Sendai

Last updated
Sendai

仙台市
SendaiTop.png
Clockwise from top left: Sendai Tanabata Festival, Sendai Pageant of Starlight, Jozenji-dori in summer, night skyline as seen from Aoba Castle, equestrian statue of Date Masamune, and Sendai gyūtan
Flag of Sendai, Miyagi.svg
Flag
Symbol of Sendai, Miyagi.svg
Seal
Nickname(s): 
City of Trees
Sendai
Sendai in Miyagi Prefecture Ja.svg
Location of Sendai in Miyagi Prefecture
Japan location map with side map of the Ryukyu Islands.svg
Red pog.svg
Sendai
 
Coordinates: 38°16′5.6″N140°52′9.9″E / 38.268222°N 140.869417°E / 38.268222; 140.869417 Coordinates: 38°16′5.6″N140°52′9.9″E / 38.268222°N 140.869417°E / 38.268222; 140.869417
Country Japan
Region Tōhoku
Prefecture Miyagi
Government
  Mayor Kazuko Kōri
Area
   Designated city 786.30 km2 (303.59 sq mi)
Population
 (June 1, 2020)
   Designated city 1,091,407
  Density1,400/km2 (3,600/sq mi)
   Metro
[1] (2015)
1,612,499 (8th)
Time zone UTC+09:00 (Japan Standard Time)
Symbols 
• Tree Japanese zelkova
• Flower Japanese clover
Phone number022-261-1111
Address3-7-1 Kokubun-cho, Aoba-ku, Sendai-shi, Miyagi-ken 980-8671
Website Official website
Sendai
Japanese name
Kanji 仙台
Hiragana せんだい
Katakana センダイ

Sendai (仙台市, Sendai-shi, Japanese:  [seꜜndai] ) is the capital city of Miyagi Prefecture, Japan, the largest city in the Tōhoku region, and the second largest city north of Tokyo. As of 1 June 2020, the city had a population of 1,091,407 in 525,828 households, [2] and is one of Japan's 20 designated cities. The city was founded in 1600 by the daimyō Date Masamune. It is nicknamed the City of Trees (杜の都, Mori no Miyako); there are zelkova trees lining many of the main thoroughfares such as Jōzenji Street (定禅寺通, Jōzenji dōri) and Aoba Street (青葉通, Aoba dōri). In the summer, the Sendai Tanabata Festival, the largest Tanabata festival in Japan, is held. In winter, the trees are decorated with thousands of lights for the Pageant of Starlight (光のページェント, Hikari no pējento), lasting through most of December.

Contents

On 11 March 2011, coastal areas of the city suffered catastrophic damage from a magnitude 9.0 offshore earthquake, [3] [4] [5] which triggered a destructive tsunami. [6]

History

Edo period

Although the Sendai area was inhabited as early as 20,000 years ago, the history of Sendai as a city begins from 1600, when the daimyō Date Masamune relocated to Sendai. Masamune was not happy with his previous stronghold, Iwadeyama, which was located in the northern portion of his territories and was difficult to access from Edo (modern-day Tokyo). Sendai was an ideal location, being in the centre of Masamune's newly defined territories, upon the major road from Edo, and near the sea. Tokugawa Ieyasu gave Masamune permission to build a new castle in Aobayama after the Battle of Sekigahara. The previous ruler of the Sendai area had used a castle located on Aobayama. At this time Sendai was written as 千代 ("a thousand generations"), because a temple with a thousand Buddha statues (千体, sentai) used to be located in Aobayama. Masamune changed the kanji to "仙臺", which later became "仙台" (literally: "hermit/wizard" plus "platform/plateau" or more figuratively, "hermit on a platform/high ground"). The character came from a Chinese poem that praised a palace created by the Emperor Wen of Han China (reigned 180–157 BCE), comparing it to a mythical palace in the Kunlun Mountains. Tradition says that Masamune chose this kanji so that the castle would prosper as long as a mountain inhabited by an immortal hermit.

Masamune ordered the construction of Sendai Castle in December 1600 and the construction of the surrounding castle town in 1601. The grid plan roads in present-day central Sendai are based upon his plans.

Modern era

The first railway line between Sendai and Tokyo, now the Tōhoku Main Line, opened in 1887, bringing the area within a day's travel from Tokyo for the first time in history. Tohoku Imperial University, the region's first university, was founded in Sendai in 1907 and became the first Japanese university to admit female students in 1913.

Sendai was incorporated as a city on 1 April 1889, with the post-Meiji restoration creation of the modern municipalities system following the abolition of the han system. At the time of incorporation, the city's area was 17.45 square kilometres (6.74 sq mi) and its population was 86,000. The city grew, however, through seven annexations that occurred between 1928 and 1988. The city became a designated city on 1 April 1989; the city's population exceeded one million in 1999.

Sendai was considered to be one of Japan's greenest cities, mostly because of its great numbers of trees and plants. Sendai became known as The City of Trees before the Meiji Restoration, after the feudal Sendai Domain encouraged residents to plant trees in their gardens. As a result, many houses, temples, and shrines in central Sendai had household forests (屋敷林, yashikirin), which were used as resources for wood and other everyday materials.

In 1925, the Senseki Line to Sendai Station became the first underground railway segment in Japan, preceding the opening of the Tokyo Metro Ginza Line (Asia's first subway line) by two years.

The 2nd Infantry Division was known as the "Sendai Division" as it was based in Sendai, and recruited locally. During the Second World War it was involved in many different campaigns, but one of the most important was the Battle of Guadalcanal. During the bombing of Sendai during World War II by the United States on 10 July 1945, much of the historic center of the city was burned, with 2,755 inhabitants killed and 11,933 houses destroyed in the city.

World War II and later

Following World War II, the city was rebuilt, and Sendai became a vital transportation and logistics hub for the Tōhoku region with the construction of major arteries such as the Tōhoku Expressway and Tōhoku Shinkansen.

In the early 1950s, the United States Army, Japan operated Camp Schimmelpfennig and Camp Sendai in the city.

Sendai has been subject to several major earthquakes in recent history, including the 1978 Miyagi earthquake, which was a catalyst for the development of Japan's current earthquake resistance standards, and the 2005 Miyagi earthquake. Most recently, the coastal area of Sendai, including Sendai Airport, was severely damaged in the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami. [3] [4] [5] [7] [8] The tsunami reportedly reached as far as Wakabayashi Ward Office, 8 kilometers (5.0 mi) from the coastline. Thousands were killed, and countless more were injured and/or made homeless. Sendai's port was heavily damaged and temporarily closed, reopening on 16 April 2011. [9]

As league champions, the Eagles advanced directly to the Final Stage of the Climax Series Final where they defeated the Marines to advance to their first Japan Series. Rakuten defeated the Giants at home in the final game of a seven-game series to win the franchise's first and only Japan Series championship.

Geography

Sendai is located at lat. 38°16'05" north, long. 140°52'11" east. The city's area is 788.09 km2 (304.28 sq mi), and stretches from the Pacific Ocean to the Ōu Mountains, which are the east and west borders of Miyagi Prefecture. As a result, the city's geography is quite diverse. Eastern Sendai is a plains area, the center of the city is hilly, and western areas are mountainous. The highest point in the city is Mount Funagata which stands 1,500 metres (4,921 feet) above sea level. Unique among Japan's large coastal cities, Sendai's city core is built on a terrace at 40–60 m (131–197 ft) elevation.

The Sendai basin area is 939 km2 (363 sq mi) (the mountainous area is 675 km2 (261 sq mi), the plain area is 245 km2 (95 sq mi) and the water body is 20 km2 (8 sq mi)). The basin consists of urban areas, paddy fields and forests. The mid and upstream areas have forests. The natori river flows through the area and reaches Sendai Bay after 55 km (34 mi). [10]

The Hirose River (広瀬川, Hirose-gawa) flows 45 kilometres (28 miles) through Sendai. The river is well known as a symbol of Sendai, especially because it appears in the lyrics of Aoba-jō Koi-uta (青葉城恋唄; literally, The Aoba Castle Love Song), a popular song sung by Muneyuki Satō. Sendai Castle was built close to the river to use the river as a natural moat. The river frequently flooded until the 1950s, but dams and levees constructed in the 1960s and 1970s have made such floods rare.

Most mountains in Sendai are dormant volcanoes, much older than the more famous Mount Zaō and Naruko volcanoes in nearby municipalities. However, many hot springs can be found in the city, indicating hydrothermal activity. The Miyagi Oki earthquake occurs offshore Sendai once every 25 to 40 years. The 7.2 magnitude 2005 Miyagi earthquake, which occurred on August 16, 2005, had an epicenter close to the Miyagi Oki earthquake area. However, the Headquarters for Earthquake Research Promotion concluded that it was not the Miyagi Oki earthquake, saying "...the recent event is not thought to be this earthquake. This is because the magnitude of the earthquake was small, and the source area, which was estimated from the aftershock distribution and seismic waves, didn't cover the whole expected source region. Although, the recent event ruptured a part of the focal region of the expected earthquake." [11] In 2011, the 9.0 magnitude 2011 Tōhoku earthquake occurred offshore Sendai, resulting in a devastating tsunami.

Wards

Sendai has five wards ("ku"), which were created when it became a designated city in 1989. The city consciously avoided names that included directions (e.g., north , center 中央 ) when it chose names for the new wards.

Wards of Sendai
Place NameMap of Sendai
Rōmaji Kanji ColorPopulationLand area in km2Pop. density

per km2

1 Aoba-ku - (administrative center)青葉区 Japan WardColour 0x40x100.png blue


296,551302.278981
A map of Sendai's Wards Sendai wards.png
A map of Sendai's Wards
2 Izumi-ku 泉区 Japan WardColour 100x0x0.png red


215,048146.611,470
3 Miyagino-ku
宮城野区 Japan WardColour 100x80x0.png yellow196,08658,193,370
4 Taihaku-ku 太白区 Japan WardColour 100x40x0.png orange


226,069228.39997
5 Wakabayashi-ku 若林区 Japan WardColour 60x80x0.png light green137,49450.862,700

Cityscape

Climate

Sendai has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa), which features warm and wet summers, and cool and dry winters. Sendai summers are not as hot as Tokyo to the south, while the winters are much milder than Sapporo to the north, but retains significant seasonal differences in temperature and rainfall. Extremes range from −11.7 to 37.2 °C (10.9 to 99.0 °F). Of Japan's prefectural capitals, Sendai experiences the fewest days of extreme temperatures (highs outside 0–30 °C (32–86 °F)) at 19.6 per year, compared to Tokyo's average of 49.

Winters are cool and relatively dry, with January temperatures averaging 1.5 °C (34.7 °F). Snowfall is much lower than cities on the Sea of Japan coast, such as Niigata and Tottori. Summers are very warm and much of the year's precipitation is delivered at this time, with an August average of 24.1 °C (75.4 °F). The city is rarely hit by typhoons, and experiences only 6 days with more than 10 centimetres (4 in) of rainfall on average. Sendai's monsoon season usually begins in late April to early October, which is later than in most cities in Japan. During this season, cold winds from the Okhotsk air mass, called "Yamase", blow in and depress daytime highs. [12]

Climate data for Sendai (1991−2020 normals, extremes 1926−present)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)17.9
(64.2)
20.9
(69.6)
24.2
(75.6)
29.9
(85.8)
33.2
(91.8)
34.4
(93.9)
36.7
(98.1)
37.3
(99.1)
36.0
(96.8)
29.9
(85.8)
24.4
(75.9)
21.8
(71.2)
37.3
(99.1)
Average high °C (°F)5.6
(42.1)
6.5
(43.7)
10.0
(50.0)
15.5
(59.9)
20.2
(68.4)
23.1
(73.6)
26.6
(79.9)
28.2
(82.8)
25.0
(77.0)
19.8
(67.6)
14.1
(57.4)
8.3
(46.9)
16.9
(62.4)
Daily mean °C (°F)2.0
(35.6)
2.4
(36.3)
5.5
(41.9)
10.7
(51.3)
15.6
(60.1)
19.2
(66.6)
22.9
(73.2)
24.4
(75.9)
21.2
(70.2)
15.7
(60.3)
9.8
(49.6)
4.5
(40.1)
12.8
(55.0)
Average low °C (°F)−1.3
(29.7)
−1.1
(30.0)
1.4
(34.5)
6.3
(43.3)
11.7
(53.1)
16.1
(61.0)
20.2
(68.4)
21.6
(70.9)
18.0
(64.4)
11.9
(53.4)
5.6
(42.1)
0.9
(33.6)
9.3
(48.7)
Record low °C (°F)−11.7
(10.9)
−11.5
(11.3)
−8.9
(16.0)
−5.0
(23.0)
−0.3
(31.5)
5.4
(41.7)
9.0
(48.2)
12.9
(55.2)
5.6
(42.1)
−0.1
(31.8)
−5.0
(23.0)
−10.8
(12.6)
−11.7
(10.9)
Average precipitation mm (inches)42.3
(1.67)
33.9
(1.33)
74.4
(2.93)
90.2
(3.55)
110.2
(4.34)
143.7
(5.66)
178.4
(7.02)
157.8
(6.21)
192.6
(7.58)
150.6
(5.93)
58.7
(2.31)
44.1
(1.74)
1,276.7
(50.26)
Average snowfall cm (inches)21
(8.3)
18
(7.1)
11
(4.3)
1
(0.4)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
9
(3.5)
59
(23)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.5 mm)7.67.29.19.210.212.315.512.713.09.67.47.9121.7
Average relative humidity (%)66646163707983817872686871
Mean monthly sunshine hours 149.0154.7178.6193.7191.9143.7126.3144.5128.0147.0143.4136.31,836.9
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency [13]

Demographics

In 2020 the city had an estimated population of 1,091,407 and a population density of 1,400 persons per km2. The city's total area was 786.30 km2. Most people in the city at this time lived in urban areas close to train and subway stations. The 2000 National Census revealed that 88.5% of the city's population (892,252 people) lived in a 129.69 km2 area, which is 16.6% of the city's total area. The population density in this area was 6,879.9 persons per km2, more than 5 times higher than the city's average population density at that time, 1,286.6 persons per km2. Approximately 10,000 people in Sendai were non-Japanese citizens.

Sendai had 525,828 households in 2020. The average household had approximately 2.07 members. The average household was becoming smaller every year, because single-member households were increasing. At this time Sendai had more people in their early 50s and in their 20s and early 30s than in other age groups. This is a result of the first and second baby booms in Japan, and university students. The average age in Sendai is 38.4, which makes the city one of the youngest major cities in Japan. [14]

Historical population
YearPop.±%
1920 190,013    
1930 252,017+32.6%
1940 284,132+12.7%
1950 380,217+33.8%
1960 459,876+21.0%
1970 598,850+30.2%
1980 792,036+32.3%
1990 918,398+16.0%
2000 1,008,130+9.8%
2010 1,045,913+3.7%

Governance

Sendai City Hall SendaiShiyakusho2005-5.jpg
Sendai City Hall

Sendai's political system is similar to other cities in Japan, because the Local Autonomy Law makes all municipalities uniform in terms of organization and power. However, Sendai is a designated city, so it has the same jurisdiction as prefectures in some areas.

Sendai has a mayor-council form of government with a directly elected mayor and a unicameral city legislature. The Sendai City Assembly members are elected from 5 elective districts, which correspond to the city's 5 wards. The number of assembly members allocated to each ward is based upon population. As of May 2005, the city has 60 assembly members; 17 from Aoba Ward, 11 from Miyagino, 8 from Wakabayashi, 13 from Taihaku, and 11 from Izumi. The City Assembly elects an Assembly Chairperson and Vice Chairperson. Sendai has two vice mayors, who are not elected by the populace. Miyagi contributes 24 seats to the Miyagi Prefectural legislature. In terms of national politics, the city is divided between the Miyagi 1st district and the Miyagi 2nd district of the lower house of the Diet of Japan.

List of Mayor of Sendai (1889 to present)

Economy

Sendai MEA Sendai Metropolitan Employment Area.svg
Sendai MEA
Downtown of Sendai Sendai Station West Exit 2021.jpg
Downtown of Sendai

Sendai is the center of the Tōhoku region's economy, and is the base of the region's logistics and transportation. The GDP in Greater Sendai, Sendai Metropolitan Employment Area (1.6 million people), is US$61.7 billion in 2010. [15] [16] Sendai city by itself has a nominal GDP of approximately US$50 billion as of 2015. [17] The city's economy heavily relies upon retail and services – the two industries provide approximately two thirds of the employment and close to half of the establishments.

Sendai is frequently called a branch-office economy[ by whom? ], because very few major companies are headquartered in the city. Various authorities are cooperating to alleviate this problem, primarily by encouraging high-tech ventures from Tohoku University, which is well known for its science and engineering departments. There are also incentives for startups available from the prefectural government. [18]

Tohoku Electric Power, a major regional supplier of electric power, has its headquarters in Sendai and also operates the Shin-Sendai Thermal Power Station located within the city.

Sendai's economic growth rate has stabilized since the 2011 Japan earthquake. The growth rate was only 0.4% in 2011 after the quake created economic turmoil in coastal areas. The year after, in 2012 the rate spiked to 10.4% after reconstruction efforts. It has since fallen to a closer trend to what is expected of 3.7% in 2013. [19]

Tourism in 2016 attracted an estimated 2.229 million visitors to Sendai. [19]

Education

Tohoku University Kawauchi Campus Kawauchicampus.jpg
Tohoku University Kawauchi Campus

Sendai is sometimes called an "Academic City" (学都, gakuto) because the city has many universities relative to its population. [20]

Universities located within Sendai include:

Schools in the city include Tohoku International School.

Transport

Airport

The city is served by Sendai Airport (located in neighboring Natori), which has international flights to several countries, and the Port of Sendai. A rail link to Sendai began service on March 18, 2007.

Railway

JR East's Sendai Station is the main transport hub for the city. The station is served by seven JR lines and is a major station on the Tōhoku and Akita Shinkansen lines. An underground passage connects the station to the Sendai Subway. The subway has two lines— Namboku ("north-south") and Tōzai ("east-west") with a total of 30 stations. When completed in 2015, Yagiyama station became the highest-elevated subway station in the country at 136.4 meters.

Bus

In addition to the public bus system, a loop bus called Loople runs between tourism hotspots around the city. [21]

Highways

The Tōhoku Expressway runs north–south through western Sendai, and is connected to other highways, such as the Sendai-Nambu Road, Sendai-Tobu Road, Sanriku Expressway (Sendai-Matsushima Road), and Sendai Hokubu Road.

Port

Ferries connecting Tomakomai and Nagoya stop at the Port of Sendai. [22]

Culture

Streets

Sendai Tanabata Festival SendaiTanabata1.jpg
Sendai Tanabata Festival
Sendai Pageant of Starlight sendaiGuang nopeziento.JPG
Sendai Pageant of Starlight
Dainenji DainenjiDateTomb2005-10-6.jpg
Dainenji
The Miyagi Museum of Art The miyagi museum of art01s3872.jpg
The Miyagi Museum of Art

The most well-known streets in Sendai, Jozenji-Dori (定禅寺通り) and Aoba-Dori (青葉通り), are both lined with Japanese zelkovas. These are symbols of "The City of Trees". Jozenji-Dori has a promenade and a few sculptures. It is a place of relaxation. Many events and festivals, such as the Sendai Pageant of Starlight and the Jozenji Street Jazz Festival, take place on Jozenji-Dori and in Kōtōdai Park (匂当台公園). Aoba-Dori is the main business road in Sendai. Other major roads in the city include Hirose-Dori (ginkgo) and Higashi-Nibancho-Dori.

Festivals

The most famous festival in Sendai is Tanabata, which attracts more than 2 million visitors every year and is the largest Tanabata Festival in Japan. It is relatively quiet compared to other traditional Japanese festivals, because its main attractions are intricate Tanabata decorations.

The Aoba Matsuri Festival follows more typical Japanese festival traditions, with a mikoshi, floats, a samurai parade, and traditional dancing. [23]

Local people burn their New Year decorations and pray for health in the new year during the Dontosai Festival, the oldest festival in Miyagi Prefecture.

Various contemporary festivals also take place in Sendai, such as the Jōzenji Streetjazz Festival, the Michinoku Yosakoi Festival, and the Sendai Pageant of Starlight. The Jōzenji Streetjazz Festival is one of the largest amateur music festivals in Japan. It began as a jazz festival in 1991, but soon began to accept applications from all genres. The Michinoku Yosakoi festival is a dance festival, derived from the Yosakoi Festival that takes place in Kōchi. Trees in downtown Sendai are decorated with lights during the Sendai Pageant of Starlights. The event provided the idea for the Festival of Lights annually held in Riverside, Sendai's sister city. In 2005, the streets were lit up with one million miniature bulbs.

Specialties and crafts

Gyutan teishoku, a Table d'hote of beef tongue Gyutan teishoku.JPG
Gyūtan teishoku , a Table d'hôte of beef tongue

Sendai is the origin of several foods, including gyūtan (beef tongue, usually grilled), hiyashi chūka (cold Chinese noodles), and robatayaki (Japanese-style barbecue). However, robatayaki was later introduced to Kushiro, which developed and popularized the dish. As a result, many people believe Kushiro is the origin of Robatayaki. Zundamochi (ずんだ餅, mochi balls with sweet, bright green edamame paste), and sasakamaboko (笹かまぼこ, kamaboko shaped like bamboo leaves) are also considered to be Sendai specialties. Sendai is also known for good sashimi, sushi, and sake. This is because Sendai is near several major fishing ports, such as Kesennuma, Ishinomaki, and Shiogama, and the fact that Miyagi Prefecture is a major producer of rice. There are many ramen restaurants in Sendai, and the area is known for a particular spicy miso ramen. Also, Sendai station offers the most types of ekiben of any station in Japan. In autumn, many people organise Imonikai, a sort of picnic by the river which involves making a potato stew called Imoni .

Many crafts from Sendai were originally created under the influence of the Date family during the Edo period. Examples are Sendai Hira, a hand woven silk fabric, Tsutsumiyaki pottery, and Yanagiu Washi paper. However, some crafts, such as umoregi zaiku (crafts created from fossil wood) were developed by low-ranking samurai who needed side jobs to survive. Kokeshi dolls were popularized by hot spring resorts that sold them as gifts. Some relatively recent developments include Sendai Tsuishu lacquerware and Tamamushinuri lacquerware, both of which were developed after the Meiji Restoration.

Sendai was also known for its production of Tansu, clothing drawers made from wood with elaborate ironwork.

Sites of interest

Zuihoden Zuiho-den17s3872.jpg
Zuihōden

Sendai is home to historical sites related to the Date clan. The ruins of Sendai Castle are close to downtown on Aobayama, which also gives a panoramic view of the city. The Zuihōden is the tomb of Date Masamune and is home to artifacts related to the Date family. It is on a hill called Kyogamine, which is the traditional resting place for Date family members. In Aoba-ku, the Ōsaki Hachiman-gū shaden, built in 1607 by Date Masamune, is designated a National Treasure. Mutsu Kokubun-ji Yakushidō is the provincial temple of Mutsu Province.

Sendai Castle SendaiJoOtemonSumiYagura2003-11.jpg
Sendai Castle

Newer historical sites include the former home of Doi Bansui, a famous lyricist, and a monument at Sendai City Museum that commemorates the Chinese writer Lu Xun. Another statue of Lu Xun can be found in the Tohoku University Katahira Campus, where Lu Xun studied medical science. Older historical sites include the Tōmizuka Tomb, a tomb that dates back to the late 4th century or early 5th century, and the Tomizawa Preserved Forest site, where the excavated remains of a Stone Age human settlement (Upper Palaeolithic – roughly 20,000 years ago) have been protected by a large museum structure, built in 1996. The nearby Site of Tagajō was an important early fort and administrative centre.

Museums

Sendai Umino-Mori Aquarium Sendai Unino-mori Aquarium 2015-07.JPG
Sendai Umino-Mori Aquarium

Sendai City Museum displays artifacts related to the Date family and the history of Sendai. Date Masamune's famous suit of armour and artifacts related to Hasekura Tsunenaga's visit to Rome (National Treasures of Japan) are sometimes on display.

The Sendai Umino-Mori Aquarium, which opened in 2015 as a successor to the Marinepia Matsushima Aquarium, is focusing on raising the Sanriku fish, the blue sharks.

The Miyagi Museum of Art is Sendai's largest art museum. A total of 24 sculptures have been installed in public locations in Sendai through its 'City of Sculptures' project.

The Sendai City Tomizawa Site Museum in the southern part of the city preserves a fossilized forest where the remains of human habitation from 20,000 years ago can be seen. [24]

The Sendai City War Reconstruction Memorial Hall is dedicated to remembering the air raid of July 1945 in which most of Sendai was destroyed. [25]

Other museums include the 3M Sendai City Science Museum, Sendai Literature Museum and Tohoku University's Museum of Natural History. [26]

Natural sites

Saikachi Gawa SaikachiGawa2005-11b.jpg
Saikachi Gawa

Western Sendai is home to many sites of natural beauty, many of them found around Akiu and Sakunami, which are hot spring resorts. Sites around the Akiu area include the Akiu Great Falls, sometimes counted as one of Japan's three great waterfalls, and the Rairai Gorge, known for its autumn colours. The Futakuchi Gorge contains waterfalls that have been designated as natural monuments and the Banji Cliffs, an example of columnar basalt. [27]

The Sakunami area is also known for its natural environment, with cherry blossoms in the spring, and autumnal colours. The nearby Hōmei Shijuhachi Taki Falls is the name of waterfalls found in the higher reaches of the Hirose River. The origin of the name "Hōmei" (鳳鳴, "Chinese phoenix cry") is said to come from ancient local inhabitants' claim that the sound of the waterfalls was similar to the legendary bird's call.

Matsushima Matsushima miyagi z.JPG
Matsushima

The Tatsunokuchi Gorge offers a view of a petrified wood next to the Otamaya-bashi bridge. Nishi Park and Tsutsujigaoka Park are appreciated for their cherry blossom in the spring. The Hirose River and the Gamo tideland are home to diverse wildlife.

Matsushima, which is one of the Three Views of Japan, is near Sendai, in Matsushima.

Other sites

Sendai Mediatheque is a multipurpose facility that houses the city library, galleries, and film studio facilities open for use by the general public. The building was designed by Toyo Ito and is known for its innovative architecture. [28]

The AER Building, Miyagi Prefectural Office, and SS30 Building have observation decks that offer panoramic views. The Sendai Trust Tower is the tallest building in Tohoku and Hokkaido. [29] [ circular reference ]

Uminomori Aquarium opened in July 2015, built near the Port of Sendai. [30]

The Sendai Daikannon is an approximately 100 m (328 ft) high Kannon statue. The statue was built during Japan's bubble economy by a now defunct company. It was once the tallest statue in the world.

Sendai also contains a Peace Pagoda, built by Nipponzan-Myōhōji-Daisanga in 1974.

Sendai City Panorama from Site of Sendai Castle Keep Tower Base 2010-05-31.jpg
City view from the Sendai Castle on Mount Aoba

Religion

Catholicism

The Catholic Church has been associated with Sendai since 1613, the year in which Date Masamune, daimyō of Sendai, built a galleon to send an embassy to the Pope in Rome headed by Hasekura Tsunenaga. [31] Although the embassy was successful in its aim of establishing relations with the Holy See, Masamune's plans were frustrated by the suppression of Christianity in Japan. The diocese of Sendai (previously the diocese of Hakodate) was established in 1891, only two years after the promulgation of a new constitution guaranteeing freedom of religion in Japan, in 1889. The Bishop of Sendai currently oversees the four northern prefectures of Miyagi, Fukushima, Iwate and Aomori, serving 11,152 Catholics in 56 parishes. Mototerakoji, the Cathedral of the diocese, is located a few blocks north of Sendai Station.

Sports

Yurtec Stadium Sendai Sendai-Stadion 2019 Inside.jpg
Yurtec Stadium Sendai
Miyagi (Rakuten Seimei) Baseball Stadium Rakuten Seimei Park Miyagi(2018).jpg
Miyagi (Rakuten Seimei) Baseball Stadium
Xebio Arena Sendai XebioArena bjgame.150322.JPG
Xebio Arena Sendai

Although the Lotte Orions briefly used Sendai as a temporary home for the franchise from 1973 to 1977, the city was largely ignored by professional sports until 1994. In that year, the Tohoku Electric Power football team was changed into a club team, Brummel Sendai, with the goal of eventually being promoted into the J.League. The team achieved this goal when the J. League expanded in 1999 with the creation of a second division. The name of the team was simultaneously changed to Vegalta Sendai. Currently the city also host semi-professional outfit Sony Sendai FC.

In 2005, the number of professional sports teams based in Sendai suddenly increased to three. The Tohoku Rakuten Golden Eagles was introduced as a new Pacific League baseball franchise after widely publicized turmoil involving the merger of the Kintetsu Buffaloes and the Orix Blue Wave developed into the first strike in Nippon Professional Baseball. Additionally, the Japan Basketball League, which began its inaugural season in November 2005, included the Sendai 89ers among its first six teams.

Annual sporting events include the Sendai Cup, an international football tournament for U-18 teams, and the Sendai International Half Marathon. In 2006 of the Sendai International half marathon, Mizuki Noguchi, who won the women's marathon gold medal at the 2004 Athens Olympic Games, took part in and won the race in a surprising course record.

Various sporting venues can be found in Sendai, such as Hitomebore Stadium Miyagi (venue of 2002 FIFA World Cup), Yurtec Stadium Sendai, Miyagi Baseball Stadium, Sendai City Gymnasium, Sendai Athletic Stadium, Shellcom Sendai and Sendai Hi-Land Raceway. The city is also known as the origin of figure skating in Japan, and both 2006 Olympic gold medalist Shizuka Arakawa and two-time Olympic gold medalist (2014, 2018) Yuzuru Hanyu trained in Sendai during their childhood. Tohoku Fukushi University and Sendai Ikuei Gakuen High School are well known for their strong sports programs, the latter for baseball.

In 2006, Sendai hosted some games of the 2006 FIBA World Championship. Before that, the city had some experience at hosting international basketball events such as the 1994 and 2004 editions of the FIBA Women's Asia Cup. Sendai Girls' Pro Wrestling is a joshi wrestling company based in sendai

Soccer

Baseball

Basketball

International relations

Twin towns – sister cities

Sendai has a long history of international relationships. Its affiliation with Riverside, California, on March 9, 1957, is the second oldest sister city partnership in Japan.[ citation needed ]

Sendai is twinned with: [32]

Friendship cities

Sendai also cooperates with: [32]

International events

The Sendai International Music Competition takes place every three years, welcoming participants from around the world.

Sendai has hosted international conferences about disaster management, as is recognized as a model city for disaster risk prevention. [33]

Notable people

Dash Chisako Wrestler in sendai girls pro wrestling Sendai Sachiko former wrestler in sendai girls pro wrestling

Related Research Articles

Tōhoku region Region of Japan

The Tōhoku region, Northeast region, or Northeast Japan consists of the northeastern portion of Honshu, the largest island of Japan. This traditional region consists of six prefectures (ken): Akita, Aomori, Fukushima, Iwate, Miyagi, and Yamagata.

Ishinomaki City in Tōhoku, Japan

Ishinomaki is a city located in Miyagi Prefecture, Japan. As of 1 June 2020, the city has an estimated population of 141,766, and a population density of 260 persons per km2 in 61,768 households. The total area of the city is 554.55 square kilometres (214.11 sq mi).

Natori, Miyagi City in Tōhoku, Japan

Natori is a city located in Miyagi Prefecture, Japan. As of 31 May 2020, the city had an estimated population of 79,459 in 31748 households, and a population density of 810 persons per km². The total area of the city is 98.17 square kilometres (37.90 sq mi).

Tagajō City in Tōhoku, Japan

Tagajō is a city located in Miyagi Prefecture, Japan. As of 1 June 2020, the city had an estimated population of 62,869 in 27,869 households, and a population density of 3,200 people per km². The total area of the city is 19.64 square kilometres (7.58 sq mi). The city was named after Taga Castle, the capital of Mutsu Province from the Nara period.

Iwanuma City in Tōhoku, Japan

Iwanuma is a city located in Miyagi Prefecture, Japan. As of 31 March 2020, the city had an estimated population of 43,946 in 18,062 households, and a population density of 730 persons per km². The total area of the city is 60.45 square kilometres (23.34 sq mi). Iwanuma is at the convergence of two ancient roads, the Tōkaidō and the Rikuzen-Hama Kaidō.

Miyagi District is a district located in past Mutsu Province and today's Miyagi Prefecture, Japan. The name of the prefecture was from this district.

Senseki Line Railway line in Miyagi prefecture, Japan

The Senseki Line is a railway line in Miyagi Prefecture, Japan, owned and operated by the East Japan Railway Company. It connects Aoba-dōri Station in Sendai to Ishinomaki Station in Ishinomaki, and provides access to the central coast areas of Miyagi Prefecture, significantly the Matsushima area. It connects with the Sendai Subway Nanboku Line at Aoba-dōri Station; the Tōhoku Shinkansen, the Tōhoku Main Line and the Senzan Line at Sendai Station; and the Ishinomaki Line in Ishinomaki. The name Senseki (仙石) comes from the combination of the first kanji of Sendai (台) and Ishinomaki (巻), the two cities that the Senseki Line connects. It is also the only line in Sendai area that is powered by DC overhead power line.

Sendai Station (Miyagi) Major railway and metro station in Sendai, Japan

Sendai Station is a major junction railway station in Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi, Japan. It is a stop for all Akita and Tohoku Shinkansen trains, the eastern terminus for the Senzan Line, and major stop on both the Tohoku Main Line and Senseki Line. It is located on the border between Miyagino and Aoba Wards in Sendai, Miyagi Prefecture.

Aoba-ku, Sendai Ward of Sendai in Tōhoku, Japan

Aoba-ku (青葉区) is one of five wards of Sendai, the largest city in the Tōhoku region of Japan. Aoba-ku encompasses 302.278 km² and had a population of 296,551, with 147,622 households as of March 1, 2012.

Miyagino-ku, Sendai Ward in Tōhoku, Japan

Miyagino-ku (宮城野区) is the northeastern ward of the city Sendai, in Miyagi Prefecture, Japan. As of 1 July 2017, the ward had a population of 196,086 and a population density of 3370 persons per km2 in 91322 households. The total area of the ward was 58.19 square kilometres (22.47 sq mi).

Rikuzen-Hamada Station Railway station in Rifu, Miyagi Prefecture, Japan

Rikuzen-Hamada Station is a railway station in the town of Rifu, Miyagi Prefecture, Japan, operated by East Japan Railway Company.

Hirose-dōri Station Metro station in Sendai, Japan

Hirose-dōri Station is an underground metro station on the Sendai Subway Nanboku Line in Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi Prefecture, Japan

Rikuzen-Tomiyama Station Railway station in Matsushima, Miyagi Prefecture, Japan

Rikuzen-Tomiyama Station is a railway station in the town of Matsushima, Miyagi Prefecture, Japan, operated by East Japan Railway Company.

Rikuzen-Akai Station Railway station in Higashimatsushima, Miyagi Prefecture, Japan

Rikuzen-Akai Station is a railway station in the city of Higashimatsushima, Miyagi Prefecture, Japan, operated by East Japan Railway Company.

Yamoto Station Railway station in Higashimatsushima, Miyagi Prefecture, Japan

Yamoto Station is a railway station in the city of Higashimatsushima, Miyagi Prefecture, Japan, operated by East Japan Railway Company.

Rikuzen-Ōtsuka Station Railway station in Higashimatsushima, Miyagi Prefecture, Japan

Rikuzen-Ōtsuka Station is a railway station on the Senseki Line in the city of Higashimatsushima, Miyagi, Japan, operated by East Japan Railway Company. The station was closed between March 2011 and May 2015.

Rikuzen-Yamashita Station Railway station in Ishinomaki, Miyagi Prefecture, Japan

Rikuzen-Yamashita Station is a railway station in the city of Ishinomaki, Miyagi, Japan, operated by the East Japan Railway Company.

Aoba Shrine

Aoba Shrine is the memorial shrine of Date Masamune, located in Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi Prefecture, Japan, near the site of the former Aoba Castle. The shrine was built in 1873 by petition of former retainers of the Date clan of former Sendai Domain to enshrine the deified spirit (kami) of Date Masamune under the name of Takefuruhiko-no-mikoto. This was in accordance with a practice which began in the Bakumatsu period and continued into the early Meiji period of establishing a shrine to the founders of the daimyō clan which ruled each feudal domain under the Tokugawa shogunate. Under the State Shinto ranking system, the shrine was designated as a prefectural shrine.

Aoba Castle

Aoba Castle is a Japanese castle located in Sendai, Miyagi Prefecture, Japan. Throughout the Edo period, Aoba Castle was home to the Date clan, daimyō of Sendai Domain. The castle was also known as Sendai-jō (仙台城) or as Gojō-rō (五城楼). In 2003, the castle ruins were designated a National Historic Site.

Miyagi Prefecture Prefecture of Japan

Miyagi Prefecture is a prefecture of Japan located in the Tōhoku region of Honshu. Miyagi Prefecture has a population of 2,305,596 and has a geographic area of 7,282 km2 (2,812 sq mi). Miyagi Prefecture borders Iwate Prefecture to the north, Akita Prefecture to the northwest, Yamagata Prefecture to the west, and Fukushima Prefecture to the south.

References

  1. "UEA Code Tables". Center for Spatial Information Science, University of Tokyo. Retrieved 26 January 2019.
  2. Sendai city official statistics (in Japanese)
  3. 1 2 US Geological Survey 9.0 assessment
  4. 1 2 UK Foreign Office 9.0 assessment Archived 2011-03-14 at the Wayback Machine
  5. 1 2 The Telegraph 9.0 assessment "Japan earthquake: timeline of the disaster, from tsunami to nuclear crisis" 15 March 2011
  6. Sydney Morning Herald earthquake report
  7. Fackler, Martin (13 March 2011). "At Sendai City Hall, a Relief Center, Thousands Wait and Wonder What's Next". The New York Times.
  8. Sendai BBC report
  9. Kyodo News, "Sendai port reopens for business", The Japan Times , 17 April 2011, p. 1.
  10. Chen, Yangbo (2004). "Study Basin". GIS and Remote Sensing in Hydrology, Water Resources and Environment. International Association of Hydrological Sciences (September 1, 2004). pp. 392–393. ISBN   978-1901502725.
  11. "Earthquake Off-shore of Miyagi Prefecture on August 16, 2005". Headquarters for Earthquake Research Promotion. August 17, 2005. Retrieved March 18, 2011.
  12. "Classification of the Yamase (cold northeasterly wind around northeastern Japan) based upon its air-mass vertical structures".
  13. 気象庁 / 平年値(年・月ごとの値). Japan Meteorological Agency . Retrieved May 19, 2021.
  14. "推計人口及び人口動態 - 令和元年9月1日現在".
  15. Yoshitsugu Kanemoto. "Metropolitan Employment Area (MEA) Data". Center for Spatial Information Science, The University of Tokyo.
  16. Conversion rates – Exchange rates – OECD Data
  17. "経済活動別 市内総生産(名目)". May 2018. Retrieved June 30, 2019.
  18. "Miyagi: General Business Information | Investing in Japan's local regions – Investing in Japan – Japan External Trade Organization – JETRO".
  19. 1 2 "Industry in Sendai 2016" (PDF). Sendai City. 2016. Retrieved November 11, 2016.
  20. Profile Archived 2008-05-06 at the Wayback Machine
  21. "Loople Info page".
  22. "Taiheiyo Ferries – Sendai".
  23. A History of Sendai Aoba Matsuri
  24. General Information
  25. "Sendai War Memorial Museum Homepage (in Japanese)".
  26. "Tohoku University Museum Homepage (in Japanese)".
  27. Sendai Hotels & Travel Guide
  28. SMT.jp, about Sendai mediatheque Archived 2007-10-24 at the Wayback Machine
  29. "List of tallest buildings in Japan by Prefecture (Japanese page)".
  30. "Sendai Umino-Mori Aquarium".
  31. Charles Ralph Boxer, The Christian Century in Japan, 1549–1650, (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1967), p.314
  32. 1 2 "Sendai's International Sister and Friendship Cities". city.sendai.jp. Sendai. Retrieved 2020-12-14.
  33. "About Disaster-Resilient and Environmentally-Friendly City".
  34. "「M県S市杜王町」ジョジョの世界、仙台と一体 原画展開幕、原作者の荒木飛呂彦氏があいさつ" (in Japanese). Sankei Shimbun. August 13, 2017. Retrieved October 27, 2019.
  35. Shoji Yamada Shots in the Dark