Semarang

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Semarang
City of Semarang
Kota Semarang
Other transcription(s)
   Javanese ꦏꦸꦛꦯꦼꦩꦫꦁ
Semarang Simpang Lima panorama.jpg
Exterior of Blenduk Church, Semarang, 2014-06-18.jpg
Great Mosque of Central Java, aerial view.jpg
Pagoda (8093127992).jpg
Lawang sewu.jpg
Three Temples at Sam Poo Kong, 2014-06-18.jpg
From top to bottom, left to right: Semarang city skyline, Blenduk Church, Aerial view of the Great Mosque of Central Java, Pagoda Avalokitesvara, Lawang Sewu, and Sam Poo Kong
Flag of Semarang City.png
Seal of the City of Semarang.svg
Nickname(s): 
Venetië van Java, Lumpia City
Motto(s): 
Kota ATLAS
acronym of Aman, Tertib, Lancar, Asri, Sehat
(Secure, Orderly, Swift, Beautiful, Healthy)
Locator kota semarang.png
Location within Central Java
Indonesia Java location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Semarang
Location in Java and Indonesia
Indonesia location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Semarang
Semarang (Indonesia)
Coordinates: 6°58′S110°25′E / 6.967°S 110.417°E / -6.967; 110.417 Coordinates: 6°58′S110°25′E / 6.967°S 110.417°E / -6.967; 110.417
CountryFlag of Indonesia.svg  Indonesia
Province Flag of Central Java.svg  Central Java
Government
  Mayor Hendrar Prihadi
  Vice Mayor Hevearita Gunaryanti Rahayu
Area
   City 373.78 km2 (144.32 sq mi)
  Metro
1,643.4 km2 (634.5 sq mi)
Elevation
4 m (13 ft)
Population
 (2020) [1]
   City 1,653,524
  Density4,400/km2 (11,000/sq mi)
   Metro
3,183,516
  Metro density1,900/km2 (5,000/sq mi)
Demonym(s) Semarangan
Demographics
  Ethnic groups Javanese
Chinese
Indian
Arab
Sundanese
Batak
Madura
  Religion [2] Islam 85.28%
Protestantism 8.71%
Catholicism 5.22%
Buddhism 0.68%
Hinduism 0.07%
Confucianism and others 0.04%
Time zone UTC+7 (IWST)
Area code (+62) 24
Vehicle registration H
HDI Decrease2.svg 0.830 (very high) [3]
Website semarangkota.go.id

Semarang is the capital and largest city of Central Java province in Indonesia. It was a major port during the Dutch colonial era, and is still an important regional center and port today. The city has been named as the cleanest tourist destination in Southeast Asia by the ASEAN Clean Tourist City Standard (ACTCS) for 2020–2022. [4]

Contents

It has an area of 373.78 km2 (144.32 sq mi) and is located at 6°58′S110°25′E / 6.967°S 110.417°E / -6.967; 110.417 . The population of the city was 1,555,984 at the 2010 Census [5] and 1,653,524 at the 2020 Census, [6] making it Indonesia's ninth most populous city [7] after Jakarta, Surabaya, Bekasi, Bandung, Medan, Depok, Tangerang and Palembang. The built-up urban area had 3,183,516 inhabitants at the 2010 census spread over two cities and 26 districts. [8] The Semarang metropolitan area (a.k.a. Kedungsapur) has a population of over 6 million in 2020 (see Greater Semarang section). The population of the city is predominantly Javanese with significant Chinese presence.

History

Historical affiliations

Flag placeholder.svg Demak Sultanate 1547–1554
Flag placeholder.svg Kingdom of Pajang 1568–1587
Flag of the Sultanate of Mataram.svg  Mataram Sultanate 1587–1705
Flag of the Dutch East India Company.svg  Dutch East India Company 1705–1799
Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Dutch East Indies 1800–1942
Merchant flag of Japan (1870).svg  Empire of Japan 1942–1945
Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Dutch East Indies 1945–1949
Flag of Indonesia.svg United States of Indonesia 1949–1950
Flag of Indonesia.svg  Indonesia 1950-present

The history of Semarang goes back to the 9th century, when it was known as Bergota. At the end of the 15th century, an Arab named Kyai Pandan Arang founded a village and an Islamic school in this fishing village. On 2 May 1547, Sultan Hadiwijaya of Pajang Kyai declared Pandan Arang the first bupati (mayor) of Semarang, thus creating Semarang administratively and politically.

In 1678, Sunan Amangkurat II promised to give control of Semarang to the Dutch East India Company (VOC) as a part of a debt payment. [9] [10] In 1682, the Semarang state was founded by the Dutch colonial power. On 5 October 1705 after years of occupations, Semarang officially became a VOC city when Susuhunan Pakubuwono I made a deal to give extensive trade rights to the VOC in exchange of wiping out Mataram's debt. The VOC, and later, the Dutch East Indies government, established tobacco plantations in the region and built roads and railroads, making Semarang an important colonial trading centre. [ citation needed ]

The historic presence of a large Indo (Eurasian) community in the area of Semarang is also reflected by the fact a creole mix language called Javindo existed there. [11]

Classical Indische Town (1678–1870)

The early VOC settlement of Semarang with its prominent pentagonal fortress. AMH-4658-NA Map of the fort at Samarang.jpg
The early VOC settlement of Semarang with its prominent pentagonal fortress.

Semarang was handed by the Sultan of Mataram to the Dutch East Indies in 1678. [9] The city was pictured as a small settlement with a pious Muslim area called Kauman, a Chinese quarter, and a Dutch fortress. The fortress has a pentagonal form with only one gate in the south and five monitoring towers to protect the Dutch settlement from rebellion actions, segregating the spaces between Dutch settlement and other areas. [12] In fact, the city of Semarang was only referred to the Dutch quarter while the other ethnic settlement were considered as villages outside the city boundary. The city, known as de Europeesche Buurt, was built in classical European style with church located in the centre, wide boulevards, streets and villas. [13] According to Purwanto (2005), [14] the urban and architectural form of this settlement is very similar to the design principles applied in many Dutch cities, which begun to concern on the urban beautification.

Due to the long and costly Java War, there was not much funding from the Dutch East Indies government, which affected Semarang's development. The majority of land was used for rice fields and the only small improvement was the development of a surrounding fortress. Although less developed, Semarang has a fairly arranged city system, in which urban activities were concentrated along the river and the settlement was linked to a market where different ethnic groups met to trade. The existence of the market, in the later years, become a primary element and a generator of urban economic growth. [15]

After the departure of Herman Willem Daendels, Napoleonic governor of Java, the Dutch reorganized Java into Residencies, and Semarang became the seat of the new Semarang Residency in 1817. An important influence on urban growth was the Great Mail Road project in the 1847, which connected all the cities in the northern coast of Central and East Java and positioned Semarang as the trade centre of agricultural production. [16] The project was soon followed by the development of the Netherlands Indies railway and the connecting roads into the inner city of Semarang at the end of the 19th century. [15] Colombijn (2002) [16] marked the development as the shift of urban functions, from the former river orientation to all services facing the roads.

The modern city (1870–1922)

Coat of Arms of Semarang during Dutch colonial era, granted in 1827. Coat of arms of Semarang (1827).svg
Coat of Arms of Semarang during Dutch colonial era, granted in 1827.

Improved communication, the result of the Mail and Railway projects, brought an economic boom to the city in the 1870s. There were hospitals, churches, hotels, and large houses built along new main roads; Bojongscheweg, Pontjolscheweg, and Mataram street, densified population in the ethnic settlements and created the urban kampong (village). [13]

Urban growth densified the urban kampong, reaching 1,000 inhabitants per hectare and degrading the quality of living conditions. [17] In the early 20th century, mortality rate were high due to the overcrowding and lack of hygiene that triggered cholera and tuberculosis outbreaks. [18] Cobban (1993) [17] noted the ethical movement of kampongverbetering led by Henry Tillema in 1913 and the concern of the Advisor for Decentralisation for kampong improvement through the betterment of public toilets, drainage, and the planning of public housing.

In 1917, a healthy housing project was implemented in the Southern part of Semarang called Candi Baru. Thomas Karsten, the advisor for city planning, transformed the concept of ethnic segregation that divided previous urban settlements into a new housing district plan based on economic classes. Although practically the three ethnic groups were also divided into three economic classes where the Dutch and rich Chinese occupied the largest lots in the housing district, [13] Karsten had effectively emerged the developed district by integrating the road network, introducing newly improved public washing and bathing, squares and sporting facilities that could be used communally. [19] Following the Candi Baru, there were three other housing plans between 1916–1919 to accommodate a 55% population increase in Semarang; 45,000 Javanese, 8500 Chinese and 7000 Europeans. Karsten marked a new approach to town planning with emphasis on the aesthetic, practical and social requirements, articulated not in terms of race but economic zones. [19]

Driven by economic growth and spatial city planning, the city had doubled in size and expanded to the south by the 1920s, creating a nucleus of a metropolis where multi-ethnic groups lived and traded in the city. The villages in the suburbs such as Jomblang and Jatingaleh steadily became the satellite towns of Semarang, more populated with a bigger market area. Before the invasion of Japan in 1942, Semarang had already become the capital of Central Java province, as the result of trade and industrial success and spatial planning. [13]

Japanese occupation and early independence

The Japanese military occupied the city, along with the rest of Java, in 1942, during the Pacific War of World War II. During that time, Semarang was headed by a military governor called a Shiko, and two vice governors known as Fuku Shiko. One of the vice governors was appointed from Japan, and the other was "chosen" from the local population. [ citation needed ]

After Indonesian independence in 1945, Semarang became the capital of Central Java on 18 August 1945, [20] headed by Mr. Moch.Ichsan. [21] It also became the site of a battle between Indonesian and Japanese soldiers in October 1945. [22]

Administration

Semarang city administration is headed by mayor, with a legislative assembly. Both mayor and members of legislative assembly are elected by direct vote. The government of Semarang City had implemented the smart city concept since 2013. [23] [24]

Juridically, Semarang City is a municipality (second level area) consisting of 16 districts (kecamatan), which again divided into 177 urban villages (kelurahan). The districts are tabulate below with their areas, their populations at the 2020 Census [5] and 2020 Census, [6] and the number and names of the urban villages in each district. The city of Semarang is divided into five urban areas, including: Central Semarang, East Semarang, West Semarang, South Semarang, and North Semarang.

District
(kecamatan)
Area
in km2
Pop'n
Census 2010
Pop'n
Census 2020
No. of
villages
Administrative villages (kelurahan)
Mijen57.5555,70880,90614 Cangkiran, Bubakan, Jatibarang, Jatisari, Karangmalang, Kedungpane, Mijen, Ngadirgo, Pesantren, Polaman, Purwosari, Tambangan, Wonolopo, Wonoplumbon,
Gunungpati54.1188,44498,02316Cepoko, Gunungpati, Jatirejo, Kalisegoro, Kandri, Mangunsari, Ngijo, Nongkosawit, Pakintelan, Patemon, Plalangan, Pongangan, Sadeng, Sekaran, Sukorejo, Sumurejo
Banyumanik25.69136,368142,07611 Pudakpayung, Gedawang, Jabungan, Padangsari, Banyumanik, Srondol Wetan, Pedalongan, Sumurboto, Srondol Kulon, Tinjomoyo, Ngesrep
Gajahmungkur9.0759,91156,2328 Bendanduwur, Bendanngisor, Bendungan, Gajahmungkur, Karangrejo, Lempongsari, Petompon, Sampangan
Semarang Selatan
(South Semarang)
5.9369,61762,03010Barusari, Bulustalan, Lamper Kidul, Lamper Lor, Lamper Tengah, Mugassari, Peterongan, Pleburan, Randusari, Wonodri
Candisari6.5475,87975,4567 Candi, Jatingaleh, Jomblang, Kaliwiru, Karanganyargunung, Tegalsari, Wonotingal
Tembalang44.20159,849189,68012Bulusan, Jangli, Kedungmundu, Kramas, Mangunharjo, Meteseh, Rowosari, Sambiroto, Sendangguwo, Sendangmulyo, Tandang, Tembalang
Pedurungan20.72180,468193,15112Gemah, Kalicari, Muktiharjo Kidul, Palebon, Pedurungan Kidul, Pedurungan Lor, Pedurungan Tengah, Penggaron Kidul, Plamongan Sari, Tlogomulyo, Tlogosari Kulon, Tlogosari Wetan,
Genuk27.3992,314123,31013Bangetayu Kulon, Bangetayu Wetan, Banjardowo, Gebangsari, Genuksari, Karangroto, Kudu, Muktiharjo Lor, Penggaron Lor, Sembungharjo, Terboyo Kulon, Terboyo Wetan, Trimulyo
Gayamsari6.1871,78270,2617 Gayamsari, Kaligawe, Pandean Lamper, Sambirejo, Sawah Besar, Siwalan, Tambakrejo
Semarang Timur
(East Semarang)
7.7074,78266,30210Bugangan, Karangtempel, Karangturi, Kebonagung, Kemijen, Mlatibaru, Mlatiharjo, Rejomulyo, Rejosari, Sarirejo, Bandarharjo
Semarang Utara
(North Semarang)
10.97117,836117,6059Bulu Lor, Dadapsari, Kuningan, Panggung Kidul, Panggung Lor, Plombokan, Purwosari, Tanjungmas
Semarang Tengah
(Central Semarang)
6.1460,31255,06415Bangunharjo, Brumbungan, Gabahan, Jagalan, Karangkidul, Kauman, Kembangsari, Kranggan, Miroto, Pandansari, Pekunden, Pendrikan Kidul, Pendrikan Lor, Purwodinatan, Sekayu
Semarang Barat
(West Semarang)
21.74154,878148,87916Bojongsalaman, Bongsari, Cabean, Gisikdrono, Kalibanteng Kidul, Kalibanteng Kulon, Karangayu, Kembangarum, Krapyak, Krobokan, Manyaran, Ngemplaksimongan, Salamanmloyo, Tambakharjo, Tawangmas, Tawangsari
Tugu31.7829,43632,8227Jerakan, Karanganyar, Mangkang Kulon, Mangkang Wetan, Mangunharjo, Randu Garut, Tugurejo
Ngaliyan37.99128,415141,72710Bambankerep, Beringin, Gondoriyo, Kalipancur, Ngaliyan, Podorejo, Purwoyoso, Tambak Aji, Wonosari

Geography

Semarang is located on the northern coast of Java. The city of Semarang is one of the important cities located on the north coast of Java and as the main hub connecting Jakarta and Surabaya, and cities in the southern interior of Java Surakarta and Yogyakarta. Semarang City has a height ranging from 2 m (6.6 ft) below sea level up to 340 m (1,120 ft) above sea level with a slope of 0%–45%. Semarang City is a city that has a unique topographic condition in the form of a narrow lowland area and hilly areas extending from the west side to the east side of Semarang City. The city is located about 558 km (347 mi) east of Jakarta and 312 km (194 mi) west of Surabaya.

Lowland areas in Semarang City are very narrow. The lowland area in western Semarang only has a width of 4 km (2.5 mi) from the coastline, while in the eastern Semarang, the low-lying area has a width of 11 km (6.8 mi) from the coastline. This lowland area is a flood plain from the large rivers that flow in Semarang City, such as Kali Garang (West Flood Canal), Pengkol River, and Bringin River. This low-lying area stretches on the northern side of Semarang and covers almost 40% of the total area of Semarang. This lowland area is known as the lower town (Semarang Ngisor), as well as the center of the city's economic activity. Under these conditions, the lower city area is often hit by annual flooding and its peak during the rainy season. In a number of regions, especially North Semarang, floods are sometimes also caused by overflowing sea tides (tidal floods). The hilly area in Semarang stretches on the south side. These hills are part of a series of northern Java mountain ranges that stretch from Banten to East Java. The hilly area in the city of Semarang is known as the upper city (Semarang Dhuwur). This hilly region is also the upstream area of the big rivers that flow in the city of Semarang. The upper city area is also near Mount Ungaran.

Climate

Semarang features a tropical rainforest climate that borders on a tropical monsoon climate (Am). The city features distinctly wetter and drier months, with June through August being the driest months. However, the average monthly rainfall does not fall below 60 mm (2.4 in), hence the tropical rainforest categorization. Semarang on average sees approximately 2,800 mm (110 in) of rain annually. Average temperatures in the city are relatively consistent, hovering around 28 °C (82 °F). Diurnal temperature variation slightly increases in the dry season.

Climate data for Semarang
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)39
(102)
37
(98)
37
(98)
37
(99)
38
(101)
38
(100)
41
(106)
38
(100)
37
(99)
38
(100)
38
(100)
39
(102)
41
(106)
Average high °C (°F)29
(85)
29
(85)
30
(86)
31
(88)
32
(89)
32
(89)
32
(89)
32
(89)
32
(90)
32
(90)
31
(88)
30
(86)
31
(88)
Daily mean °C (°F)27
(81)
27
(81)
28
(82)
29
(84)
29
(84)
28
(83)
28
(83)
28
(83)
29
(84)
29
(84)
28
(83)
28
(82)
28
(83)
Average low °C (°F)25
(77)
25
(77)
25
(77)
26
(78)
26
(78)
25
(77)
24
(76)
24
(76)
25
(77)
26
(78)
26
(78)
25
(77)
25
(77)
Record low °C (°F)19
(66)
22
(72)
22
(72)
22
(72)
21
(70)
20
(68)
18
(64)
18
(65)
18
(64)
20
(68)
22
(72)
22
(72)
18
(64)
Average rainfall mm (inches)430
(16.9)
360
(14.2)
320
(12.6)
230
(9.1)
160
(6.3)
80
(3.1)
80
(3.1)
60
(2.4)
100
(3.9)
160
(6.3)
220
(8.7)
330
(13.0)
2,780
(109.4)
Average rainy days1917171310844481417135
Average relative humidity (%)82828079757268676669768175
Average dew point °C (°F)23
(74)
23
(74)
24
(75)
23
(74)
23
(74)
22
(72)
22
(71)
21
(70)
22
(71)
22
(72)
23
(74)
23
(74)
23
(73)
Mean daily sunshine hours 5668881010109868
Mean daily daylight hours 12.512.312.11211.811.711.811.912.112.312.412.512.1
Average ultraviolet index 12121212111010121212121212
Source 1: Weatherbase [25]
Source 2: Weather Atlas [26] and Time and Date [27] (humidity only)

Semarang River and flood control

Like Singapore River, Semarang is constructing Semarang River at Banjir Kanal Barat (Garang River) near Karangayu Bridge. In the middle of July 2011, gardens in river banks and some traditional boats are available to use. The project will be finished in 2013 with river gardens, trotoars, garden lighting, water activities, art sites, sport sites and balconies and stairs for sightseeing. [28] In August 2011, a 421 m (1,380 ft) tunnel dodger at Kreo river has been finished and Jatibarang Dam construction can begin, with completion targeted for July 2013. The dam is planned to release 230 m3/s (8,100 cu ft/s) of flood water and will generate 1.5 MW of electricity, provide a drinking water resource and a boost to tourism. [29]

Demographics

Historical population
YearPop.±%
1950371,000    
1955424,374+14.4%
1960485,444+14.4%
1965552,128+13.7%
1970626,703+13.5%
1975782,967+24.9%
19801,009,460+28.9%
19851,125,836+11.5%
19901,242,737+10.4%
19951,333,157+7.3%
20001,427,241+7.1%
20051,491,308+4.5%
20101,560,629+4.6%
20151,706,192+9.3%
20201,866,492+9.4%
source: [30]

The largest ethnicity of Semarang includes the Javanese, followed by minorities of Chinese, Indian, Arabic, and others (including local ethnicities such as Sundanese, Batak, Madura, etc.). The dominant religion is Islam.

Semarang has a large Chinese community. As in other regions of Java, especially in Central Java, they have mingled closely with the local population and use Javanese in communication for hundreds of years. About 4–5% of the city's population is ethnic Chinese, many residing in a Chinatown in the vicinity of Gang Pinggir. The Chinatown is called "Kampong Pecinan Semawis" and expresses many aspects of traditional Chinese culture including foods, rituals, and houses of worship.

Religion in Semarang 2020

   Islam (85.28%)
   Protestantism (8.71%)
   Roman catholic (5.22%)
   Buddhism (0.68%)
   Hinduism (0.07%)
   Confucianism and others (0.04%)

Economy

As the capital city of Central Java, and fifth largest city of Indonesia, the economy of Semarang is quite large. Semarang has transformed and changed dynamically towards a better direction. In a period of less than 10 years, Semarang Metropolitan continues to build a vital financial contribution to Indonesia due to the growing trade and industry and services. As a consequence, people's purchasing power increased, capital inflows, consumer confidence, and doing business indexes were relatively conducive to the development of several CBDs such as Simpang Lima City Center (SLCC), Pemuda Central Business District (PCBD), and Gajahmada Golden Triangle (GGT). Major Indonesian and international financial and banking sectors alikes such as Bank Mandiri, BCA, BNI, BRI, Panin Bank, HSBC, Bank Permata, Standard Chartered, RaboBank, Citibank, DBS, UOB, OCBC NISP, KEB Hana Bank, CIMB Niaga, and Maybank have regional offices in Semarang.

The western part of the city has many industrial parks and factories. Like other metropolitan cities within Indonesia, due to a developing economy and increasing income, Semarang has many shopping malls, like Ciputra Mall, Simpang Lima Plasa, Paragon City, Java Supermall, DP Mall, Pollux Central City. Some of the malls are under construction, such as Queen City Mall (a.k.a. Sri Ratu Pemuda), Tentrem Simpang Lima, Uptown Mall at BSB and the Park Semarang. The supermarket and department store chains Hypermart, Giant, and Carrefour Transmart also have a presence beneath the city. Carrefour Transmart has 4 places in Semarang: Transmart Setiabudi at South Semarang, Transmart Majapahit at East Semarang, Carrefour at DP Mall in Central Semarang, and Carrefour at SMC Tlogorejo Hospital in Simpang Lima. Uniqlo, an infamous brand from Japan and H&M, respectively, opened their presence within the city in 2019 and 2020 in DP Mall, one of Sinarmas properties spots in Pemuda.

Transportation

Road

Semarang is on the Indonesian National Route 1 road, which connects it to Merak and Ketapang (Banyuwangi). Indonesian National Route 14 toward Bawen starts here. Semarang has a toll road, the Semarang Toll Road. [31] The city is connected to Solo by Semarang–Solo Toll Road. [32]

Semarang's largest bus terminals are Mangkang and Terboyo. [33] The primary means of public transportation is by minibus, called "bis". Ojek (motorcycle taxis), Angkot (share-taxi) micro-buses, taxi-cabs plays vital role in public transportation of the city. Go-Jek and Grab have online taxi and Ojek services.

Semarang is served by bus rapid transit called Trans Semarang, which operates in six routes. [34] Perum DAMRI also serves in six designated routes in the city.

Rail

Semarang Old Town seen from Semarang Tawang railway station. Semarang Old Town 2008.jpg
Semarang Old Town seen from Semarang Tawang railway station.

Semarang was connected to Surakarta (Solo) by a rail line in 1870. [35] At present there are two large train stations in Semarang: Semarang Poncol and Semarang Tawang. Semarang is connected to Bandung, Jakarta, and Surabaya by inter-city train services. Kedungsepur commuter rail connects Semarang Poncol Station eastward to Ngrombo Station in Grobogan Regency.

Air

Ahmad Yani International Airport. SemarangAirportTerminal.jpg
Ahmad Yani International Airport.

Semarang's Ahmad Yani International Airport is served by a number of operators including AirAsia, Citilink, Batik Air, Garuda Indonesia, and Lion Air which provide services to Jakarta, Bali, Kuala Lumpur, and Singapore. [36] In 2018, the airport terminal was relocated to a new and much larger site; the old terminal continues to be used for government and military flights. [37]

Sea

The main seaport is the Tanjung Mas seaport.

Landmarks and places of interest

Exterior of Blenduk Church, Semarang, 2014-06-18.jpg
Blenduk Church, the oldest church in Central Java.
Sam Po Kong Temple Semarang Indonesia.jpg
Sam Poo Kong, the oldest Chinese temple in the city.

Culture

Semarang (?) batik made prior to 1867, in the workshop owned by batik pioneer Carolina Josephina von Franquemont (1817-1867). Photo courtesy of the Queen Sirikit Museum of Textiles, Bangkok Javanese batik ca. 1871.png
Semarang (?) batik made prior to 1867, in the workshop owned by batik pioneer Carolina Josephina von Franquemont (1817-1867). Photo courtesy of the Queen Sirikit Museum of Textiles, Bangkok

Education

Diponegoro University. Widya puraya undip.jpg
Diponegoro University.

There are 593 elementary schools, 220 junior high schools, 106 senior high schools, and 88 vocational high schools, both public and private in Semarang. [43]

There are 20 universities in Semarang, 12 of them private and 8 public. The most renowned universities of Semarang are Diponegoro University and Soegijapranata University.

Sports

There are several sport centres in Semarang. Jatidiri sport centre or Jatidiri Stadium is one of the biggest sport centres in Semarang, located in Karangrejo, Gajahmungkur. The centre comprises a soccer field, in line skate track, tennis filed, climbing wall, swimming pool, and many others. The capacity of the centre is about 21,000 people. [45]

Knight Stadium is a futsal and basketball centre in Semarang, located in Grand Marina complex. There is a café and fitness centre in Knight Stadium. [46]

Cuisine

Lumpia Semarang. Loenpia Semarang.JPG
Lumpia Semarang.

Semarang is widely known for its bandeng presto (pressure-cooked milkfish), Lumpia, Wingko, Tahu Gimbal, and Ganjel Rel. Semarang has also been called 'The city of Jamu' because it is an important centre for the production of jamu which are a range of Indonesian herbal medicines that are popular across Indonesia [47] Semawis Market, also known as Pecinan Semarang (Semarang's Chinatown), hosts a plethora of street food vendors, offering a wide varieties of dishes. [48]

Festivals

Dugderan  [ id ] is an annual festival in Semarang desecrated to welcome the Ramadan month (a fasting month for Moslems). The word "dug" describes the sound of bedug (traditional Indonesian musical instrument). The word "der" describes the sound of fireworks.

The icon of the festival is a special puppet dragon-like animal called Warak Ngendog. The word "warak" stands for "holy" and the word "ngendog" expresses a reward for Moslems. Warak Ngendog's feet are chained, representing people's desire that should be postponed during this holy month. As Dugderan is a festival unique for Semarang, it represents an important attraction for both local people and visitors. [49]

Media

Suara Merdeka is the major local newspaper in Semarang, as well as Central Java. Other major newspapers include Tribun Jateng and Wawasan.

Awards

Semarang has got Adipura Award for 6 times in a row since 2012. Adipura Award is given for achievement in cleanliness and greenery at parks, streets, markets, shop buildings, premises, schools, even cleanliness of water ways and rivers. [50] Semarang City received the title of Best Smart Living and Best Smart Economy City in the Indonesia Smart Nation Award 2018. [51]

Greater Semarang

Greater Semarang was initially defined by the government as Semarang city, Semarang Regency, Salatiga city, Kendal Regency, and Demak Regency. [52] It was later extended to include the western part (12 districts only) of Grobogan Regency. Despite the definition, it includes a lot of rural areas and the urban cores remain distinct; they have not amalgamated into a continuous urban sprawl as in Greater Jakarta.

Delineation of Semarang metropolitan area [53]
Administrative divisionArea
in km2
Population
2010 Census [5]
Population
2020 Census [6]
Number of
districts
Number of
villages
City of Semarang373.781,555,9841,653,52416177
City of Salatiga 57.36170,332192,322423
Demak Regency 900.121,055,5791,203,95614249
Grobogan Regency (part) [54] 1,396.32797,160888,58112191
Kendal Regency 1,118.13900,3131,018,50520286
Semarang Regency 950.21930,7271,053,09419235
Total Kedungsepur4,795.925,410,0956,009,982851,161

Sources: BPS Jateng [55]

Notable people from Semarang

Sister cities

Semarang is twinned with:

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