Senate of the Republic (Mexico)

Last updated
Senate of the Republic

Senado de la República
LXIV Legislature
Senate Seal (Mexico).svg
FoundedOctober 4, 1824 (1824-10-04)
Martí Batres Guadarrama (MORENA)
since 1 September 2018
Seats128 members
Senado de Mexico (2018-2024).svg
Political groups
Government (70)

Opposition (58)

Length of term
6 years
AuthorityChapter II of the Constitution of the United Mexican States
Limited voting
Last election
July 1, 2018 (2018-07-01)
La Patria Es Primero
(The Country Is First)
Meeting place
Senado de Mexico 02.jpg
Senate Tribune
Senate Palace
Mexico City
Official Website of the Mexican Senate

The Senate of the Republic, (Spanish : Senado de la República) constitutionally Chamber of Senators of the Honorable Congress of the Union (Spanish : Cámara de Senadores del H. Congreso de la Unión), is the upper house of Mexico's bicameral Congress.

Spanish language Romance language

Spanish or Castilian is a Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in the Americas and Spain. It is a global language and the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese.

Mexico country in the southern portion of North America

Mexico, officially the United Mexican States, is a country in the southern portion of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States; to the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; to the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and to the east by the Gulf of Mexico. Covering almost 2,000,000 square kilometres (770,000 sq mi), the nation is the fifth largest country in the Americas by total area and the 13th largest independent state in the world. With an estimated population of over 120 million people, the country is the eleventh most populous state and the most populous Spanish-speaking state in the world, while being the second most populous nation in Latin America after Brazil. Mexico is a federation comprising 31 states and Mexico City, a special federal entity that is also the capital city and its most populous city. Other metropolises in the state include Guadalajara, Monterrey, Puebla, Toluca, Tijuana and León.


After a series of reforms during the 1990s, it is now made up of 128 senators: [1]

In a senatorial race, each party nominates two candidates who run and are elected together by direct vote. The party of the two candidates that won the second highest vote within the state or the Federal District then assigns a senator to occupy the third seat (first minority seat), according to the list of candidates that the party registered with the Federal Electoral Institute (IFE).

Senators serve six-year terms, running concurrently with the President of Mexico. Special elections are rare, as substitutes are chosen at every election.

President of Mexico Head of state of the country of Mexico

The President of Mexico, officially known as the President of the United Mexican States, is the head of state and government of Mexico. Under the Constitution, the president is also the Supreme Commander of the Mexican armed forces. The current President is Andrés Manuel López Obrador, who took office on December 1, 2018.

Until 2018, the Senate was completely renewed every six years since senators are barred from immediate reelection. As of 2018, Senators can now serve a second term.

Last election

National Regeneration Movement 21,261,57737.50421355New
National Action Party 9,971,80417.5917623–15
Institutional Revolutionary Party 9,013,65815.907613–44
Party of the Democratic Revolution 2,984,8615.27628–15
Citizens' Movement 2,654,4524.68527+6
Ecologist Green Party 2,528,1754.46527+3
Labor Party 2,164,4423.82516+2
Social Encounter Party 1,320,5592.33808New
New Alliance Party 1,307,0152.311010
Invalid/blank votes2,344,3574.14
Registered voters/turnout89,994,03963.5289,994,039
Source: INE


In Spanish, it is conventional to refer to each Legislature of the Senate by the Roman numeral of its term.

A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city. Legislatures form important parts of most governments; in the separation of powers model, they are often contrasted with the executive and judicial branches of government.

The current session (whose term lasts from 2018 to 2021) is known as the LXIV Legislatura (64th Legislature).

Senators are elected to serve during two legislatures of the Mexican Chamber of Deputies. Thus, current senators (who were elected in the general election of July 1, 2018) will serve during the 64th and 65th Legislatures of the Chamber of Deputies.

Election of senators

Eligibility requirements

According to the Constitution, senators are the representatives of the nation. To be a senator, for any of the two principles of choice, you must meet the following requirements: [2]

Election process

Senators are elected for a period of six years, corresponding to two legislatures and cannot be reelected for the immediate period, although alternately.

They are elected by direct popular suffrage and secret ballot in every state of the republic. Each political party registers a list with two formulas of candidates, consisting of two owners and their alternates: the number 1 of the formula First Formula is denominated to him, and 2, Second Formula. The formula of candidates obtaining the highest number of votes is elected complete, becoming the first two senators of the entity; the third Senate seat is awarded to the candidate of First Formula of the political party that won second place of votes or first minority.

There are also 32 senators elected by proportional representation. For this election, each political party registers a list of 32 candidates, and these are allocated by proportional representation according to the number of votes obtained by each political party in the national election.

Governing bodies

For their internal government has two main instances, namely:


For the office of legislative affairs, senators integrate into Commissions that are dedicated to a particular issue. The most important committees are those of Interior, Constitutional Issues, Defense, Finance, Justice, among others. Each senator belongs to at least three different commissions, and each committee shall elect a Chairman and two Secretaries 5 (according to the Commission) to coordinate their work.


A senator holds office for a period of six years for which he was elected (from September 1 of the year of its election to the 31 August six years later), divided into two legislatures of three years each.

From 1 September 2015 is installed LXIII Legislature, which will end its term on 31 August 2018. Senators were elected to office in the 2012 elections for a period of six years and are at their posts from 1 September of that year, therefore they will hold office from the LXII Legislature to LXIII Legislature.


The two chambers of the General Congress divided its exercise into two ordinary sessions, the first from September 1 to December 15 and the second from February 1 to April 30, it should be required may convene special sessions to dispatch urgent or pertinent matters.

The time between the regular sessions known as Recesses. There are two recesses that run from December 16 to January 31 and May 1 to August 31. During breaks, the Permanent Commission of the Congress is installed and serves as the depository of the legislature; It is composed of 37 members, of which 19 deputies and 18 senators are appointed by their respective chambers the day before the closing of the regular sessions.

The sessions of the Standing Committee are held in the Senate during the first recess and the House of Representatives in the second recess.


Among the most important functions of the Senate it is to ratify or reject the president's proposals regarding: [4]

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  1. "Cámara de senadores". IFE.
  2. "Constitución Política de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos".
  3. "Senado de la República - Junta de Coordinación Política".
  4. "Senado de la República - Función de control".


  1. 1 2 The Federal District counts as a state

Coordinates: 19°26′11.57″N99°8′19.37″W / 19.4365472°N 99.1387139°W / 19.4365472; -99.1387139