the position of heir apparent in June 1418. Though it is said that Yangnyeong abdicated in favor of his younger brother, there are no definitive records regarding Yangnyeong's removal. Taejong's second son Grand Prince Hyoryeong became a monk upon the elevation of his younger brother Sejong. [5]

An heir apparent or heiress apparent is a person who is first in a line of succession and cannot be displaced from inheriting by the birth of another person. An heir presumptive, by contrast, is someone who is first in line to inherit a title but who can be displaced by the birth of a more eligible heir.

Following the removal of Yangnyeong as heir apparent, Taejong moved quickly to secure his youngest son's position as heir apparent. The government was purged of officials who disagreed with the removal of Yangnyeong. In August 1418, Taejong abdicated in favour of Sejong. However, even in retirement Taejong continued to influence government policy. Sejong's surprising political skill and creativity did not become apparent until after Taejong's death in 1422. [5]

Achievements

Starting politics based on Confucianism

King Sejong revolutionized the Korean government by appointing people from different social classes as civil servants. Furthermore, he performed official government events according to Confucianism, and he encouraged people to behave according to the teachings of Confucianism. As a result, Confucianism became the social norm of Korea at the time. He also published books about Confucianism.

At first, he suppressed Buddhism by banning all Buddhist monks from Seoul, drastically reducing the power and wealth of the Buddhist hierarchy, [6] but later he alleviated his action by building temples and accepting Buddhism by making a test to become a monk (Seung-gwa).

In 1427, Sejong also ordered a decree against the Huihui (Korean Muslim) community that had had special status and stipends since the Yuan dynasty. The Huihui were forced to abandon their headgear, to close down their "ceremonial hall" (Mosque in the city of Kaesong) and worship like everyone else. No further mention of Muslims exist during the era of the Joseon. [7]

Foreign policy

In relationship with the Chinese Ming, he made some successful agreements that benefited Korea. In relationship with Jurchen people, he installed 10 military posts, 4 counties and 6 garrisons (hangul: 사군육진 hanja: 四郡六鎭), in the northern part of the Korean Peninsula.

He maintained good relations with Japan by opening three ports and allowing trade with them. But he also suppressed Tsukishima island with military forces in order to stop pirating in the South Sea (East China Sea) since Tsushima island was a base for Japanese pirates.

Strengthening of the Korean military

King Sejong was an effective military planner. He created various military regulations to strengthen the safety of his kingdom, [8] supported the advancement of Korean military technology, including cannon development. Different kinds of mortars and fire arrows were tested as well as the use of gunpowder.

In May 1419, King Sejong, under the advice and guidance of his father Taejong, embarked upon the Gihae Eastern Expedition, the ultimate goal of this military expedition to remove the nuisance of Japanese pirates who had been operating out of Tsushima Island. During the expedition, 245 Japanese were killed, and another 110 were captured in combat, while 180 Korean soldiers were killed. 146 Chinese and 8 Korean kidnapped were liberated by this expedition. In September 1419 a truce was made and the Korean army returned to Korea, but the Treaty of Gyehae was signed in 1443, in which the Daimyo of Tsushima promised to pay tribute to the King of Joseon; in return, the Joseon court rewarded the Sō clan with preferential rights regarding trade between Japan and Korea. [9]

In 1433, Sejong sent Kim Jongseo (hangul: 김종서, hanja: 金宗瑞), a prominent general, north to destroy the Jurchens (later known as the Manchus). Kim's military campaign captured several castles, pushed north, and expanded Korean territory, to the Songhua River. [10] [11] [12] 4 counties and 6 garrisons were established to safeguard the people from the Jurchens.

Science, technology, and agriculture

A modern reconstruction and scaled down model of Jang Yeong-sil's self-striking water clock. Korean Waterclock.jpg
A modern reconstruction and scaled down model of Jang Yeong-sil's self-striking water clock.

Sejong is credited with great advances in science during his reign. [13] [14] He wanted to help farmers so he decided to create a farmer's handbook. The book—the Nongsa jikseol (hangul: 농사직설, hanja: 農事直說)—contained information about the different farming techniques that he told scientists to gather in different regions of Korea. [15] These techniques were needed in order to maintain the newly adopted methods of intensive, continuous cultivation in Korean agriculture. [15]

During his rule, Jang Yeong-sil (hangul: 장영실, hanja: 蔣英實) became known as a prominent inventor. Jang was naturally a creative and smart thinker as a young person. However, Jang was at the bottom of the social class. Sejong noticed Jang's skill and immediately called him to his court in Seoul. Upon giving Jang a government position and funding for his inventions, officials protested, believing a person from the lower classes should not rise to power among nobles. Sejong instead believed Jang merited support because of his ability. Jang created new significant designs for water clocks, armillary spheres, and sundials. [16] In 1442, Jang made one of the world's first standardized rain gauges named Cheugugi; [17] it was the idea of Munjong, Sejong's son and heir. This model has not survived, since the oldest existing East Asian rain gauge is one made in 1770, during the reign period of King Yeongjo. According to the Daily Records of the Royal Secretariat (hangul: 승정원일기, hanja:承政院日記) King Yeongjo wanted to revive the glorious times of King Sejong the Great, and so read chronicles of Sejong's era. When he came across mention of a rain gauge, King Yeongjo ordered a reproduction. Since there is a mark of the Qing Dynasty ruler Qianlong (r. 1735–1796) of China, dated 1770, [18] this Korean-designed rain gauge is sometimes misunderstood as having been imported from China.

Korean celestial globe first made by the scientist Jang Yeong-Sil during the Choson Dynasty under the reign of King Sejong Korean celestial globe.jpg
Korean celestial globe first made by the scientist Jang Yeong-Sil during the Chosŏn Dynasty under the reign of King Sejong

Sejong also wanted to reform the Korean calendar system, which was at the time based upon the longitude of the Chinese capital. [15] Sejong, for the first time in Korean history, had his astronomers create a calendar with the Joseon capital of Seoul as the primary meridian. [15] This new system allowed Korean astronomers to accurately predict the timing of solar and lunar eclipses. [15] [19]

In the realm of traditional Korean medicine, two important treatises were written during the reign of Sejong. These were the Hyangyak jipseongbang and the Euibang yuchwi, which historian Kim Yongsik says represents 'Koreans' efforts to develop their own system of medical knowledge, distinct from that of China.' [15]

Humanitarianism

In 1426, Sejong the Great enacted a law that granted government nobi women 100 days of maternity leave after childbirth, which, in 1430, was lengthened by one month before childbirth. In 1434, Sejong also granted the husbands 30 days of paternity leave. [20]

In order to provide equality and fairness in taxation for the common people, Sejong the Great issued a royal decree to administer a nationwide public opinion poll regarding a new tax system called Gongbeop in 1430. Over the course of 5 months, the poll surveyed 172,806 people, of which approximately 57% responded with approval for the proposed reform. [21] [22]

Sejong depended on the agricultural produce of Joseon's farmers, so he allowed them to pay more or less tax according to fluctuations of economic prosperity or hard times. Because of this, farmers could worry less about tax quotas and work instead at surviving and selling their crops. Once the palace had a significant surplus of food, King Sejong then distributed food to poor peasants or farmers who needed it.

Literature

In 1429 Nongsa-jikseol (hangul: 농사직설, hanja: 農事直說, "Explanations of Agriculture") was compiled under the supervision of King Sejong. It was the first book about Korean farming, dealing with agricultural subjects such as planting, harvesting, and soil treatment.

Although most government officials opposed usage of hangul, lower classes embraced it, became literate, and were able to communicate with one another in writing.

Sejong's personal writings are also highly regarded. He composed the famous Yongbi Eocheon Ga ("Songs of Flying Dragons", 1445), Seokbo Sangjeol ("Episodes from the Life of Buddha", July 1447), Worin Cheon-gang Jigok ("Songs of the Moon Shining on a Thousand Rivers", July 1447), and the reference Dongguk Jeong-un ("Dictionary of Proper Sino-Korean Pronunciation", September 1447).

In 1420 Sejong established the Hall of Worthies (집현전; 集賢殿; Jiphyeonjeon) at the Gyeongbokgung Palace. It consisted of scholars selected by the king. The Hall participated in various scholarly endeavors, of which the best known may be the compilation of the Hunmin Jeongeum . [23]

Hangul

Hunmin Jeongeum Eonhae Hunmin jeong-eum.jpg
Hunmin Jeongeum Eonhae

King Sejong the Great profoundly affected Korean history with his personal creation and introduction of hangul, the native phonetic writing system for the Korean language. [3] [24]

Before the creation of Hangul, people in Korea (known as Joseon at the time) primarily wrote using Classical Chinese alongside phonetic writing systems based on Chinese script that predated Hangul by hundreds of years, including idu, hyangchal, gugyeol, and gakpil. [25] [26] [27] [28] However, due to the fundamental differences between the Korean and Chinese languages, [29] and the large number of characters that needed to be learned, there was much difficulty in learning how to write using Chinese characters for the lower classes, who often lacked the privilege of education. To assuage this problem, King Sejong created the unique alphabet known as Hangul to promote literacy among the common people. [30] His intention was to establish a cultural identity for Korea through its unique script.[ citation needed ]

King Sejong created the Korean alphabet (which numbered 28 letters at its introduction, of which four letters have become obsolete), with the explicit goal being that Koreans from all classes would read and write. Each consonant letter is based on a simplified diagram of the patterns made by the human speech organs (the mouth, tongue and teeth) when producing the sound related to the character, while vowels were formed by combinations of dots and lines representing heaven (a circular dot), earth (a horizontal line) and humanity (a vertical line). Morphemes are built by writing the characters in syllabic blocks. The blocks of letters are then strung together linearly.

Hangul was completed in 1443 and published in 1446 along with a 33-page manual titled Hunmin Jeong-eum, explaining what the letters are as well as the philosophical theories and motives behind them. [31] The Hunmin Jeong-eum purported that anyone could learn Hangul in a matter of days. People previously unfamiliar with Hangul can typically pronounce Korean script accurately after only a few hours of study.

Death and legacy

The tomb of Sejong the Great located in Yeoju, Gyeonggi Province, South Korea. Sejong tomb 1.jpg
The tomb of Sejong the Great located in Yeoju, Gyeonggi Province, South Korea.

Sejong was blinded years later by diabetes complications that eventually took his life in 1450. He was buried at the Yeong Mausoleum (영릉; 英陵). His successor was his first son, Munjong. Sejong judged that his sickly son, Munjong, was unlikely to live long and on his deathbed asked the Hall of Worthies scholars to look after his young grandson, Danjong. As predicted, Munjong died two years after his accession, and political stability enjoyed under Sejong disintegrated when Danjong became the sixth king of Joseon at the age of twelve. Eventually, Sejong's second son, Sejo, usurped the throne from Danjong in 1455. When the six martyred ministers were implicated in a plot to restore Danjong to throne, Sejo abolished the Hall of Worthies, and executed Danjong and several ministers who served during Sejong's reign.

The street Sejongno and the Sejong Centre for the Performing Arts, both located in central Seoul, are named after King Sejong. [32]

King Sejong is on the Korean 10,000 won bill, along with the various scientific products made under his reign.

In early 2007, the Republic of Korea government decided to create a special administrative district from part of the present Chungcheongnam-do Province, near what is presently Daejeon. The district was named Sejong Special Autonomous City.

The life of Sejong was depicted in the KBS Korean historical drama King Sejong the Great in 2008. [33] Sejong is also depicted in the 2011 SBS drama Deep Rooted Tree .

Family

  1. Queen Soheon of the Cheongsong Shim clan (12 October 1395 – 19 April 1446) (소헌왕후 심씨) [34] [35]
    1. Princess Jeongso (1412 – 25 February 1424) (정소공주) [36]
    2. Yi Hyang, Crown Prince Hyang (15 November 1414 – 1 June 1452) (왕세자 향)
    3. Princess Jeongui (1415 – 11 February 1477) (정의공주) [37]
    4. Yi Yu, Grand Prince Suyang (2 November 1417 – 23 September 1468) (이유 수양대군)
    5. Yi Yong, Grand Prince Anpyeong (18 October 1418 – 18 November 1453) (이용 안평대군)
    6. Yi Gu, Grand Prince Imyeong (6 January 1420 – 21 January 1469) (이구 임영대군)
    7. Yi Yeo, Grand Prince Gwangpyeong (2 May 1425 – 7 December 1444) (이여 광평대군)
    8. Yi Yu, Grand Prince Geumseong (5 May 1426 – 7 November 1457) (이유 금성대군)
    9. Yi Im, Grand Prince Pyeongwon (18 November 1427 – 16 January 1445) (이임 평원대군)
    10. Yi Yeom, Grand Prince Yeongeung (23 May 1434 – 2 February 1467) (이염 영응대군)
  2. Royal Noble Consort Yeong of the Jinju Kang clan (영빈 강씨) [38]
    1. Yi Yeong, Prince Hwaui (1425 – 1460) (이영 화의군)
  3. Royal Noble Consort Shin of the Cheongju Kim clan (1406 – 4 September 1464) (신빈 김씨) [39] [40]
    1. Yi Jeung, Prince Gyeyang (1427 – 16 August 1464) (이증 계양군) [41]
    2. Yi Gong, Prince Uichang (1428 – 1460) (이공 의창군)
    3. Yi Chim, Prince Milseong (1430 – 1479) (이침 밀성군)
    4. Yi Yeon, Prince Ikhyeon (1431 – 1463) (이연 익현군)
    5. Yi Dang, Prince Yeonghae (1435 – 1477) (이당 영해군)
    6. Yi Geo, Prince Damyang (1439 – August 1450) (이거 담양군)
    7. 2 Unnamed daughters who died at childbirth
  4. Royal Noble Consort Hye of the Cheongju Yang clan (? – 9 November 1455) (혜빈 양씨) [42] [43]
    1. Yi Eo, Prince Hannam (5 October 1429 – 29 June 1459) (이어 한남군)
    2. Yi Hyeon, Prince Suchun (1431 – 1455) (이현 수춘군)
    3. Yi Jeon, Prince Yeongpung (17 September 1434 – 22 July 1456) (이전 영풍군)
  5. Royal Consort Gwi-in of the Miryang Park clan (귀인 박씨) [44]
  6. Royal Consort Gwi-in of the Choi clan (귀인 최씨) [45]
  7. Royal Consort Suk-ui of the Jo clan (숙의 조씨)
  8. Royal Consort So-yong of the Hong clan (? – 4 February 1452) (소용 홍씨)
  9. Royal Consort Suk-won of the Lee clan (숙원 이씨)
    1. Princess Jeongan (1438 – 16 October 1461) (정안옹주) [46]
  10. Consort Sang-chim of the Song clan(1396-1463) (상침 송씨)
    1. Princess Jeonghyeon (1425 – November 1480) (정현옹주) [47]
  11. Consort Sa-gi of the Cha clan (? – 10 July 1444) (사기 차씨)
    1. An unnamed daughter (1430 – 1431)
  12. Lady Sangsik of the Hwang clan (상식 황씨)
  13. Lady Jeonchan of the Park clan (전찬 박씨)

Official posthumous titles

King Sejong the Great, as depicted on the Bank of Korea's 10,000 won banknote (Series VI). 10000 won serieVI obverse.jpeg
King Sejong the Great, as depicted on the Bank of Korea's 10,000 won banknote (Series VI).
Statue of King Sejong on Gwanghwamun Plaza. Gwanghwamun Plaza - statue King Sejong 2016 - hschrijver.jpg
Statue of King Sejong on Gwanghwamun Plaza.

Depiction in arts and media

Depiction in video games

Portrait in Korean currency notes

Sejong the Great is one of the six linguistic scholars, with Samuel Johnson, [49] Jacob Grimm, Wilhelm Grimm, Elias Lönnrot, and Vuk Stefanović Karadžić depicted as a portrait in a national currency.

Statue and museum exhibit

A 9.5-meter-high (31 ft) bronze statue of King Sejong was placed in 2009 on a concrete pedestal on the boulevard of Gwanghwamun Square and directly in front of the Sejong Center for the Performing Arts in Seoul. [50] The sculptor was Kim Young-won. [51] The pedestal contains one of several entrances to the 3,200 square meter, underground museum exhibit entitled "The Story of King Sejong". [52] [53] It was dedicated on Hangul Day in celebration of the 563rd anniversary of the invention of the Korean alphabet by King Sejong. [54]

See also

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Royal Noble Consort Hwi of the Old Andong Kim Clan (1410–1429), also known as Deposed Consort Kim, was a consort of the Joseon crown prince, but was demoted to commoner and thrown out of the palace after she used witchcraft to gain her husband's affection.

Queen Hyeondeok of the Andong Kwon Clan was the primary consort of the crown prince of Joseon. She died giving birth to the future Danjong of Joseon and was posthumously honoured as Queen Hyeondeok, later demoted by Sejo of Joseon after he deposed her son, then restored by Seongjong of Joseon.

Tears of the Dragon is a South Korean historical television series. It aired on KBS1 from November 24, 1996 to May 31, 1998 for 159 episodes. The series spans from the foundation of Joseon to the reign of King Sejong.

References

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  3. 1 2 "알고 싶은 한글". 국립국어원. National Institute of Korean Language. Retrieved 4 December 2017.
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  8. <<책 한권으로 읽는 세종대왕실록>>(Learning Sejong Silok in one book) ISBN   890107754X
  9. https://web.archive.org/web/20090114065908/http://preview.britannica.co.kr/bol/topic.asp?article_id=b01g3496a. Archived from the original on 14 January 2009. Retrieved 25 October 2008.Missing or empty |title= (help)
  10. "21세기 세종대왕 프로젝트". Sejong.prkorea.com. Retrieved 22 February 2016.
  11. "한국역대인물 종합정보 시스템 - 한국학중앙연구원". People.aks.ac.kr. 30 November 2005. Retrieved 22 February 2016.
  12. <<책한권으로 읽는 세종대왕실록>>(Learning Sejong Silok in one book) ISBN   890107754X
  13. Haralambous, Yannis; Horne, P. Scott (28 November 2007). Fonts & Encodings. "O'Reilly Media, Inc.". p. 155. ISBN   9780596102425 . Retrieved 8 October 2016.
  14. Selin, Helaine (11 November 2013). Encyclopaedia of the History of Science, Technology, and Medicine in Non-Westen Cultures. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 505–506. ISBN   9789401714167 . Retrieved 27 July 2016.
  15. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Kim (1998), 57.
  16. "장영실". Bueb125.com.ne.kr. Archived from the original on 18 July 2001. Retrieved 22 February 2016.
  17. Strangeways, Ian (2010). "A History of Rain Gauges". Weather. 65 (5): 133–138. doi:10.1002/wea.548.
  18. Kim (1998), 51.
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  20. Yi, Pae-yong (2008). Women in Korean History 한국 역사 속의 여성들. Ewha Womans University Press. p. 267. ISBN   9788973007721 . Retrieved 18 August 2018.
  21. 오기수. "세종대왕의 조세사상과 공법 연구 : 조세법 측면에서". NAVER Academic (in Korean). NAVER Corporation. Retrieved 2 April 2018.
  22. "한국 전통과학의 전성기, 세종 시대". YTN사이언스 (in Korean). YTN. Retrieved 2 April 2018.
  23. "우리말 배움터". Urimal.cs.pusan.ac.kr. Retrieved 22 February 2016.
  24. Kim Jeong Su(1990), <<한글의 역사와 미래>>(History and Future of Hangul) ISBN   8930107230
  25. Hannas, Wm C. (1997). Asia's Orthographic Dilemma. University of Hawaii Press. p. 57. ISBN   9780824818920 . Retrieved 20 September 2016.
  26. Chen, Jiangping (18 January 2016). Multilingual Access and Services for Digital Collections. ABC-CLIO. p. 66. ISBN   9781440839559 . Retrieved 20 September 2016.
  27. "Invest Korea Journal". 23. Korea Trade-Investment Promotion Agency. 1 January 2005. Retrieved 20 September 2016. They later devised three different systems for writing Korean with Chinese characters: Hyangchal, Gukyeol and Idu. These systems were similar to those developed later in Japan and were probably used as models by the Japanese.
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  29. Hunmin Jeongeum Haerye , postface of Jeong Inji, p. 27a, translation from Gari K. Ledyard, The Korean Language Reform of 1446, p. 258
  30. Koerner, E. F. K.; Asher, R. E. (28 June 2014). Concise History of the Language Sciences: From the Sumerians to the Cognitivists. Elsevier. p. 54. ISBN   9781483297545 . Retrieved 13 October 2016.
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  33. "▒▒ KBS대하드라마 대왕세종 ▒▒". Kbs.co.kr. Retrieved 22 February 2016.
  34. Daughter of Sim On (심온, 1375 – 25 December 1418), Lord Anhyo (안효공), Internal Prince Cheongcheon (청천부원군); and Lady Sunheung, Princess Consort to the Internal Prince, of the Ahn clan (순흥부부인 안씨). Granddaughter of Sim Deok-bu (심덕부, 1328–1401)
  35. Her uncle Sim Jong (Sim On's brother) is Taejo's son-in-law (created Prince Consort Cheongwon) thru his marriage to Princess Gyeongseon
  36. Eldest offspring
  37. Later married Ahn Maeng-dam (안맹담, ?–1469), son of Ahn Mang-ji (안망지); created Military Officer Yeonchang (연창위)
  38. Daughter of Gang Seok-deok (강석덕) and Sim On's 2nd daughter (심씨; Queen Soheon's younger sister), making her Queen Soheon's niece
  39. Daughter of Kim Won (김원)
  40. Originally a slave of Naeja Temple (내자사 內資寺), and became a palace girl in 1418, under Queen Wong-yeong, and later under Queen So-heon
  41. Later married Han Hwak (한확)'s 2nd daughter (Lady Jeongseon, Princess Consort (정선군 부인)), elder sister to the future Queen So-hye
  42. Daughter of Yang Gyeong (양경) and Lady Lee (이씨). Granddaughter of Yang Cheom-sik (양첨식) and great-granddaughter of Yang Ji-su (양지수)
  43. Given the temple name "Lady Minjeong" (민정) in 1791
  44. Also known by her lesser title "Lady Jang-ui" (장의궁주), granted in 1424. Gwi-in status was granted in 1428
  45. Also known by her lesser title "Lady Myeong-ui" (명의궁주), granted in 1424. Gwi-in status was granted in 1428
  46. Later married Sim An-ui (심안의), created Military Officer Cheongseong (청성위)
  47. Later married Yun Sa-ro (윤사로, 1423–1463), son of Yun Eun (윤은); created Internal Prince Yeongcheon (영천부원군)
  48. "The King Sejong Station - Liquipedia - The StarCraft II Encyclopedia". Wiki.teamliquid.net. Retrieved 22 February 2016.
  49. "Language Log » More linguistic numismatics". Languagelog.ldc.upenn.edu. Retrieved 22 February 2016.
  50. "King Sejong Statue (세종대왕 동상) | Official Korea Tourism Organization". English.visitkorea.or.kr. Retrieved 22 February 2016.
  51. "King Sejong and General Lee Sun-shin to receive modeling fee :: Korea.net : The official website of the Republic of Korea". Korea.net. 9 December 2011. Retrieved 22 February 2016.
  52. "King Sejong Story (세종이야기) | Official Korea Tourism Organization". English.visitkorea.or.kr. Retrieved 22 February 2016.
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  54. "Statue of King Sejong is unveiled". Joongang Daily. October 10, 2009. Archived from the original on April 11, 2013. Retrieved February 27, 2013.

Further reading

Sejong the Great
Born: 6 May 1397 Died: 18 May 1450
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Taejong
King of Joseon
1418–1450
with Taejong (1418–1422)
Munjong (1442–1450)
Succeeded by
Munjong