Senate of the Republic
Senado de la República
|Founded||October 4, 1824|
| Government (70)|
Length of term
|Authority||Chapter II of the Constitution of the United Mexican States|
|July 1, 2018|
|La Patria Es Primero(The Country Is First)|
|Official Website of the Mexican Senate|
The Senate of the Republic, (Spanish : Senado de la República) constitutionally Chamber of Senators of the Honorable Congress of the Union (Spanish : Cámara de Senadores del H. Congreso de la Unión), is the upper house of Mexico's bicameral Congress.
Spanish or Castilian is a Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in the Americas and Spain. It is a global language and the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese.
Mexico, officially the United Mexican States, is a country in the southern portion of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States; to the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; to the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and to the east by the Gulf of Mexico. Covering almost 2,000,000 square kilometres (770,000 sq mi), the nation is the fifth largest country in the Americas by total area and the 13th largest independent state in the world. With an estimated population of over 120 million people, the country is the eleventh most populous state and the most populous Spanish-speaking state in the world, while being the second most populous nation in Latin America after Brazil. Mexico is a federation comprising 31 states and Mexico City, a special federal entity that is also the capital city and its most populous city. Other metropolises in the state include Guadalajara, Monterrey, Puebla, Toluca, Tijuana and León.
After a series of reforms during the 1990s, it is now made up of 128 senators:
In a senatorial race, each party nominates two candidates who run and are elected together by direct vote. The party of the two candidates that won the second highest vote within the state or the Federal District then assigns a senator to occupy the third seat (first minority seat), according to the list of candidates that the party registered with the Federal Electoral Institute (IFE).
Senators serve six-year terms, running concurrently with the President of Mexico. Special elections are rare, as substitutes are chosen at every election.
The President of Mexico, officially known as the President of the United Mexican States, is the head of state and government of Mexico. Under the Constitution, the president is also the Supreme Commander of the Mexican armed forces. The current President is Andrés Manuel López Obrador, who took office on December 1, 2018.
Until 2018, the Senate was completely renewed every six years since senators are barred from immediate reelection. As of 2018, Senators can now serve a second term.
|National Regeneration Movement||21,261,577||37.50||42||13||55||New|
|National Action Party||9,971,804||17.59||17||6||23||–15|
|Institutional Revolutionary Party||9,013,658||15.90||7||6||13||–44|
|Party of the Democratic Revolution||2,984,861||5.27||6||2||8||–15|
|Ecologist Green Party||2,528,175||4.46||5||2||7||+3|
|Social Encounter Party||1,320,559||2.33||8||0||8||New|
|New Alliance Party||1,307,015||2.31||1||0||1||0|
In Spanish, it is conventional to refer to each Legislature of the Senate by the Roman numeral of its term.
A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city. Legislatures form important parts of most governments; in the separation of powers model, they are often contrasted with the executive and judicial branches of government.
The current session (whose term lasts from 2018 to 2021) is known as the LXIV Legislatura (64th Legislature).
Senators are elected to serve during two legislatures of the Mexican Chamber of Deputies. Thus, current senators (who were elected in the general election of July 1, 2018) will serve during the 64th and 65th Legislatures of the Chamber of Deputies.
According to the Constitution, senators are the representatives of the nation. To be a senator, for any of the two principles of choice, you must meet the following requirements:
Senators are elected for a period of six years, corresponding to two legislatures and cannot be reelected for the immediate period, although alternately.
They are elected by direct popular suffrage and secret ballot in every state of the republic. Each political party registers a list with two formulas of candidates, consisting of two owners and their alternates: the number 1 of the formula First Formula is denominated to him, and 2, Second Formula. The formula of candidates obtaining the highest number of votes is elected complete, becoming the first two senators of the entity; the third Senate seat is awarded to the candidate of First Formula of the political party that won second place of votes or first minority.
There are also 32 senators elected by proportional representation. For this election, each political party registers a list of 32 candidates, and these are allocated by proportional representation according to the number of votes obtained by each political party in the national election.
For their internal government has two main instances, namely:
For the office of legislative affairs, senators integrate into Commissions that are dedicated to a particular issue. The most important committees are those of Interior, Constitutional Issues, Defense, Finance, Justice, among others. Each senator belongs to at least three different commissions, and each committee shall elect a Chairman and two Secretaries 5 (according to the Commission) to coordinate their work.
A senator holds office for a period of six years for which he was elected (from September 1 of the year of its election to the 31 August six years later), divided into two legislatures of three years each.
From 1 September 2015 is installed LXIII Legislature, which will end its term on 31 August 2018. Senators were elected to office in the 2012 elections for a period of six years and are at their posts from 1 September of that year, therefore they will hold office from the LXII Legislature to LXIII Legislature.
The two chambers of the General Congress divided its exercise into two ordinary sessions, the first from September 1 to December 15 and the second from February 1 to April 30, it should be required may convene special sessions to dispatch urgent or pertinent matters.
The time between the regular sessions known as Recesses. There are two recesses that run from December 16 to January 31 and May 1 to August 31. During breaks, the Permanent Commission of the Congress is installed and serves as the depository of the legislature; It is composed of 37 members, of which 19 deputies and 18 senators are appointed by their respective chambers the day before the closing of the regular sessions.
The sessions of the Standing Committee are held in the Senate during the first recess and the House of Representatives in the second recess.
Among the most important functions of the Senate it is to ratify or reject the president's proposals regarding:
The Congress of the Union, formally known as the General Congress of the United Mexican States, is the bicameral legislature of the federal government of Mexico consisting of two chambers: the Senate of the Republic and the Chamber of Deputies.
The Chamber of Deputies is the lower house of the Congress of the Union, the bicameral legislature of Mexico. The other chamber is the Senate. The structure and responsibilities of both chambers of Congress are defined in Articles 50 to 70 of the current constitution.
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The Argentine Senate is the upper house of the National Congress of Argentina.
Elections in Mexico determine who, on the national level, takes the position of the head of state – the president – as well as the legislature.
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Brazil elects on the national level a head of state—the president—and a legislature. The president is elected to a four-year term by absolute majority vote through a two-round system. The National Congress has two chambers. The Chamber of Deputies has 513 members, elected to a four-year term by proportional representation. The Federal Senate has 81 members, elected to an eight-year term, with elections every four years for alternatively one-third and two-third of the seats. Brazil has a multi-party system, with such numerous parties that often no one party has a chance of gaining power alone, and so they must work with each other to form coalition governments.
Uruguay elects on national level a head of state - the president - and a legislature.
The Congress of the Republic of Peru is the unicameral body that assumes legislative power in Peru. The congress consists of 130 members (congresistas), who are elected for five-year periods in office on a proportional representation basis.
The Plurinational Legislative Assembly is the national legislature of Bolivia, placed in La Paz, the country's seat of government.
The Federal Senate is the upper house of the National Congress of Brazil. Created by the first Constitution of the Brazilian Empire in 1824, it was initially similar to the United Kingdom's House of Lords. Since the Proclamation of the Republic in 1889 the Federal Senate has resembled the United States Senate.
The Federal government of Mexico is the national government of the United Mexican States, the central government established by its constitution to share sovereignty over the republic with the governments of the 31 individual Mexican states, and to represent such governments before international bodies such as the United Nations. The Mexican federal government has three branches: executive, legislative, and judicial and functions per the Constitution of the United Mexican States, as enacted in 1917, and as amended.
The L Legislature of the Mexican Congress met from 1976 to 1979. It consisted of senators and deputies who were members of their respective chambers. They began their duties on September 1, 1976 and ended on August 31, 1979.
General elections were held in Dominican Republic on 15 May 2016 to elect a president, vice-president and the Congress, as well as 20 deputies to the Central American Parliament, municipal councils, mayors and vice mayors. On 15 May 2015 Roberto Rosario, president of the Central Electoral Board, said that there would be about 4,300 seats up for election in the "most complex elections in history".
The LXIII Legislature of the Mexican Congress is made up of senators and deputies that are members of their respective chambers. It convened on September 1, 2015 and concluded on August 31, 2018.
The Senate was the upper house of the Parliament of Portugal during the periods of validity of the Constitution of 1838 (1838-1842) and of the Constitution of 1911 (1911-1933).