Semarang

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Semarang
City of Semarang
Kota Semarang
Other transcription(s)
   Javanese ꦏꦸꦛꦯꦼꦩꦫꦁ
Flag of Semarang City.png
Lambang Kota Semarang.png
Nickname(s): 
Venetië van Java, Lumpia City
Motto(s): 
Kota ATLAS
acronym of Aman, Tertib, Lancar, Asri, Sehat
(Secure, Orderly, Swift, Beautiful, Healthy)
Locator kota semarang.png
Location within Central Java
Java location map plain.svg
Red pog.svg
Semarang
Location in Java and Indonesia
Indonesia location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Semarang
Semarang (Indonesia)
Coordinates: 06°59′24″S110°25′21″E / 6.99000°S 110.42250°E / -6.99000; 110.42250
CountryFlag of Indonesia.svg  Indonesia
Region Java
Province Flag of Central Java.svg  Central Java
Government
  MayorHevearita Gunaryanti Rahayu (PDI-P)
  Vice MayorVacant
Area
   City and provincial capital 373.78 km2 (144.32 sq mi)
  Metro
1,643.4 km2 (634.5 sq mi)
Elevation
4 m (13 ft)
Population
 ( [1] ) [2]
   City and provincial capital 1,694,740
  Density4,500/km2 (12,000/sq mi)
   Metro
3,183,516
  Metro density1,900/km2 (5,000/sq mi)
  [3]
Demonym Semarangan
Demographics
  Ethnic groups Javanese 93%
Chinese 4%
Others 3%
  Religion (2022) [4] Islam 87.20%
Christianity 12.05%
- Protestant 6.93%
- Catholic 5.12%
Buddhism 0.65%
Hinduism 0.07%
Confucianism and others 0.02% [5]
Time zone UTC+7 (IWST)
Area code (+62) 24
Vehicle registration H
HDI (2022)Decrease2.svg 0.841 (very high)
Website semarangkota.go.id

Semarang (Javanese : ꦏꦸꦛꦯꦼꦩꦫꦁ, Pegon: سٓماراڠ) is the capital and largest city of Central Java province in Indonesia. It was a major port during the Dutch colonial era, and is still an important regional center and port today. The city has been named as the cleanest tourist destination in Southeast Asia by the ASEAN Clean Tourist City Standard (ACTCS) for 2020–2022. [6]

Contents

It has an area of 373.78 km2 (144.32 sq mi) and had a population of 1,555,984 at the 2010 census [7] and 1,653,524 at the 2020 census, [8] making it Indonesia's ninth most populous city [9] after Jakarta, Surabaya, Bekasi, Bandung, Medan, Depok, Tangerang and Palembang; the official population estimate as at mid-2023 was 1,694,740, comprising 838,440 males and 856,310 females. [1] The built-up urban area had 3,183,516 inhabitants at the 2010 census spread over two cities and 26 districts. [10] The Semarang metropolitan area (a.k.a. Kedungsepur) has a population of over 6 million in 2020 (see Greater Semarang section). The population of the city is predominantly Javanese with significant Chinese presence.

History

Historical affiliations

Flag placeholder.svg Demak Sultanate 1547–1554
Flag placeholder.svg Kingdom of Pajang 1568–1587
Flag of the Sultanate of Mataram.svg  Mataram Sultanate 1587–1705
Flag of the Dutch East India Company.svg  Dutch East India Company 1705–1799
Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Dutch East Indies 1800–1942
Merchant flag of Japan (1870).svg  Empire of Japan 1942–1945
Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Dutch East Indies 1945–1949
Flag of Indonesia.svg United States of Indonesia 1949–1950
Flag of Indonesia.svg  Indonesia 1950-present

The history of Semarang goes back to the 9th century, when it was known as Bergota. At the end of the 15th century, an Arab named Kyai Pandan Arang founded a village and an Islamic school in this fishing village. On 2 May 1547, Sultan Hadiwijaya of Pajang Kyai declared Pandan Arang the first bupati (mayor) of Semarang, thus creating Semarang administratively and politically.

In 1678, Sunan Amangkurat II promised to give control of Semarang to the Dutch East India Company (VOC) as a part of a debt payment. [11] [12] In 1682, the Semarang state was founded by the Dutch colonial power. On 5 October 1705 after years of occupations, Semarang officially became a VOC city when Susuhunan Pakubuwono I made a deal to give extensive trade rights to the VOC in exchange of wiping out Mataram's debt. The VOC, and later, the Dutch East Indies government, established tobacco plantations in the region and built roads and railroads, making Semarang an important colonial trading centre. [ citation needed ]

The historic presence of a large Indo (Eurasian) community in the area of Semarang is also reflected by the fact a creole mix language called Javindo existed there. [13]

Classical Indische Town (1678–1870)

The early VOC settlement of Semarang with its prominent pentagonal fortress. AMH-4658-NA Map of the fort at Samarang.jpg
The early VOC settlement of Semarang with its prominent pentagonal fortress.

Semarang was handed by the Sultan of Mataram to the Dutch East Indies in 1678. [11] The city was pictured as a small settlement with a pious Muslim area called Kauman, a Chinese quarter, and a Dutch fortress. The fortress has a pentagonal form with only one gate in the south and five monitoring towers to protect the Dutch settlement from rebellion actions, segregating the spaces between Dutch settlement and other areas. [14] In fact, the city of Semarang was only referred to the Dutch quarter while the other ethnic settlement were considered as villages outside the city boundary. The city, known as de Europeesche Buurt, was built in classical European style with church located in the centre, wide boulevards, streets and villas. [15] According to Purwanto (2005), [16] the urban and architectural form of this settlement is very similar to the design principles applied in many Dutch cities.

Due to the long and costly Java War, there was not much funding from the Dutch East Indies government, and this affected Semarang's development. Most land in the area was used for rice cultivation and the only small improvement was the development of a surrounding fortress. Although less developed, Semarang is a fairly well organized city, in which urban activities were concentrated along the river and the settlement is linked to a market where different ethnic groups met to trade. The existence of the market, in the later years, become a primary element and a generator of urban economic growth. [17]

After the departure of Herman Willem Daendels, Napoleonic governor of Java, the Dutch reorganized Java into Residencies, and Semarang became the seat of the new Semarang Residency in 1817. An important influence on urban growth was the Great Mail Road project in the 1847, which connected all the cities in the northern coast of Central and East Java and positioned Semarang as the trade centre of agricultural production. [18] The project was soon followed by the development of the Staatsspoorwegen Railway and the connecting roads into the inner city of Semarang at the end of the 19th century. [17] Colombijn (2002) [18] marked the development as the shift of urban functions, from the former river orientation to all services facing the roads.

Modern city (1870–1922)

Coat of Arms of Semarang during Dutch colonial era, granted in 1827. Coat of arms of Semarang (1827).svg
Coat of Arms of Semarang during Dutch colonial era, granted in 1827.

The Dutch East Indies' mail and railway projects improved communication and transportation, bringing an economic boom to the city in the 1870s. Hospitals, churches, hotels, and mansions were built along the new main roads of Mataram Street, Bojongscheweg, and Pontjolscheweg. [15] The Javanese quarters of town known as kampongs grew increasingly densely populated, reaching as many as 1000 inhabitants per hectare and degrading living conditions. [19] Mortality remained high into the early 20th century, with newcomers, overcrowding, and poor hygiene triggering cholera and tuberculous outbreaks. [20] Dysentery, typhoid, and malaria were also rife. [21] The city doctor Willem T. de Vogel advocated strenuously for reducing overcrowding and improving living conditions by extending Semarang into the less malarial hill country to its south; [22] his fellow councilman Hendrik Tillema had campaigned on a platform of combatting malaria and joined De Vogel's scheme, broadening it into a "village improvement" (Dutch : kampongverbetering) movement. [19] Purchasing land in the heights with their own money, the two men and some friends passed it on to the city with an initial zoning plan by KPC de Bazel in 1907 but could never convince a majority of the council to support its development. [21] [22] Changing tack, Tillema then worked to improve the existing kampongs in the city's malarial districts by improving drainage and providing more sanitary public toilets and public housing. [19]

A decade later, the town approved Thomas Karsten's revised plan for the area, using it to build larger villas for the Dutch and wealthy Chinese and Javanese rather than allowing its use by the poor. [21] [22] [23] This area became known as Candi Baru (Dutch : Nieuw Tjandi) and forms the core of the present-day Candisari District. Although it remained highly stratified by class, [15] Candi Baru had less ethnic segregation than the older area of town and incorporated public squares, athletic facilities, and places for public bathing and washing that could be used communally. [24] With most work remaining in the lower city and transportation slow or expensive, few of the lower classes were interested in moving to the district [22] but it set a pattern that was followed with three more successful housing plans between 1916 and 1919. The population grew by 55%, adding 45,000 Javanese, 8500 Chinese, and 7000 Europeans. Karsten's approach to town planning emphasized its aesthetic, practical, and social requirements articulated in economic terms rather than purely racial ones. [24]

Driven by economic growth and spatial city planning, the city had doubled in size and expanded to the south by the 1920s, creating a nucleus of a metropolis where multi-ethnic groups lived and traded in the city. The villages in the suburbs such as Jomblang and Jatingaleh steadily became the satellite towns of Semarang, more populated with a bigger market area. Before the invasion of Japan in 1942, Semarang had already become the capital of Central Java province, as the result of trade and industrial success and spatial planning. [15]

Japanese occupation and early independence

The Japanese military occupied the city, along with the rest of Java, in 1942, during the Pacific War of World War II. During that time, Semarang was headed by a military governor called a Shiko, and two vice governors known as Fuku Shiko. One of the vice governors was appointed from Japan, and the other was "chosen" from the local population. [ citation needed ]

After Indonesian independence in 1945, Semarang became the capital of Central Java on 18 August 1945, [25] headed by Mr. Moch.Ichsan. [26] It also became the site of a battle between Indonesian and Japanese soldiers in October 1945. [27]

Administration

Semarang city administration is headed by mayor, with a legislative assembly. Both mayor and the 50 members of legislative assembly are elected by direct vote. The government of Semarang City had implemented the smart city concept since 2013. [28] [29]

Juridically, Semarang City is a municipality (second level area) consisting of 16 districts (kecamatan), which are again divided into 177 urban villages (kelurahan). The districts are tabulated below with their areas and their populations at the 2010 census [7] and 2020 census, [8] together with the official estimates as at mid 2023. [1] The table also includes the number and names of the urban administrative villages in each district.

Kode
Wilayah
District
(kecamatan)
Area
in
km2
Pop'n
census
2010
Pop'n
census
2020
Pop'n
estimate
mid 2023
No.
of
villages
Administrative villages (kelurahan)
33.74.14Mijen

(Javanese : ꦩꦶꦗꦺꦤ꧀, romanized: Mijèn)

56.5255,70880,90689,95014 Cangkiran, Bubakan, Jatibarang, Jatisari, Karangmalang, Kedungpane, Mijen,
Ngadirgo, Pesantren, Polaman, Purwosari, Tambangan, Wonolopo, Wonoplumbon,
33.74.12Gunungpati

(Javanese : ꦒꦸꦤꦸꦁ​ꦥꦛꦶ, romanized: Gunungpathi)

58.2788,44498,023100,75016Cepoko, Gunungpati, Jatirejo, Kalisegoro, Kandri, Mangunsari, Ngijo, Nongkosawit,
Pakintelan, Patemon, Plalangan, Pongangan, Sadeng, Sekaran, Sukorejo, Sumurejo
33.74.11Banyumanik

(Javanese : ꦧꦚꦸꦩꦤꦶꦏ꧀, romanized: Banyumanik)

29.74136,368142,076143,43011 Pudakpayung, Gedawang, Jabungan, Padangsari, Banyumanik, Srondol Wetan,
Pedalangan, Sumurboto, Srondol Kulon, Tinjomoyo, Ngesrep
33.74.09Gajah Mungkur

(Javanese : ꦒꦗꦃꦩꦸꦁ​ꦏꦸꦂ, romanized: Gajah Mungkur)

9.3459,91156,23256,3508 Bendanduwur, Bendanngisor, Bendungan, Gajahmungkur, Karangrejo,
Lempongsari, Petompon, Sampangan
33.74.07Semarang Selatan
(South Semarang)

(Javanese : ꦱꦼꦩꦫꦁ​​ꦏꦶꦢꦸꦭ꧀, romanized: Sěmarang Kidul

5.9569,61762,03062,18010Barusari, Bulustalan, Lamper Kidul, Lamper Lor, Lamper Tengah, Mugassari,
Peterongan, Pleburan, Randusari, Wonodri
33.74.08Candisari

(Javanese : ꦕꦤ꧀ꦝꦶꦱꦫꦶ, romanized: Candhisari)

6.4075,87975,45675,6107 Candi, Jatingaleh, Jomblang, Kaliwiru, Karanganyargunung, Tegalsari, Wonotingal
33.74.10Tembalang

(Javanese : ꦠꦼꦩ꧀ꦧꦭꦁ, romanized: Tĕmbalang)

39.47159,849189,680198,86012Bulusan, Jangli, Kedungmundu, Kramas, Mangunharjo, Meteseh, Rowosari,
Sambiroto, Sendangguwo, Sendangmulyo, Tandang, Tembalang
33.74.06Pedurungan

(Javanese : ꦥꦼꦢꦸꦫꦸꦔꦤ꧀, romanized: Pědurungan)

21.11180,468193,151196,53012Gemah, Kalicari, Muktiharjo Kidul, Palebon, Pedurungan Kidul, Pedurungan Lor,
Pedurungan Tengah, Penggaron Kidul, Plamongan Sari, Tlogomulyo,
Tlogosari Kulon, Tlogosari Wetan,
33.74.05Genuk

(Javanese : ꦒꦼꦤꦸꦏ꧀, romanized: Genuk)

25.9892,314123,310132,47013Bangetayu Kulon, Bangetayu Wetan, Banjardowo, Gebangsari, Genuksari,
Karangroto, Kudu, Muktiharjo Lor, Penggaron Lor, Sembungharjo, Terboyo Kulon,
Terboyo Wetan, Trimulyo
33.74.04Gayamsari

(Javanese : ꦒꦪꦩ꧀ꦱꦫꦶ, romanized: Gayamsari)

6.2271,76770,26170,4107 Gayamsari, Kaligawe, Pandean Lamper, Sambirejo, Sawah Besar, Siwalan, Tambakrejo
33.74.03Semarang Timur
(East Semarang)

(Javanese : ꦱꦼꦩꦫꦁ​​ꦮꦺꦠꦤ꧀, romanized: Sěmarang Wétan)

5.4274,78266,30266,48010Bugangan, Karangtempel, Karangturi, Kebonagung, Kemijen, Mlatibaru, Mlatiharjo,
Rejomulyo, Rejosari, Sarirejo, Bandarharjo
33.74.02Semarang Utara
(North Semarang)

(Javanese : ꦱꦼꦩꦫꦁ​​ꦭꦺꦴꦂ, romanized: Sěmarang Lor)

11.39117,836117,605117,8909Bulu Lor, Dadapsari, Kuningan, Panggung Kidul, Panggung Lor, Plombokan,
Purwosari, Tanjungmas
33.74.01Semarang Tengah
(Central Semarang)

(Javanese : ꦱꦼꦩꦫꦁ​​ꦩꦢꦾ, romanized: Sěmarang Madyå)

5.1760,31255,06455,21015Bangunharjo, Brumbungan, Gabahan, Jagalan, Karangkidul, Kauman, Kembangsari,
Kranggan, Miroto, Pandansari, Pekunden, Pendrikan Kidul, Pendrikan Lor,
Purwodinatan, Sekayu
33.74.13Semarang Barat
(West Semarang)

(Javanese : ꦱꦼꦩꦫꦁ​​ꦏꦸꦭꦺꦴꦤ꧀, romanized: Sěmarang Kulon)

21.68154,878148,879149,33016Bojongsalaman, Bongsari, Cabean, Gisikdrono, Kalibanteng Kidul, Kalibanteng Kulon,
Karangayu, Kembangarum, Krapyak, Krobokan, Manyaran, Ngemplaksimongan,
Salamanmloyo, Tambakharjo, Tawangmas, Tawangsari
33.74.16Tugu

(Javanese : ꦠꦸꦒꦸ, romanized: Tugu)

28.1329,43632,82233,8007Jerakan, Karanganyar, Mangkang Kulon, Mangkang Wetan, Mangunharjo,
Randu Garut, Tugurejo
33.74.15Ngaliyan

(Javanese : ꦔꦭꦶꦪꦤ꧀, romanized: Ngaliyan)

42.99128,415141,727145,50010Bambankerep, Beringin, Gondoriyo, Kalipancur, Ngaliyan, Podorejo, Purwoyoso,
Tambak Aji, Wonosari

Geography

Semarang is located on the northern coast of Java. The city of Semarang is one of the most important cities located on the north coast of Java and is the main hub connecting Jakarta and Surabaya, and cities in the southern interior of Java Surakarta and Yogyakarta. Semarang City has a height ranging from 2 m (6.6 ft) below sea level up to 340 m (1,120 ft) above sea level with a slope of 0%–45%. Semarang City is a city that has a unique topographic condition in the form of a narrow lowland area and hilly areas extending from the west side to the east side of Semarang City. The city is located about 558 km (347 mi) east of Jakarta and 312 km (194 mi) west of Surabaya.

Lowland areas in Semarang City are very narrow. The lowland area in western Semarang only has a width of 4 km (2.5 mi) from the coastline, while in the eastern Semarang, the low-lying area has a width of 11 km (6.8 mi) from the coastline. This lowland area is a flood plain from the large rivers that flow in Semarang City, such as Kali Garang (West Flood Canal), Pengkol River, and Bringin River. This low-lying area stretches on the northern side of Semarang and covers almost 40% of the total area of Semarang. This lowland area is known as the lower town (Semarang Ngisor), as well as the center of the city's economic activity. Under these conditions, the lower city area is often hit by annual flooding and its peak during the rainy season. In a number of regions, especially North Semarang, floods are sometimes also caused by overflowing sea tides (tidal floods). The hilly area in Semarang stretches on the south side. These hills are part of a series of northern Java mountain ranges that stretch from Banten to East Java. The hilly area in the city of Semarang is known as the upper city (Semarang Dhuwur). This hilly region is also the upstream area of the big rivers that flow in the city of Semarang. The upper city area is also near Mount Ungaran.

Climate

Semarang features a tropical rainforest climate that borders on a tropical monsoon climate (Am). The city features distinctly wetter and drier months, with June through August being the driest months. However, the average monthly rainfall does not fall below 60 mm (2.4 in), hence the tropical rainforest categorization. Semarang on average sees approximately 2,800 mm (110 in) of rain annually. Average temperatures in the city are relatively consistent, hovering around 28 °C (82 °F). Diurnal temperature variation slightly increases in the dry season.

Climate data for Semarang
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)39
(102)
37
(98)
37
(98)
37
(99)
38
(101)
38
(100)
41
(106)
38
(100)
37
(99)
38
(100)
38
(100)
39
(102)
41
(106)
Mean daily maximum °C (°F)29
(85)
29
(85)
30
(86)
31
(88)
32
(89)
32
(89)
32
(89)
32
(89)
32
(90)
32
(90)
31
(88)
30
(86)
31
(88)
Daily mean °C (°F)27
(81)
27
(81)
28
(82)
29
(84)
29
(84)
28
(83)
28
(83)
28
(83)
29
(84)
29
(84)
28
(83)
28
(82)
28
(83)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F)25
(77)
25
(77)
25
(77)
26
(78)
26
(78)
25
(77)
24
(76)
24
(76)
25
(77)
26
(78)
26
(78)
25
(77)
25
(77)
Record low °C (°F)19
(66)
22
(72)
22
(72)
22
(72)
21
(70)
20
(68)
18
(64)
18
(65)
18
(64)
20
(68)
22
(72)
22
(72)
18
(64)
Average rainfall mm (inches)430
(16.9)
360
(14.2)
320
(12.6)
230
(9.1)
160
(6.3)
80
(3.1)
80
(3.1)
60
(2.4)
100
(3.9)
160
(6.3)
220
(8.7)
330
(13.0)
2,780
(109.4)
Average rainy days1917171310844481417135
Average relative humidity (%)82828079757268676669768175
Average dew point °C (°F)23
(74)
23
(74)
24
(75)
23
(74)
23
(74)
22
(72)
22
(71)
21
(70)
22
(71)
22
(72)
23
(74)
23
(74)
23
(73)
Mean daily sunshine hours 5668881010109868
Mean daily daylight hours 12.512.312.11211.811.711.811.912.112.312.412.512.1
Average ultraviolet index 12121212111010121212121212
Source 1: Weatherbase [30]
Source 2: Weather Atlas [31] and Time and Date [32] (humidity only)

Semarang River and flood control

Like Singapore River, Semarang is constructing Semarang River at Banjir Kanal Barat (Garang River) near Karangayu Bridge. In the middle of July 2011, gardens in river banks and some traditional boats are available to use. The project will be finished in 2013 with river gardens, trotoars, garden lighting, water activities, art sites, sport sites and balconies and stairs for sightseeing. [33] In August 2011, a 421 m (1,380 ft) tunnel dodger at Kreo river has been finished and Jatibarang Dam construction can begin, with completion targeted for July 2013. The dam is planned to release 230 m3/s (8,100 cu ft/s) of flood water and will generate 1.5 MW of electricity, provide a drinking water resource and a boost to tourism. [34]

Demographics

Historical population
YearPop.±%
1950371,000    
1955424,374+14.4%
1960485,444+14.4%
1965552,128+13.7%
1970626,703+13.5%
1975782,967+24.9%
19801,009,460+28.9%
19851,125,836+11.5%
19901,242,737+10.4%
19951,333,157+7.3%
20001,427,341+7.1%
20051,438,733+0.8%
20101,555,984+8.1%
20151,698,777+9.2%
20201,653,524−2.7%
20221,659,975+0.4%
source: [35] [36]

The largest ethnic group in Semarang is the Javanese, followed by minorities of Chinese, Indian, Arabic, and others (including local ethnicities such as Sundanese, Batak, Madura, Malay, Balinese, Arabs, Indian, etc.). The dominant religion is Islam with a significant Christian minority.

Religion in Semarang 2023

   Islam (87.55%)
   Protestantism (6.81%)
   Roman Catholicism (4.94%)
   Buddhism (0.58%)
   Hinduism (0.07%)
   Confucianism and others (0.025%)

Semarang has a large Chinese community. As in other regions of Java, especially in Central Java, they have mingled closely with the local population and use Javanese in communication for hundreds of years. About 4–5% of the city's population is ethnic Chinese, many residing in a Chinatown in the vicinity of Gang Pinggir. The Chinatown is called "Kampong Pecinan Semawis" and expresses many aspects of traditional Chinese culture including foods, rituals, and houses of worship.

Ethnic Groups in Semarang [37]

   Javanese (93%)
   Chinese (4%)
  Others (3%)

Economy

As the capital city of Central Java, and fifth largest city of Indonesia, the economy of Semarang is quite large. Semarang has transformed and changed dynamically towards a better direction. In a period of less than 10 years, Semarang Metropolitan continues to build a vital financial contribution to Indonesia due to the growing trade and industry and services. As a consequence, people's purchasing power increased, capital inflows, consumer confidence, and doing business indexes were relatively conducive to the development of several CBDs such as Simpang Lima City Center (SLCC), Pemuda Central Business District (PCBD), and Gajahmada Golden Triangle (GGT). Major Indonesian and international financial and banking sectors alikes such as Bank Mandiri, BCA, BNI, BRI, Panin Bank, HSBC, Bank Permata, Standard Chartered, RaboBank, Citibank, DBS, UOB, OCBC NISP, KEB Hana Bank, CIMB Niaga, and Maybank have regional offices in Semarang.

The western part of the city has many industrial parks and factories. Like other metropolitan cities within Indonesia, due to a developing economy and increasing income, Semarang has many shopping malls.

Transportation

Road

Semarang is on the Indonesian National Route 1 road, which connects it to Merak and Ketapang (Banyuwangi). Indonesian National Route 14 toward Bawen starts here. Semarang has a toll road, the Semarang Toll Road. [38] The city is connected to Solo by Semarang–Solo Toll Road. [39]

Semarang's largest bus terminals are Mangkang and Terboyo. [40] The primary means of public transportation is by minibus, called "bis". Ojek (motorcycle taxis), Angkot (share-taxi) micro-buses, taxi-cabs plays vital role in public transportation of the city. Go-Jek and Grab have online taxi and Ojek services.

Semarang is served by bus rapid transit called Trans Semarang, which operates in six routes. [41] Perum DAMRI also serves in six designated routes in the city.

Rail

Semarang Old Town seen from Semarang Tawang railway station. Semarang Old Town 2008.jpg
Semarang Old Town seen from Semarang Tawang railway station.

Semarang was connected to Surakarta (Solo) by a rail line in 1870. [42] At present there are two large train stations in Semarang: Semarang Poncol and Semarang Tawang. Semarang is connected to Bandung, Jakarta, and Surabaya by inter-city train services. Kedungsepur commuter rail connects Semarang Poncol Station eastward to Ngrombo Station in Grobogan Regency.

Air

Ahmad Yani International Airport. SemarangAirportTerminal.jpg
Ahmad Yani International Airport.

Semarang's Ahmad Yani International Airport is served by a number of operators including AirAsia, Citilink, Batik Air, Garuda Indonesia, and Lion Air which provide services to Jakarta, Bali, Kuala Lumpur, and Singapore. [43] In 2018, the airport terminal was relocated to a new and much larger site; the old terminal continues to be used for government and military flights. [44]

Sea

The main seaport is the Tanjung Mas seaport.

Landmarks and places of interest

Exterior of Blenduk Church, Semarang, 2014-06-18.jpg
Blenduk Church, the oldest church in Central Java.
Sam Po Kong Temple Semarang Indonesia.jpg
Sam Poo Kong, the oldest Chinese temple in the city.

Culture

Semarang (?) batik made prior to 1867, in the workshop owned by batik pioneer Carolina Josephina von Franquemont (1817-1867). Photo courtesy of the Queen Sirikit Museum of Textiles, Bangkok Javanese batik ca. 1871.png
Semarang (?) batik made prior to 1867, in the workshop owned by batik pioneer Carolina Josephina von Franquemont (1817–1867). Photo courtesy of the Queen Sirikit Museum of Textiles, Bangkok

Education

Diponegoro University. Widya puraya undip.jpg
Diponegoro University.

There are 593 elementary schools, 220 junior high schools, 106 senior high schools, and 88 vocational high schools, both public and private in Semarang. [50]

There are 20 universities in Semarang, 12 of them private and 8 public. The most renowned universities of Semarang are Diponegoro University and Soegijapranata University.

Sports

There are several sport centres in Semarang. Jatidiri sport centre or Jatidiri Stadium is one of the biggest sport centres in Semarang, located in Karangrejo, Gajahmungkur. The centre comprises a soccer field, in line skate track, tennis filed, climbing wall, swimming pool, and many others. The capacity of the centre is about 21,000 people. [53]

Knight Stadium is a futsal and basketball centre in Semarang, located in Grand Marina complex. There is a café and fitness centre in Knight Stadium. [54]

Cuisine

Lumpia Semarang. Loenpia Semarang.JPG
Lumpia Semarang.

Semarang is widely known for its bandeng presto (pressure-cooked milkfish), Lumpia, Wingko, Tahu Gimbal, and Ganjel Rel. Semarang has also been called 'The city of Jamu' because it is an important centre for the production of jamu which are a range of Indonesian herbal medicines that are popular across Indonesia [55] Semawis Market, also known as Pecinan Semarang (Semarang's Chinatown), hosts a plethora of street food vendors, offering a wide varieties of dishes. [56]

Festivals

Dugderan  [ id ] is an annual festival in Semarang desecrated to welcome the Ramadan month (a fasting month for Moslems). The word "dug" describes the sound of bedug (traditional Indonesian musical instrument). The word "der" describes the sound of fireworks.

The icon of the festival is a special puppet dragon-like animal called Warak Ngendog. The word "warak" stands for "holy" and the word "ngendog" expresses a reward for Muslims. Warak Ngendog's feet are chained, representing people's desire that should be postponed during this holy month. As Dugderan is a festival unique for Semarang, it represents an important attraction for both local people and visitors. [57]

Media

Suara Merdeka is the major local newspaper in Semarang, as well as Central Java. Other major newspapers include Tribun Jateng and Wawasan.

Awards

Semarang has received the Adipura Award 6 times in a row since 2012. The Adipura Award is given for achievement in cleanliness and greenery at parks, streets, markets, shop buildings, premises, schools, even cleanliness of water ways and rivers. [58] Semarang City received the title of Best Smart Living and Best Smart Economy City in the Indonesia Smart Nation Award 2018. [59]

Greater Semarang

Greater Semarang (known as Kedungsepur) was initially defined by the government as Semarang city, Semarang Regency, Salatiga city, Kendal Regency, and Demak Regency. [60] It was later extended to include the western part (12 districts only) of Grobogan Regency. Despite the definition, rural and urban cores remain distinct and have not amalgamated into a continuous urban sprawl as is the case in Greater Jakarta.

Delineation of Semarang metropolitan area [61]
Administrative divisionArea
in
km2
Pop'n
2010
census [62]
Pop'n
2020
census [63]
No.
of
districts
No.
of
villages
City of Semarang373.781,555,9841,653,52416177
City of Salatiga 57.36170,332192,322423
Demak Regency 900.121,055,5791,203,95614249
Grobogan Regency (part) [64] 1,396.32797,160888,58112191
Kendal Regency 1,118.13900,3131,018,50520286
Semarang Regency 950.21930,7271,053,09419235
Total Kedungsepur4,795.925,410,0956,009,982851,161

Sources: BPS Jateng [65]

Notable people from Semarang

Sister cities

Semarang is twinned with:

Notes and references

Notes

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