This article needs to be updated. In particular: Recent change of voting system, number of senators and constituencies.November 2017)(
Senate of the Republic of Chile
Senado de la República de Chile
|54th National Congress|
|Unlimited 8-year terms|
| Government (19)|
|Open list Proportional representation|
|November 19, 2017|
|November 21, 2021|
|Senate Chamber, National Congress Building, Valparaíso, Chile|
|This article is part of a series on the|
politics and government of
The Senate of the Republic of Chile is the upper house of Chile's bicameral National Congress, as established in the current Constitution of Chile.
Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west. It borders Peru to the north, Bolivia to the northeast, Argentina to the east, and the Drake Passage in the far south. Chilean territory includes the Pacific islands of Juan Fernández, Salas y Gómez, Desventuradas, and Easter Island in Oceania. Chile also claims about 1,250,000 square kilometres (480,000 sq mi) of Antarctica, although all claims are suspended under the Antarctic Treaty.
A bicameral legislature has legislators in two separate assemblies, chambers, or houses. Bicameralism is distinguished from unicameralism, in which all members deliberate and vote as a single group, and from some legislatures that have three or more separate assemblies, chambers, or houses. As of 2015, fewer than half the world's national legislatures are bicameral.
The National Congress of Chile is the legislative branch of the government of the Republic of Chile.
According to the present Constitution of Chile, the Senate is composed of thirty-eight directly elected senators, chosen by universal popular suffrage vote in 19 senatorial circumscriptions. These serve eight-year terms, with half of them being replaced every fourth year. They must be eligible to vote, have completed secondary school, or its equivalent, and be at least 35 years old.
The current Political Constitution of the Republic of Chile, approved by Chilean voters in a controversial plebiscite on September 11, 1980, under the military dictatorship of Augusto Pinochet, partially effective March 11, 1981, fully effective 11 March 1990 and amended considerably on August 17, 1989 and on September 22, 2005 (legislatively), and also in 1991, 1994, 1997, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2003, 2007, 2008, 2009 and 2010, replaced the earlier constitution of 1925. It is Chile's eighth constitution.
Direct election is a system of choosing political officeholders in which the voters directly cast ballots for the persons, or political party that they desire to see elected. The method by which the winner or winners of a direct election are chosen depends upon the electoral system used. The most commonly used systems are the plurality system and the two-round system for single-winner elections, such as a presidential election, and party-list proportional representation for the election of a legislature.
The Senate sessions at the new (1990) National Congress located in the port city of Valparaíso that replaced the old National Congress located in downtown Santiago, the nation's capital.
Valparaíso is a major city, seaport, and educational centre in the commune of Valparaíso, Chile. "Greater Valparaíso" is the third largest metropolitan area in the country. Valparaíso is located about 120 kilometres (75 mi) northwest of Santiago by road and is one of the South Pacific's most important seaports. Valparaíso is the capital of Chile's second most populated administrative region and has been the headquarters for the Chilean National Congress since 1990. Valparaíso has seven universities.
Amendments to the Constitution, approved by a joint session of Congress on August 16, 2005, eliminated non-directly elected senators from March 11, 2006, the day 20 newly elected senators were sworn in, leaving the total number of senators at 38, all directly elected. Previously, according to the Constitution of 1980, "designated" or "institutional" senators were appointed to the chamber. Two former heads of state, Eduardo Frei Ruiz-Tagle and Augusto Pinochet, were installed as senators for life. Pinochet later resigned from this position and Frei lost his seat in the 2005 reform. However, Frei remained in the Senate by winning an elective seat.
Eduardo Alfredo Juan Bernardo Frei Ruiz-Tagle is a Chilean politician and civil engineer who was President of Chile from 1994 to 2000. He was also a Senator, fulfilling the role of President of the Senate from 2006 to 2008. He attempted a comeback as the candidate of the ruling Concertación coalition for the 2009 presidential election, but was narrowly defeated. His father was Eduardo Frei Montalva, who was President of Chile from 1964 to 1970.
Augusto José Ramón Pinochet Ugarte was a Chilean general, politician and dictator of Chile between 1973 and 1990 who remained the Commander-in-Chief of the Chilean Army until 1998 and was also President of the Government Junta of Chile between 1973 and 1981.
The Senate of Chile was created in 1812 to support the formulations of policies of the Government Junta. Since then it has undergone several constitutional reorganizations that have altered the scope of its constitutional powers, its composition and the generation of its members.
Created by Article 7 of the Provisional Constitutional Manual of 1812. It was composed of seven titular members (one for each province) and three alternate members and was supposed to serve as a counterbalance to the executive power of the Government Junta. The senators were directly nominated by the provinces in agreement with the central government. It functioned from November, 1812 to January, 1814, when it was reorganized to better respond to the problems caused by the successive military defeats at the hands of the advancing Spanish Army.
Government Junta of Chile, also known as the Provisional Junta, was the political structure established to rule Chile following the Military Coup organized by Juan Martínez de Rozas and José Miguel Carrera. It lasted until replaced by the December Junta.
Created by Article 13 of the Provisional Government Manual of 1814. As its predecessor, it was composed of seven titular members (only) nominated by the provinces in lists of three from which they were selected by the Supreme Director. It functioned from March to July, 1814, when the Spanish Army captured Santiago, putting an end to the Patria Vieja government.
The Supreme Director of Chile was the seat in charge of Chile's administration following the independence from Spain in 1810, until 1826. Several juntas also ruled the country during this period.
Created by Title III of the Constitution of 1818. It was composed of five titular members and five alternate members selected directly by the Supreme Director. It was supposed to function only when the lower house was not in function or could not meet, and had the power to enact "provisory rules" that had the same effect as laws (hence the "conservative" moniker, because it "conserved" the power.) It functioned from October, 1818 to May, 1822.
Key to Senate classes by regions:
-the 23 current senators whose seats expire in March 2026.
-the 20 current senators whose seats expire in March 2022. Plus 7 new senators, who will be elected in 2022
|Class||Election||Expire||New Majority||Chile Vamos||Other pacts||Total|
|Constituency||Region||Class||Senator||Name||Political Group||Party||Prior Public Office/Position||Education||Assumed Office||Term Expires|
|1|| Arica and Parinacota |
|1||Fulvio Rossi||New Majority||PS||Deputy District 2° (Iquique, Huara, Camiña, Colchane, Pica, Pozo Almonte and Alto Hospicio)||Pontifical Catholic University of Chile||March 11, 2010||March 11, 2018|
|1|| Arica and Parinacota |
|1||Jaime Orpis||Chile Vamos||Independent||Deputy District 25° (Macul, San Joaquín and La Granja)||Pontifical Catholic University of Chile||March 11, 2002||March 11, 2018|
|2||Antofagasta||2||Pedro Araya||New Majority||DC||Deputy District 4° (Antofagasta, Mejillones, Sierra Gorda and Taltal)||University of Antofagasta||March 11, 2014||March 11, 2022|
|2||Antofagasta||2||Alejandro Guillier||New Majority||New Majority's independents||Journalist and television reporter||Catholic University of the North||March 11, 2014||March 11, 2022|
|3||Atacama||1||Isabel Allende||New Majority||PS||Deputy District 29° (Puente Alto, Pirque, San José de Maipo and La Pintana)||University of Chile||March 11, 2010||March 11, 2018|
|3||Atacama||1||Baldo Prokurica||Chile Vamos||RN||Deputy District 6° (Caldera, Tierra Amarilla, Vallenar, Freirina, Huasco and Alto del Carmen)||Pontifical Catholic University of Chile||March 11, 2002||March 11, 2018|
|4||Coquimbo||2||Adriana Muñoz||New Majority||PPD||Deputy by District 9° (Combarbalá, Punitaqui, Monte Patria, Illapel, Salamanca, Los Vilos and Canela)|| University of Chile |
University of Vienna
|March 11, 2014||March 11, 2022|
|4||Coquimbo||2||Jorge Pizarro||New Majority||DC||Deputy by District 8° (Coquimbo, Ovalle and Rio Hurtado)||University of Chile||March 11, 2014||March 11, 2022|
|5||Valparaíso Cordillera||1||Ignacio Walker||New Majority||DC||Foreign Minister during the government of Ricardo Lagos|| University of Chile |
|March 11, 2010||March 11, 2018|
|5||Valparaíso Cordillera||1||Lily Pérez||Out of pact||Amplitude||Deputy District 38° (Curepto, Constitución, Empedrado, Pencahue, Maule, San Clemente, Pelarco, Río Claro and San Rafael)|| University of the Pacific (Chile) |
Gabriela Mistral University
|March 11, 2010||March 11, 2018|
|6||Valparaíso Coast||1||Ricardo Lagos Weber||New Majority||PPD||General Secretariat of Government minister during the government of Michelle Bachelet|| University of Chile |
University of Sussex
|March 11, 2010||March 11, 2018|
|6||Valparaíso Coast||1||Francisco Chahuán||Chile Vamos||RN||Deputy District 14° (Viña del Mar and Concon)||University of Valparaíso||March 11, 2010||March 11, 2018|
|7||Santiago West||2||Guido Girardi||New Majority||PPD||Deputy District 18° (Cerro Navia, Lo Prado and Quinta Normal)||University of Chile||March 11, 2006||March 11, 2022|
|7||Santiago West||2||Andrés Allamand||Chile Vamos||RN||Defense Minister under President Sebastián Piñera||University of Chile||March 11, 2014||March 11, 2022|
|8||Santiago East||2||Manuel José Ossandón||Chile Vamos||Independent||Mayor of Puente Alto||Inacap||March 11, 2014||March 11, 2022|
|8||Santiago East||2||Carlos Montes||New Majority||PS||Deputy District 26° (La Florida)||Pontifical Catholic University of Chile||March 11, 2014||March 11, 2022|
|9||O'Higgins||2||Juan Pablo Letelier||New Majority||PS||Deputy District 33° (Mostazal, Graneros, Codegua, Machalí, Requínoa, Rengo, Olivar, Doñihue, Coinco, Coltauco, Quinta de Tilcoco and Malloa)||Georgetown University||March 11, 2006||March 11, 2022|
|9||O'Higgins||2||Alejandro García-Huidobro||Chile Vamos||UDI||Deputy District 32° (Rancagua)||University of Chile||August 2, 2011||March 11, 2022|
|10||Maule North||1||Andrés Zaldívar||New Majority||DC||Interior Minister during the government of Michelle Bachelet||University of Chile||March 11, 2010||March 11, 2018|
|10||Maule North||1||Juan Antonio Coloma||Chile Vamos||UDI||Deputy District 31° (Talagante, Peñaflor, El Monte, Isla de Maipo, Melipilla, María Pinto, Curacaví, Alhué and San Pedro)||Pontifical Catholic University of Chile||March 11, 2002||March 11, 2018|
|11||Maule South||1||Manuel Matta||New Majority||DC||Ambassador of Chile in El Salvador||University of Chile||May 7, 2014||March 11, 2018|
|11||Maule South||1||Hernán Larraín||Chile Vamos||UDI||No previous public office||Pontifical Catholic University of Chile||March 11, 1994||March 11, 2018|
|12||Biobío Coast||2||Alejandro Navarro||New Majority||MAS||Deputy District 45° (Tomé, Penco, Florida, Hualqui, Coronel and Santa Juana)||University of Concepción||March 11, 2006||March 11, 2022|
|12||Biobío Coast||2||Jacqueline Van Rysselberghe||Chile Vamos||UDI||Intendant of the Bío Bío Region||University of Concepción||March 11, 2014||March 11, 2022|
|13||Biobío Cordillera||2||Felipe Harboe||New Majority||PPD||Deputy District 22° (Santiago)||Central University of Chile||March 11, 2014||March 11, 2022|
|13||Biobío Cordillera||2||Víctor Pérez||Chile Vamos||UDI||Deputy District 47° (Los Ángeles, Tucapel, Antuco, Quilleco, Santa Bárbara, Quilaco, Mulchén, Negrete, Nacimiento, San Rosendo, Laja and Alto Biobío)||University of Concepción||March 11, 2006||March 11, 2022|
|14||Araucanía North||1||Jaime Quintana||New Majority||PPD||Deputy District 49° (Victoria, Curacautín, Lonquimay, Melipeuco, Vilcún, Lautaro, Perquenco and Galvarino)|| Pontifical Catholic University of Chile |
University of La Frontera
|March 11, 2010||March 11, 2018|
|14||Araucanía North||1||Alberto Espina||Chile Vamos||RN||Deputy District 21° (Providence and Ñuñoa)||University of Chile||March 11, 2002||March 11, 2018|
|15||Araucanía South||1||Eugenio Tuma||New Majority||PPD||Deputy District 51° (Carahue, Nueva Imperial, Saavedra, Teodoro Schmidt, Freire, Pitrufquén and Cholchol)||University of Chile||March 11, 2010||March 11, 2018|
|15||Araucanía South||1||José García Ruminot||Chile Vamos||RN||Deputy District 50° (Temuco and Padre Las Casas)||Higher Institute of Trade||March 11, 2002||March 11, 2018|
|16||Los Ríos||2||Alfonso De Urresti||New Majority||PS||Deputy District 53° (Corral, Lanco, Mafil, Mariquina and Valdivia)||University of Chile||March 11, 2014||March 11, 2022|
|16||Los Ríos||2||Ena von Baer||Chile Vamos||UDI||Senator for Constituency 8|| Pontifical Catholic University of Chile |
RWTH Aachen University
|March 11, 2014||March 11, 2022|
|17||Los Lagos||2||Rabindranath Quinteros||New Majority||PS||Mayor of Puerto Montt||University of Chile||March 11, 2014||March 11, 2022|
|17||Los Lagos||2||Iván Moreira||Chile Vamos||UDI||Deputy District 27° (El Bosque, La Cisterna and San Ramon)||Luis Alberto Barrera High School, Punta Arenas||March 11, 2014||March 11, 2022|
|18||Aysén||1||Antonio Horvath||Independent||Independent||Deputy District 59° (Coihaique, Lago Verde, Aisén, Cisnes, Guaitecas, Chile Chico, Río Ibáñez, Cochrane, O'Higgins and Tortel)||University of Chile||March 11, 1994||March 11, 2018|
|18||Aysén||1||Patricio Walker||New Majority||DC||Deputy by District 8° (Coquimbo, Ovalle and Río Hurtado)||Diego Portales University||March 11, 2010||March 11, 2018|
|19||Magallanes||2||Carlos Bianchi||Out of pact||DRP||Councillor of Punta Arenas||Luis Alberto Barrera High School, Punta Arenas||March 11, 2006||March 11, 2022|
|19||Magallanes||2||Carolina Goic||New Majority||DC||Deputy District 60° (Puerto Natales, Torres del Paine, Punta Arenas, Río Verde, Laguna Blanca, San Gregorio, Porvenir, Primavera, Timaukel, Cabo de Hornos and Antártica)||Pontifical Catholic University of Chile||March 11, 2014||March 11, 2022|
Chile's government is a representative democratic republic, whereby the President of Chile is both head of state and head of government, and of a formal multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the president and his or her cabinet. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of the National Congress. The judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature of Chile. The Constitution of Chile was approved in a national plebiscite in September 1980, under the military dictatorship of Augusto Pinochet. It entered into force in March 1981. After Pinochet left power in 1988, saying this country was ready to keep going along with a plebiscite, the Constitution was amended to ease provisions for future amendments to the Constitution. In September 2005, President Ricardo Lagos signed into law several constitutional amendments passed by Congress. These include eliminating the positions of appointed senators and senators for life, granting the President authority to remove the commanders-in-chief of the armed forces, and reducing the presidential term from six to four years while also disabling immediate re-election. The Economist Intelligence Unit has rated Chile as "flawed democracy" in 2016.
Eduardo Nicanor Frei Montalva was a Chilean political leader. In his long political career, he was Minister of Public Works, president of his Christian Democratic Party, senator, President of the Senate, and the 28th president of Chile from 1964 to 1970. His eldest son, Eduardo Frei Ruiz-Tagle, also became president of Chile (1994–2000).
The 1973 Chilean coup d'état was a watershed moment in both the history of Chile and the Cold War. Following an extended period of social unrest and political tension between the opposition-controlled Congress of Chile and the socialist President Salvador Allende, as well as economic warfare ordered by US President Richard Nixon, Allende was overthrown by the armed forces and national police.
Fernando de Errázuriz y Martínez de Aldunate, also known as Fernando Errázuriz Aldunate, was a Chilean political figure. He served as provisional president of Chile in 1831.
Jorge Alessandri Rodríguez was the 27th President of Chile from 1958 to 1964, and was the candidate of the Chilean right in the crucial presidential election of 1970, which he lost to Salvador Allende. He was the son of Arturo Alessandri, who was president from 1920 to 1925 and again from 1932 to 1938.
Francisco Antonio Pascual de la Ascensión Ruiz de Tagle y Portales was a Chilean political figure. In 1830, he was briefly president of the country as Provisional President of Republic of Chile elected by Congress.
A senator for life is a member of the senate or equivalent upper chamber of a legislature who has life tenure. As of 2018, six Italian Senators out of 320, three out of the 47 Burundian Senators and all members of the British House of Lords have lifetime tenure. Several South American countries once granted lifetime membership to former presidents but have since abolished the practice.
A constitutional referendum was held in Chile on 11 September 1980. The proposed new constitution would replace the 1925 constitution, and was approved by over two-thirds of voters.
José Miguel Infante y Rojas was a Chilean statesman and political figure. He served several times as deputy and minister, and was the force behind the Federalist movement in that country.
The Chilean transition to democracy began when a Constitution establishing a transition itinerary was approved in a plebiscite. From 11 March 1981 to March 1990, several organic constitutional laws were approved leading to the final restoration of democracy. After the 1988 plebiscite, the 1980 Constitution, still in force today, was amended to ease provisions for future amendments to the constitution, create more seats in the senate, diminish the role of the National Security Council and equalize the number of civilian and military members.
The President of Chile, officially known as the President of the Republic of Chile is the head of state and the head of government of Chile. The President is responsible for both the Chilean government and state administration. Although its role and significance has changed over the history of Chile, as well as its position and relations with other actors in the national political organization, it is one of the most prominent political figures. It is also considered as one of the institutions that make up the "Historic Constitution of Chile", and is essential to the country's political stability.
The Ministry of the Interior and Public Security is the cabinet-level office of home affairs in Chile, in charge of "maintaining public order, security and social peace" within the country. It is also charged with planning, directing, coordinating, executing, controlling, and informing the domestic policies formulated by the President of Chile. As responsible for local government, the minister supervises all non-elected regional authorities.
Fr. José Ignacio Cienfuegos Arteaga was a Chilean priest, Roman Catholic bishop of Concepción and political figure. He served twice as President of the Senate of Chile.
The 1988 Chilean national plebiscite was a national referendum held on 5 October 1988 to determine whether Chile's de facto leader, Augusto Pinochet, should extend his rule for another eight years. The "No" side won with nearly 56% of the vote, thus ending the General's 161⁄2 years in power.
The history of the Constitution of Chile dates from 1811. There were 10 constitutional texts and a draft for a federal organization in 1826. Its common elements are the unitary form of state and presidentialism as a form of government.
The history of the Costa Rican legislature is long and starts from even before its formal independence from the Spanish Empire. Costa Rica is one of the world's oldest democracies, thus, its parliamentary history dates back several centuries.