Senate of Spain

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Senate of Spain

Senado de España
XII Legislature
Coat of Arms of the Senate of Spain.svg
Type
Type
History
Founded1837 (disband 1923–1977)
1978 (reinstituted)
Leadership
First Vice President
Second Vice President
Majority leader
Ignacio Cosidó(PP)
Minority leader
Andrés Gil García(PSOE)
Structure
Seats266
Elecciones al Senado de Espana (2019).svg
Political groups
Government (121)

Opposition (87)

Elections
Limited voting
Meeting place
Senado - sala de plenos.jpg
Palacio del Senado
Centro, Madrid
Kingdom of Spain
Website
www.senado.es

The Senate (Spanish : Senado) is the upper house of Spain's parliament, the Cortes Generales . It is made up of 266 members: 208 elected by popular vote, and 58 appointed by the regional legislatures. All senators serve four-year terms, though regional legislatures may recall their appointees at any time.

Spanish language Romance language

Spanish or Castilian is a Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in the Americas and Spain. It is a global language and the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese.

An upper house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the lower house. The house formally designated as the upper house is usually smaller and often has more restricted power than the lower house. Examples of upper houses in countries include the Australian Senate, Brazil's Senado Federal, the Canadian Senate, France's Sénat, Germany's Bundesrat, India's Rajya Sabha, Ireland's Seanad, Malaysia's Dewan Negara, the Netherlands' Eerste Kamer, Pakistan's Senate of Pakistan, Russia's Federation Council, Switzerland's Council of States, United Kingdom's House of Lords and the United States Senate.

Spain Kingdom in Southwest Europe

Spain, officially the Kingdom of Spain, is a country mostly located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula. Its territory also includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, and the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Melilla, and Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country (Morocco). Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are also part of Spanish territory. The country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar; to the north and northeast by France, Andorra, and the Bay of Biscay; and to the west and northwest by Portugal and the Atlantic Ocean.

Contents

History

The Senate was first established under the constitution of 1837 under the regency of Maria Christina of the Two Sicilies. It remained under the regimes of the constitutions of 1845, 1856, 1869 and 1876. It was composed, at that latter time, of three main categories: senators by their own right, senators for life and senators elected. This chamber, along with the Congress of Deputies, was suppressed after the coup of General Miguel Primo de Rivera in 1923.

Maria Christina of the Two Sicilies Queen consort of Spain

Princess Maria Christina of the Two Sicilies was queen consort of Spain from 1829 to 1833 and regent of the kingdom from 1833 to 1840.

Miguel Primo de Rivera Spanish politician; dictator, aristocrat, and military officer who served as Prime Minister of Spain from 1923 to 1930

Miguel Primo de Rivera y Orbaneja, 2nd Marquess of Estella, 22nd Count of Sobremonte was a dictator, aristocrat, and military officer who served as Prime Minister of Spain from 1923 to 1930 during Spain's Restoration era. He deeply believed that it was the politicians who had ruined Spain and that governing without them he could restore the nation. His slogan was "Country, Religion, Monarchy." Historians depict him as an inept dictator who lacked clear ideas and political acumen, and who alienated his potential supporters such as the army. He did not create a base of support among the voters, and depended instead on elite elements. His actions discredited the king and ruined the monarchy, while heightening social tensions that led in 1936 to a full-scale Spanish Civil War.

Only after the Spanish transition to democracy in 1978 was it reestablished.

Spanish transition to democracy Political transition following the death of leader Francisco Franco in 1975

The Spanish transition to democracy, known in Spain as the Transition, or the Spanish transition is a period of modern Spanish history, that started on 20 November 1975, the date of death of Francisco Franco, who had established a military dictatorship after the victory of the Nationalists in the Spanish Civil War. However, historians disagree on the exact date the transition was completed: some say it ended after the 1977 general election; while others place it later, when the 1978 Constitution was approved. Others suggest it ended with the failure of the 1981 attempted coup d'état. At its latest, the Transition is said to have ended with the first peaceful transfer of executive power, after the victory of the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE) in the 1982 general election.

Organization

Senators form groups along party lines. Parties with fewer than ten senators form the Mixed Group. If the membership of an existing group falls below six during a session, it is merged into the Mixed Group at the next session. For example, Coalición Canaria lost its senate caucus in 2008 after electoral losses reduced its group from six to two. The Basque Nationalist Party, falling from seven to four, "borrowed" senators from the ruling Socialist Party to form their group; in exchange, they supported the election of socialist Javier Rojo as President of the Senate. The PNV group is again under threshold after returning the borrowed Socialists, and it faces dissolution after the current session.

Basque Nationalist Party Natoinalist political party in the Basque Country

The Basque Nationalist Party, officially Basque National Party in English, is a Basque nationalist and Christian-democratic political party. It operates in all the territories comprising the Basque Country: the Basque Autonomous Community and Navarre in Spain, and in the French Basque Country. It also has delegations in dozens of foreign nations, specifically those with a major presence of Basque immigrants.

Spanish Socialist Workers Party political party in Spain

The Spanish Socialist Workers' Party is a social democratic political party in Spain. The PSOE has been in government for a longer time than any other political party in modern democratic Spain: from 1982 to 1996 under Felipe González; from 2004 to 2011 under José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero, and currently since 2018 under Pedro Sánchez.

Legally, 133 seats are required for an absolute majority, vacant seats notwithstanding.

Escudo de Espana (mazonado).svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Spain
Flag of Spain.svg Spainportal

Elections to the Senate

To date, senate elections have coincided with elections to the lower house, but the President of the Government (i.e., the Prime Minister) may legally advise the king to call elections for one chamber only, under article 115 of the Spanish Constitution. While the Congress of Deputies is chosen by party list proportional representation, the members of the senate are chosen in two distinct ways: popular election by limited voting and appointment from regional legislatures.

Limited voting is a voting system in which electors have fewer votes than there are positions available. The positions are awarded to the candidates who receive the most votes absolutely. In the special case in which the voter may vote for only one candidate and there are two or more posts, this system is called the single non-transferable vote or sometimes the strictly limited vote.

Directly elected members

Most members of the senate (currently 208 of 266) are directly elected by the people. Each province elects four senators without regard to population. Insular provinces are treated specially. The larger islands of the Balearics (Baleares) and Canaries (Canarias)—Mallorca, Gran Canaria, and Tenerife—are assigned three seats each, and the smaller islands—Menorca, Ibiza–Formentera, Fuerteventura, Gomera, Hierro, Lanzarote and La Palma—one each; Ceuta and Melilla are assigned two seats each. This allocation is heavily weighted in favor of small provinces; Madrid, with its 6.5 million people, and Soria, with 90,000 inhabitants, are each represented by four senators.

Provinces of Spain provinces of Spain

Spain and its autonomous communities are divided into fifty provinces. Spain's provincial system was recognized in its 1978 constitution but its origin dates back to 1833. Ceuta, Melilla and the Plazas de soberanía are not part of any provinces.

Canary Islands Archipelago in the Atlantic and autonomous community of Spain

The Canary Islands is a Spanish archipelago and the southernmost autonomous community of Spain located in the Atlantic Ocean, 100 kilometres west of Morocco at the closest point. The Canary Islands, which are also known informally as the Canaries, are among the outermost regions (OMR) of the European Union proper. It is also one of the eight regions with special consideration of historical nationality recognized as such by the Spanish Government. The Canary Islands belong to the African Plate like the Spanish cities of Ceuta and Melilla, the two on the African mainland.

Mallorca island in the Mediterranean Sea

Mallorca, or Majorca, is the largest island in the Balearic Islands, which are part of Spain and located in the Mediterranean. The native language, as on the rest of the Balearic Islands, is Catalan, which is co-official with Spanish.

In non-insular constituencies, each party nominates three candidates. Candidates' names are organized in columns by party on a large (DIN A3 or larger) ochre-colored ballot called a sábana or bedsheet.

Each voter may mark up to three candidates' names, from any party. This is the only occasion when Spanish voters vote for individuals rather than a party list. Panachage is allowed, but typically voters cast all three votes for candidates of a single party. As a result, the four Senators are usually the three candidates from the most popular party and the first placed candidate from the next most popular.

Before 2011, a party could not choose the order of its candidates on the ballot paper; candidates were sorted alphabetically by surname. When a party did not get all three of its candidates elected, this arrangement favored candidates with surnames early in the alphabet. This was the case for 2nd placed parties in every province and for both parties in tight races when voters did not vote for three candidates of the same party (panachage).

Regional legislatures-appointed members

Article 69.5 of the Spanish Constitution empowers the legislative assembly of each autonomous community of Spain to appoint a senate delegation from its own ranks, with one Senator per one million citizens, rounded up. Demographic growth increased the combined size of the regional delegations from 51 to 56 in 2008 for the 9th term.

Conventionally, the proportions of the regional delegations mimic their legislative assemblies, as required in principle by Article 69.5 of the constitution. However, Autonomous Communities have considerable leeway, and a motion to appoint the delegation often requires no more than a plurality. Two anomalous examples are:

Due to population growth, Andalusia, the Balearic and Canary Islands, Catalonia, and Madrid each gained a new senator in 2008. Andalusia was the last Autonomous Community to allocate its new seat; it rebuilt its entire delegation after its 2008 regional elections. The distribution after the 2015 election was:

Autonomous CommunityPopulation (2017)SenatorsSenator/pop.-ratioDistribution
Andalusia 8,403,3509933,706
13221
Aragon 1,315,7132657,857
11
Asturias 1,030,0552515,028
11
Balearic Islands 1,160,5912580,296
11
Basque Country 2,168,2543722,751
111
Canary Islands 2,164,3443721,488
111
Cantabria 581,1091581,109
1
Castile and León 2,423,8753807,958
12
Castilla-La Mancha 2,034,8013678,267
111
Catalonia 7,453,9578931,745
12122
Extremadura 1,072,8842536,442
11
Galicia 2,703,6623901,221
12
La Rioja 312,4231312,423
1
Madrid 6,506,4377929,491
1213
Murcia 1,474,0712737,036
11
Navarre 641,3451641,345
1
Valencian Community 4,932,3026822,050
11112
Total46,549,04558802,570Source:

Composition

The last election was held on 26 June 2016. The composition of the 12th Senate is:

Parliamentary groupElectedApp.Total
Republican Left Group 10212
Basque Group in the Senate (EAJ/PNV) 516
Total20858266

Role

The Spanish parliamentary system is bicameral but asymmetric. The Congress of Deputies has more independent functions, and it can also override most Senate measures. Only the Congress can grant or revoke confidence to a Prime Minister. In the ordinary lawmaking process, either house may be the initiator, and the Senate can amend hostilely or veto, the proposal then being sent back to the lower house, which can override these objections by an absolute majority vote. Organic laws, which govern basic civil rights and regional devolutions, need an absolute majority of both congress and senate to pass.

The process for constitutional amendments is slightly more tangled: the rule is to require a three fifths (60%) of both houses, but if the Senate does not achieve such a supermajority and a mixed congress-senate committee fails to resolve the issues, the Congress may force the amendment through with a two-thirds vote as long as an absolute majority of the Senate was in favour.

On the other hand, the Senate has certain exclusive functions in the appointment of constitutional posts, such as judges of the Constitutional Court or the members of the General Council of the Judicial Power. The Senate is solely responsible for disciplining regional presidents (article 155 of the Spanish Constitution). Only the Senate can suspend local governments. (Local Regime Framework Act article 61. [1] ) It exercised this power in April 2006, dissolving the Marbella city council when most of its members were found to have engaged in corrupt practices. On Friday, October 26, 2017, the Senate of Spain (Senado) voted 214 to 47 to invoke Article 155 of the Spanish Constitution over Catalonia. This decision gave Spanish Prime Minister Rajoy the power to remove secessionist politicians, including the Catalan leader Puigdemont, and rule directly from Madrid.

Senate reform has been a topic of discussion since the early days of Spanish democracy. One proposal would advance the federalization of Spain by remaking the Senate to represent the autonomous communities of Spain.

Presidents of the Senate of Spain

Kingdom of Spain (Democratic Sexennium; 18681873)

PortraitName
(Birth–Death)
Term of officeTenure
(Years and days)
PartyLegislature Monarch
(Reign)
Ref.
Francisco Santa Cruz Pacheco (Palacio del Senado de Espana).jpg Francisco Santa Cruz
President of the Senate
(1797–1883)
2 April 1871

17 September 1872
1 year, 229 days Constitutional Party 1871–1872
1872 I
(1871)
Amadeo I
Amadeo king of Spain.jpg
(1871–1873)
[2]
[3]
1872 II
(Apr 1872)
Laureano Figuerola Ballester (Palacio del Senado de Espana).jpg Laureano Figuerola
President of the Senate
(1816–1903)
17 September 1872

11 February 1873
86 days Constitutional Party 1872–1873
(Aug 1872)
[4]
[5]

Kingdom of Spain (Restoration; 18741931)

PortraitName
(Birth–Death)
Term of officeTenure
(Years and days)
PartyLegislature Monarch
(Reign)
Ref.
Manuel Garcia Barzanallana, marques de Barzanallana (Palacio del Senado de Espana).jpg Manuel García Barzanallana
Marquis of Barzanallana

President of the Senate
(1817–1892)
24 April 1877

18 September 1881
4 years, 208 days Conservative Party 1876
(1876)
Alfonso XII
King Alfonso XII.jpg
(1874–1885)
[6]
[7]
[8]
[9]
[10]
1877
1878 Ext.
1878
(1877)
1879–1880
1880–1881
(1879)
Jose de la Concha, en La Ilustracion Iberica.jpg José Gutiérrez de la Concha
1st Marquis of Havana

President of the Senate
(1809–1895)
18 September 1881

12 December 1883
2 years, 24 days Liberal Party 1881–1882
1882–1883
1883–1884
(1881)
[11]
[12]
Francisco Serrano cropped.png Francisco Serrano
1st Duke of la Torre

President of the Senate
(1810–1885)
12 December 1883

16 May 1884
156 days Dynastic Left [13]
Francisco Javier Arias Davila y Matheu, conde de Punonrrostro (Palacio del Senado de Espana).jpg Francisco Javier Arias Dávila y Matheu
12th Count of Puñonrostro

President of the Senate
(1812–1890)
16 May 1884

23 December 1885
1 year, 221 days Conservative Party 1884–1885
1885–1886
(1884)
[14]
Maria Christina
of Austria

Queenspainmc.jpg
(1885–1902)
Regent for
Alfonso XIII
General Arsenio Martinez Campos (1831-1900).jpg Arsenio Martínez-Campos
President of the Senate
(1831–1900)
23 December 1885

8 May 1886
136 days Liberal Party [15]
Jose de la Concha, en La Ilustracion Iberica.jpg José Gutiérrez de la Concha
1st Marquis of Havana

President of the Senate
(1809–1895)
8 May 1886

27 February 1891
4 years, 295 days Liberal Party 1886
1887
1887–1888
1888–1889
1889–1890
(1886)
[16]
[17]
[18]
[19]
[20]
General Arsenio Martinez Campos (1831-1900).jpg Arsenio Martínez-Campos
President of the Senate
(1831–1900)
27 February 1891

3 April 1893
2 years, 35 days Liberal Party 1891–1893
1893–1894
1894–1895
(1891)
[21]
Jose de la Concha, en La Ilustracion Iberica.jpg José Gutiérrez de la Concha
1st Marquis of Havana

President of the Senate
(1809–1895)
3 April 1893

10 November 1894
1 year, 221 days Liberal Party [22]
Eugenio Montero Rios 1914.jpg Eugenio Montero Ríos
President of the Senate
(1832–1914)
10 November 1894

7 May 1896
1 year, 179 days Liberal Party [23]
Jose Elduayen Gorriti, Palacio del Senado, Madrid.jpg José de Elduayen
1st Marquis of the Pazo de la Merced

President of the Senate
(1823–1898)
7 May 1896

18 April 1898
1 year, 346 days Conservative Party 1896–1898
(1896)
[24]
Eugenio Montero Rios 1914.jpg Eugenio Montero Ríos
President of the Senate
(1832–1914)
18 April 1898

30 May 1899
1 year, 42 days Liberal Party 1898–1899
(1898)
[25]
General Arsenio Martinez Campos (1831-1900).jpg Arsenio Martínez-Campos
President of the Senate
(1831–1900)
30 May 1899

23 September 1900 [†]
1 year, 116 days Liberal Party 1899–1900
1900–1901
(1899)
[26]
Marcelo-Azcarraga-Palmero-1898.jpg Marcelo Azcárraga Palmero
President of the Senate
(1832–1915)
18 October 1900

8 November 1900
21 days Conservative Party [27]
[28]
Manuel Aguirre de Tejada, conde de Tejada de Valdeosera (Palacio del Senado de Espana).jpg Manuel Aguirre de Tejada
Count of Tejada de Valdosera

President of the Senate
(1827–1911)
8 November 1900

8 June 1901
212 days Conservative Party [29]
Eugenio Montero Rios 1914.jpg Eugenio Montero Ríos
President of the Senate
(1832–1914)
8 June 1901

15 May 1903
1 year, 341 days Liberal Party 1901–1902
1902–1903
(1901)
[30]
[31]
Alfonso XIII
Alfonso XIII de Espana by Kaulak.jpg
(1902–1931)
Marcelo-Azcarraga-Palmero-1898.jpg Marcelo Azcárraga Palmero
President of the Senate
(1832–1915)
15 May 1903

9 October 1905
2 years, 147 days Conservative Party 1903–1904
1904–1905
(1903)
[32]
[33]
Jose Lopez Dominguez 1897 (cropped).jpg José López Domínguez
President of the Senate
(1829–1911)
9 October 1905

17 September 1906
343 days Liberal Party 1905–1907
(1905)
[34]
Eugenio Montero Rios 1914.jpg Eugenio Montero Ríos
President of the Senate
(1832–1914)
17 September 1906

10 May 1907
235 days Liberal Party [35]
Marcelo-Azcarraga-Palmero-1898.jpg Marcelo Azcárraga Palmero
President of the Senate
(1832–1915)
10 May 1907

9 June 1910
3 years, 30 days Conservative Party 1907–1908
1908–1909
1909–1910
(1907)
[36]
[37]
[38]
Eugenio Montero Rios 1914.jpg Eugenio Montero Ríos
President of the Senate
(1832–1914)
9 June 1910

11 June 1913
Acting until 8 November 1913
3 years, 2 days Liberal Party 1910–1911
1911–1914
(1910)
[39]
[40]
[41]
Marcelo-Azcarraga-Palmero-1898.jpg Marcelo Azcárraga Palmero
President of the Senate
(1832–1915)
8 November 1913

30 May 1915 [†]
1 year, 203 days Conservative Party [42]
[43]
1914–1915
1915–1916
(1914)
Sanchez Toca.JPG Joaquín Sánchez de Toca
President of the Senate
(1852–1942)
25 June 1915

6 May 1916
316 days Conservative Party [44]
[45]
Manuel Garcia Prieto 1900 (cropped).jpg Manuel García Prieto
1st Marquis of Alhucemas

President of the Senate
(1859–1938)
6 May 1916

31 May 1917
1 year, 25 days Liberal Democrats 1916
1917–1918
(1916)
[46]
[47]
Alejandro gorizard.jpg Alejandro Groizard
President of the Senate
(1830–1919)
31 May 1917

23 June 1919
2 years, 23 days Liberal Party [48]
[49]
1918–1919
(1918)
Mallendesalazar.jpg Manuel Allendesalazar
President of the Senate
(1856–1923)
23 June 1919

15 December 1919
175 days Conservative Party 1919–1920
(1919)
[50]
Sanchez Toca.JPG Joaquín Sánchez de Toca
President of the Senate
(1852–1942)
15 December 1919

26 May 1923
3 years, 162 days Conservative Party [51]
[52]
[53]
1921–1922
1922–1923
(1921)
Alvaro de Figueroa, Count of Romanones (cropped).jpg Álvaro de Figueroa
1st Count of Romanones

President of the Senate
(1863–1950)
26 May 1923

15 September 1923
112 days Liberal Party 1923
(1923)
[54]
[55]

Kingdom of Spain (1975present)

PortraitName
(Birth–Death)
Term of officeTenure
(Years and days)
PartyLegislature Monarch
(Reign)
Ref.
Antonio Fontan press freedom hero.JPG Antonio Fontán
President of the Senate
(1923–2010)
13 July 1977

2 January 1979
1 year, 173 days Union of the
Democratic Centre
Constituent
(1977)
Juan Carlos I
Juan Carlos I of Spain (2010) cropped.jpg
(1975–2014)
(Cecilio Valverde) Adolfo Suarez junto al vicepresidente primero y de Asuntos de Defensa, en el Congreso de los Diputados. Pool Moncloa. 1979 (cropped).jpeg Cecilio Valverde
President of the Senate
(1927–2001)
27 April 1979

31 August 1982
3 years, 126 days Union of the
Democratic Centre
I
(1979)
(Carvajal) Felipe Gonzalez junto al presidente del Senado y el presidente del Congreso (cropped).jpeg José Federico de Carvajal
President of the Senate
(1930–2015)
18 November 1982

2 September 1989
6 years, 349 days Spanish Socialist
Workers' Party
II
(1982)
III
(1986)
Juan Jose Laborda 1992 (cropped).jpg Juan José Laborda
President of the Senate
(born 1947)
21 November 1989

9 January 1996
6 years, 49 days Spanish Socialist
Workers' Party
IV
(1989)
V
(1993)
Escudo de Espana (mazonado).svg Juan Ignacio Barrero
President of the Senate
(born 1943)
27 March 1996

8 February 1999
2 years, 318 days People's Party VI
(1996)
Esperanza Aguirre 2004 (cropped).jpg Esperanza Aguirre
Countess consort of Murillo

President of the Senate
(born 1952)
8 February 1999

21 October 2002
3 years, 255 days People's Party
VII
(2000)
Juan Jose Lucas Jimenez junto a los integrantes de la Comision General de secretarios de Estado y subsecretarios. Pool Moncloa. 17 de octubre de 2001 (cropped) (cropped).jpeg Juan José Lucas
President of the Senate
(born 1944)
22 October 2002

20 January 2004
1 year, 90 days People's Party
(Javier Rojo) Fernandez de la Vega preside en el Senado la inauguracion del VII Congreso de la Asociacion de Constitucionalistas de Espana. Pool Moncloa. 22 de enero de 2009 (cropped).jpeg Javier Rojo
President of the Senate
(born 1949)
2 April 2004

27 September 2011
7 years, 178 days Spanish Socialist
Workers' Party
VIII
(2004)
IX
(2008)
(Pio Garcia-Escudero) AACU4015 2018 (41536086810) (cropped).jpg Pío García-Escudero
4th Count of Badarán

President of the Senate
(born 1952)
13 December 2011

Incumbent
7 years, 150 days People's Party X
(2011)
Felipe VI
(Felipe de Borbon) Inauguracion de FITUR 2018 (39840659951) (cropped).jpg
(2014–present)
XI
(2015)
XII
(2016)
Pío García-EscuderoFrancisco Javier Rojo GarcíaJuan José Lucas GiménezEsperanza Aguirre Gil de BiedmaJuan Ignacio Barrero ValverdeJuan José Laborda MartínJosé Federico de Carvajal PérezCecilio Valverde MazuelasAntonio FontánSenate of Spain

Notes

^† Died in office.

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Fernando Martínez de Espinosa y Echeverri was a Spanish admiral and the second Chief of Staff of the Spanish Navy. He held the post from 19 March until 22 October 1896. In the summer of 1895 Espinosa had commanded the Spanish squadron that represented their country at the opening of the Kiel Canal from the Infanta Maria Teresa. During the Spanish–American War, he was present at a meeting of senior Spanish naval officers chaired by Segismundo Bermejo y Merelo, the minister of the navy at the time, on 23 April 1898. Espinosa supported the idea of sending Admiral Pascual Cervera y Topete's squadron from Cape Verde to the Spanish colonies in the Caribbean. This decision was adopted by the majority of the members which led to the Battle of Santiago de Cuba. Espinosa was made Commander of the Order of Charles III in 1882 and awarded the Grand Cross of the Royal and Military Order of Saint Hermenegild on 30 October 1889.

Ismael Warleta y Ordovás was a Spanish admiral who served as the Chief of Staff of the Spanish Navy from 20 August 1897 until his death on 9 August 1898. Warleta's tenure as chief of naval staff coincided with the Spanish–American War, during which he attended a meeting on 23 April 1898 led by the naval minister Segismundo Bermejo y Merelo, where he supported the proposal of deploying Admiral Pascual Cervera y Topete's squadron to Cuba—a decision that led to the Battle of Santiago de Cuba. Previously, he had served as the head of the logistics branch of the Ministry of the Navy, and from 1888 until 1890 he commanded the cruiser Reina Regente as a ship-of-the-line captain.

Manuel Mozo y Díaz Robles was a Spanish admiral, the Chief of Staff of the Spanish Navy from 30 March 1899 till his death on 27 April 1902. Additionally, he commanded multiple different ships and squadrons, as well as serving as commandant of the Escuela Naval Militar. He himself entered the naval college at Cadíz in 1849. During the Spanish–American War, Mozo attended the 23 April 1898 meeting of senior Spanish naval officers chaired by Segismundo Bermejo y Merelo to discuss the dispatch of Admiral Pascual Cervera y Topete's squadron to Puerto Rico and Cuba. He stated that if the Government of Spain believed it was in the country's best interest, then he was in favor, otherwise he considered that it would lead to disaster unless his squadron was reinforced. He was awarded the Order of Naval Merit in 1897. As of 1895, he was a ship-of-the-line captain. He was a supporter of the Jeune Ecole French school of naval strategic thought, which he spoke of in his treatise on international maritime law.

Sánchez government

Pedro Sánchez formed the Sánchez government on 7 June 2018 as a result of the success of a motion of no confidence against Mariano Rajoy on 1 June.

Jaime Lissavetzky Spanish politician

Jaime Lissavetzky Díez is a Spanish chemist and politician. Secretary of State for Sport (2004–2011) and regional minister of Education of the Government of the Community of Madrid. He was member of the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4rd and 5th terms of the Assembly of Madrid, as well as member of the 8th Congress of Deputies and city councillor in the Ayuntamiento of Madrid.

References

  1. (in Spanish) Spanish Official Gazette: Local Regime Framework Act (Law 7/1985)
  2. "Senado.- Junta preparatoria celebrada el domingo 2 de Abril de 1871" (pdf). Gaceta de Madrid (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado (93): 759–760. 3 April 1871.
  3. "Senado.- Presidencia de edad del Sr. Conde de Chacón" (pdf). Gaceta de Madrid (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado (118): 264–265. 27 April 1872.
  4. "Senado.- Sesión celebrada el martes 17 de Setiembre de 1872" (pdf). Gaceta de Madrid (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado (262): 831–832. 18 September 1872.
  5. "Senado.- Presidencia del Excmo. Sr. D. Laureano Figuerola.- Sesión celebrada el lunes 10 de Febrero de 1873" (pdf). Gaceta de Madrid (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado (43): 501. 12 February 1873.
  6. "Real decreto nombrando Presidente del Senado para la próxima legislatura á D. Manuel García Barzanallana" (pdf). Gaceta de Madrid (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado (115): 249. 25 April 1877.
  7. "Real decreto nombrando Presidente del Senado á Don Manuel García Barzanallana, Marqués de Barzanallana" (pdf). Gaceta de Madrid (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado (10): 77. 10 January 1878.
  8. "Real decreto nombrando Presidente del Senado para la próxima legislatura á D. Manuel García Barzanallana" (pdf). Gaceta de Madrid (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado (46): 381. 15 February 1878.
  9. "Reales decretos nombrando Presidente del Senado para la próxima legislatura á D. Manuel García Barzanallana, y Vicepresidente de dicho alto Cuerpo á Don Manuel Antonio Acuña, D. Florencio Rodríguez Vaamonde, D. Francisco Mata y Alós y D. José María de Ezpeleta y Aguirre" (pdf). Gaceta de Madrid (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado (150): 615. 30 May 1879.
  10. "Reales decretos nombrando Presidente del Senado para la próxima legislatura á D. Manuel García Barzanallana, y Vicepresidente del mismo á D. Manuel Silvela, D. Guillermo Charon, D. Andrés Lasso de la Vega y D. Emilio Bernar" (pdf). Gaceta de Madrid (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado (358): 865. 23 December 1880.
  11. "Reales decretos nombrando Presidente del Senado á D. José Gutiérrez de la Concha, y Vicepresidentes á Don Telesforo Montejo y otros" (pdf). Gaceta de Madrid (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado (263): 785. 20 September 1881.
  12. "Real decreto nombrando Presidente del Senado para la próxima legislatura á D. José Gutiérrez de la Concha, Marqués de la Habana" (pdf). Gaceta de Madrid (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado (337): 603. 3 December 1882.
  13. "Reales decretos nombrando Presidente del Senado para la próxima legislatura á D. Francisco Serrano, Duque de la Torre, y Vicepresidente á D. Tomás María Mosquera" (pdf). Gaceta de Madrid (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado (347): 793. 13 December 1883.
  14. "Reales decretos nombrando Presidente del Senado á D. Francisco Javier Arias Dávila, y Vicepresidentes á D. Fermín Lasala, D. Eduardo Fernández San Román, D. Emilio Bernar y D. Cayo Quiñones" (pdf). Gaceta de Madrid (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado (139): 463. 18 May 1884.
  15. "Reales decretos nombrando Presidente del Senado para la próxima legislatura á D. Arsenio Martínez de Campos, y Vicepresidentes del mismo á D. Fermín Lasala y Collado, D. Eduardo Fernández San Román, Don Cayo Quiñones de León y D. Juan Moreno Benítez" (pdf). Gaceta de Madrid (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado (358): 963. 24 December 1885.
  16. "Real decreto nombrando Presidente del Senado para la próxima legislatura á D. José Gutiérrez de la Concha, Marqués de la Habana" (pdf). Gaceta de Madrid (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado (129): 387. 9 May 1886.
  17. "Real decreto nombrando Presidente del Senado á Don José Gutiérrez de la Concha" (pdf). Gaceta de Madrid (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado (15): 137. 15 January 1887.
  18. "Real decreto nombrando Presidente del Senado para la próxima legislatura á D. José Gutiérrez de la Concha, Marqués de la Habana" (pdf). Gaceta de Madrid (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado (333): 587. 29 November 1887.
  19. "Real decreto nombrando Presidente del Senado para la próxima legislatura á D. José Gutiérrez de la Concha, Marqués de la Habana" (pdf). Gaceta de Madrid (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado (333): 637. 28 November 1888.
  20. "Reales decretos nombrando Presidente del Senado á D. José Gutiérrez de la Concha, Marqués de la Habana, y Vicepresidente á D. Tomás María Mosquera, D. Francisco de Paula y Pavia, D. Cristóbal Colón de la Cerda, Duque de Veragua, y D. Gaspar Núñez de Arce" (pdf). Gaceta de Madrid (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado (164): 797. 13 June 1889.
  21. "Real decreto nombrando Presidente del Senado para la próxima legislatura á D. Arsenio Martínez de Campos" (pdf). Gaceta de Madrid (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado (59): 631. 28 February 1891.
  22. "Reales decretos nombrando Presidente y Vicepresidentes del Senado para la próxima legislatura á los señores que se expresan" (pdf). Gaceta de Madrid (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado (94): 473. 4 April 1893.
  23. "Reales decretos nombrando Presidente del Senado á D. Eugenio Montero Ríos, y Vicepresidentes á D. Eduardo Bermúdez Reina, D. Gaspar Núñez de Arce, D. Juan Jordán del Urries y Ruiz de Arana y D. Eduardo Martínez del Campo" (pdf). Gaceta de Madrid (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado (315): 473. 11 November 1894.
  24. "Reales decretos nombrando, Presidente del Senado, á D. José Elduayen, y Vicepresidentes, á los señores que se citan" (pdf). Gaceta de Madrid (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado (129): 401. 8 May 1896.
  25. "Reales decretos nombrando, Presidente del Senado, á D. Eugenio Montero Ríos, y Vicepresidentes, á los señores que se expresan" (pdf). Gaceta de Madrid (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado (109): 255. 19 April 1898.
  26. "Real decreto nombrando Presidente del Senado para la próxima legislatura á D. Arsenio Martínez de Campos" (pdf). Gaceta de Madrid (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado (151): 741. 31 May 1899.
  27. "Real decreto nombrando Presidente del Senado á D. Marcelo de Azcárraga" (pdf). Gaceta de Madrid (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado (292): 601. 19 October 1900.
  28. "Real decreto dejando sin efecto el de 18 de Octubre último, por el que se nombro Presidente del Senado á D. Marcelo de Azcárraga" (pdf). Gaceta de Madrid (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado (313): 505. 9 November 1900.
  29. "Reales decretos nombrando Presidente del Senado y Vicepresidentes del mismo al Conde de Valdosera, D. Antonio Dabán, Duque de Béjar, D. Faustino y San Pedro y Conde de Pallares, respectivamente" (pdf). Gaceta de Madrid (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado (313): 505. 9 November 1900.
  30. "Reales decretos nombrando Presidente y Vicepresidentes del Senado, y Senadores vitalicios, á D. Eugenio Montero Ríos, D. Manuel Eguilior, D. Federico Ochando, Marqués de Ayerbe, Don Martín de Zabala, D. Amós Salvador, D. Baltasar Hidalgo, D. Vicente Alonso Martínez, D. Felipe Sánchez Román, D. Emilio Nieto y D. Andrés Mellado" (pdf). Gaceta de Madrid (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado (160): 957. 9 June 1901.
  31. "Real decreto nombrando Presidente del Senado para la próxima legislatura á D. Eugenio Montero Ríos" (pdf). Gaceta de Madrid (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado (92): 17. 2 April 1902.
  32. "Reales decretos nombrando Presidente del Senado á D. Marcelo de Azcárraga, y Vicepresidente á D. Luis Pidal y Mon, D. Mariano Fernández de Henestrosa, D. Francisco Javier López de Carrizosa y D. Angel Avilés y Merino" (pdf). Gaceta de Madrid (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado (136): 601. 16 May 1903.
  33. "Real decreto nombrando Presidente del Senado para la próxima legislatura á D. Marcelo de Azcárraga y Palmero" (pdf). Gaceta de Madrid (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado (272): 1109. 30 September 1904.
  34. "Reales decretos nombrando Presidente del Senado para la próxima legislatura á D. José López Domínguez, Capitán General de Ejército; Vicepresidentes de dicho Cuerpo, á Don Amós Salvador y D. Emilio Nieto, y Consejero de Estado, á D. Francisco Romero Robledo" (pdf). Gaceta de Madrid (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado (283): 113. 10 October 1905.
  35. "Real decreto nombrando Presidente del Senado á D. Eugenio Montero Ríos" (pdf). Gaceta de Madrid (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado (267): 1201. 24 September 1906.
  36. "Real decreto nombrando Presidente del Senado para la próxima legislatura á D. Marcelo De Azcárraga y Palmero" (pdf). Gaceta de Madrid (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado (131): 567. 11 May 1907.
  37. "Real decreto nombrando Presidente del Senado para la próxima legislatura á D. Marcelo de Azcárraga" (pdf). Gaceta de Madrid (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado (283): 119–120. 9 October 1908.
  38. "Real decreto nombrando Presidente del Senado para la próxima legislatura á D. Marcelo de Azcárraga y Palmero" (pdf). Gaceta de Madrid (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado (288): 105. 15 October 1909.
  39. "Real decreto nombrando Presidente del Senado para la próxima Legislatura á D. Eugenio Montero Ríos" (pdf). Gaceta de Madrid (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado (164): 561. 13 June 1910.
  40. "Real decreto nombrando Presidente del Senado, para la próxima legislatura, á D. Eugenio Montero Ríos" (pdf). Gaceta de Madrid (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado (64): 617. 5 March 1911.
  41. "Real decreto admitiendo la dimisión del cargo de Presidente del Senado á D. Eugenio Montero Ríos" (pdf). Gaceta de Madrid (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado (163): 754. 12 June 1913.
  42. "Real decreto nombrando Presidente del Senado para la presente legislatura, al Capitán general de Ejército D. Marcelo de Azcárraga y Palmero, Senador del Reino" (pdf). Gaceta de Madrid (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado (313): 459. 9 November 1913.
  43. "Real decreto nombrando Presidente del Senado para la próxima legislatura a D. Marcelo de Azcárraga y Palmero" (pdf). Gaceta de Madrid (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado (90): 796. 31 March 1914.
  44. "Real decreto nombrando Presidente del Senado a D. Joaquín Sánchez de Toca" (pdf). Gaceta de Madrid (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado (177): 797. 26 June 1915.
  45. "Real decreto nombrando Presidente del Senado para la próxima legislatura a D. Joaquín Sánchez de Toca" (pdf). Gaceta de Madrid (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado (306): 247. 2 November 1915.
  46. "Real decreto nombrando Presidente del Senado para la próxima legislatura a D. Manuel García Prieto, Marqués de Alhucemas" (pdf). Gaceta de Madrid (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado (128): 242. 7 May 1916.
  47. "Real decreto nombrando Presidente del Senado para la próxima legislatura a D. Manuel García Prieto, Marqués de Alhucemas" (pdf). Gaceta de Madrid (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado (26): 197. 26 January 1917.
  48. "Real decreto nombrando Presidente del Senado para la presente legislatura, a D. Alejandro Groizard y Gómez de la Serna" (pdf). Gaceta de Madrid (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado (153): 590. 2 June 1917.
  49. "Real decreto nombrando Presidente del Senado para la próxima legislatura a D. Alejandro Groizard y Gómez de la Serna" (pdf). Gaceta de Madrid (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado (76): 782. 17 March 1918.
  50. "Real decreto nombrando Presidente del Senado para la próxima legislatura a don Manuel Allende Salazar y Muñoz de Salazar" (pdf). Gaceta de Madrid (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado (175): 1022. 24 June 1919.
  51. "Real decreto nombrando Presidente del Senado para la presente legislatura a D. Joaquín Sánchez de Toca" (pdf). Gaceta de Madrid (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado (350): 1217. 16 December 1919.
  52. "Real decreto nombrando Presidente del Senado para la próxima legislatura a D. Joaquín Sánchez de Toca" (pdf). Gaceta de Madrid (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado (4): 42. 4 January 1921.
  53. "Real decreto nombrando Presidente el Senado para la próxima legislatura a D. Joaquín Sánchez de Toca" (pdf). Gaceta de Madrid (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado (57): 866. 26 February 1922.
  54. "Real decreto nombrando Presidente del Senado para la presente legislatura a D. Alvaro de Figueroa y Torres, Conde de Romanones" (pdf). Gaceta de Madrid (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado (147): 813. 27 May 1923.
  55. "Real decreto declarando disueltos el Congreso de los Diputados y la parte electiva del Senado" (pdf). Gaceta de Madrid (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado (260): 1121. 17 September 1923.

Coordinates: 40°25′14″N3°42′46″W / 40.42056°N 3.71278°W / 40.42056; -3.71278