Senlis

Last updated
Senlis
Senlis NDame1 tango7174.jpg
Cathedral
Flag of Senlis.svg
Blason de Senlis.svg
Location of Senlis
Senlis
France location map-Regions and departements-2016.svg
Red pog.svg
Senlis
Hauts-de-France region location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Senlis
Coordinates: 49°12′29″N2°35′15″E / 49.2081°N 2.5875°E / 49.2081; 2.5875 Coordinates: 49°12′29″N2°35′15″E / 49.2081°N 2.5875°E / 49.2081; 2.5875
Country France
Region Hauts-de-France
Department Oise
Arrondissement Senlis
Canton Senlis
Intercommunality Senlis Sud Oise
Government
  Mayor (20202026) Pascale Loiseleur
Area
1
24.05 km2 (9.29 sq mi)
Population
 (Jan. 2018) [1]
14,891
  Density620/km2 (1,600/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+01:00 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+02:00 (CEST)
INSEE/Postal code
60612 /60300
Elevation47–140 m (154–459 ft)
(avg. 76 m or 249 ft)
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.

Senlis (French pronunciation:  [sɑ̃lis] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen )) is a commune in the northern French department of Oise.

Contents

The monarchs of the early French dynasties lived in Senlis, attracted by the proximity of the Chantilly forest. It is known for its Gothic cathedral and other historical monuments. Its inhabitants are called "Senlisiens" and "Senlisiennes". [2]

Geography

Senlis is situated on the river Nonette, between the forests of Chantilly and d'Ermenonville in the South and d'Halatte on the North. It is located 40 kilometers to the north of Paris, 44 km from Beauvais and 79 km from Amiens. The highest point of the town (140m) lies at the heart of the forest Halatte and the lowest point is located on the banks of the Nonette, west of the city. Geologically, the area is occupied by a vast limestone plateau of the Lutetian covered mostly in silt.

History

Senlis was known in early Roman imperial times as Augustomagus and later as Civitas Silvanectium ("City of the Silvanectes"). [3] During the 3rd century, a seven-meter high defensive wall, about half of which still exists, was erected around the settlement in response to Frankish incursions. [3] The wall remained in use into the 13th century. The town also featured a Roman amphitheatre, the remains of which are still visible, about 500 m west of the walled town. The amphitheatre seated as many as 10,000 people and was used for public meetings, theatre, gladiatorial combats, and animal hunts. [4] The monarchs of the early French dynasties lived here, attracted by the proximity of the Chantilly Forest and its venison, and built a castle on the foundations of the Roman settlement. In 987 Alberon, the archbishop of Reims, called together an assembly, and asked them to choose Hugh Capet as king of France. However, the monarchs of France soon abandoned the city, preferring Compiègne and Fontainebleau. New life was given to the city in the 12th century, and ramparts were built. The popularity of the city later fell, and it slipped into decline. Today it remains an attraction for tourists for its long history and its links to the French monarchy.

Royal city

Senlis fell under the ownership of Hugh Capet in 981. He was elected king by his barons in 987 before being crowned at Noyon. Under the Capetian rule, Senlis became a royal city and remained so until the reign of Charles X (1824-1830). A castle was built during this period whose remains are still visible today. The city reached its apogee in the 12th and 13th centuries as trade in wool and leather increased, while vineyards began to grow. With an increasing population, the city expanded and needed new ramparts: a second chamber was erected under Phillip II that was larger and higher than the ramparts of the Gallo-Romans. A municipal charter was granted to the town in 1173 by King Louis VII. The bishop of Senlis and the Chancellor Guérin became close advisors to the King, strengthening Senlis' ties to the French royalty. In 1265, the Bailiwick of Senlis was created with a vast territory covering the Beauvais and the French Vexin. In 1319, the town, crippled by debt, passed into the control of royalty. Senlis was devastated by the Hundred Years' War, but managed to escape destruction despite being besieged by the Armagnacs. Senlis' economy suffered heavily and would have to wait until the 15th century for another boom, during which many buildings were built or restored. In 1493, King Charles VIII of France, son of Louis XI, signed the Treaty of Senlis with the Duke of Burgundy, Maximilian I of Austria. [5]

Sights

Culture

In 1972, Senlis was made into a pedestrian town for a weekend in September, and this became a regular event, allowing the public to discover the gardens and hotel particuliers hidden behind gateways. The last gathering took place in 2007. [6] The Garden Lounge takes place around April, along with the Christmas march that take place around the Church of Saint Peter.

The town was briefly captured by the Germans at the beginning of World War 1. Several citizens were executed by firing squads in early September, including the mayor, Eugène Odent, who was charged with orchestrating “terrorist” civilian resistance — shuttering buildings for the convenience of snipers, failing to demand orderly submission from his neighbors, and generally inconveniencing German troops. [7] In, 1931, the main street of Senlis was named after Odent. [8]

In A Writer at War 14-18, Édouard Coeurdevey describes the German destruction that he witnesses when visiting Senlis on 6 June 1915. [9] On June 8 he wrote 'Senlis bonde d'Annamites'.

The historic look of Senlis, with its ancient cobbled alleys and its proximity to Paris, made it a major destination for cinema. [10] Among many are the following movies filmed in Senlis:

Personalities

International relations

Senlis is twinned with:

See also

Related Research Articles

Angoulême Prefecture and commune in Nouvelle-Aquitaine, France

Angoulême is a commune, the capital of the Charente department, in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of southwestern France.

Picardy Region of France

Picardy is a historical territory and a former administrative region of France. Since 1 January 2016, it has been part of the new region of Hauts-de-France. It is located in the northern part of France.

Beauvais Prefecture and commune in Hauts-de-France, France

Beauvais is a city and commune in northern France. It serves as the capital of the Oise département, in the Hauts-de-France region. Beauvais is located approximately 75 kilometres North of Paris. The residents of the city are called Beauvaisiens.

Bayeux Subprefecture and commune in Normandy, France

Bayeux is a commune in the Calvados department in Normandy in northwestern France.

Mende, Lozère Prefecture and commune in Occitanie, France

Mende is a commune and prefecture of the department of Lozère and of the region of Occitanie in southern France. Its inhabitants are called the Mendois. The city, including the first traces of dwellings date back to 200 BC, was originally named Mimata, probably in reference to the mountains that surround it.

Chantilly, Oise Commune in Hauts-de-France, France

Chantilly is a commune in the Oise department in the valley of the Nonette in the Hauts-de-France region of Northern France. Surrounded by Chantilly Forest, the town of 10,863 inhabitants (2017) falls within the metropolitan area of Paris. It lies 38.4 km north-northeast of the centre of Paris and together with six neighbouring communes forms an urban area of 36,474 inhabitants.

Roman Catholic Diocese of Beauvais Catholic diocese in Oise, Hauts-de-France, France

The Roman Catholic Diocese of Beauvais, Noyon, and Senlis is a diocese of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic Church in France. The diocese encompasses the department of Oise in the region of Hauts-de-France. The diocese is a suffragan of the Archdiocese of Reims. The current bishop is Jacques Benoit-Gonnin, appointed in 2010.

Flamboyant Florid style of late Gothic architecture

Flamboyant is a form of late Gothic architecture that developed in Europe in the Late Middle Ages and Renaissance, from around 1375 to the mid-16th century. It is characterized by double curves forming flame-like shapes in the bar-tracery, which give the style its name; by the multiplication of ornamental ribs in the vaults; and by the use of use of the arch in accolade. Ribs in Flamboyant tracery are recognizable by their flowing forms, which are influenced by the earlier curvilinear tracery of the Second Gothic styles. Very tall and narrow pointed arches and gables, particularly double-curved ogee arches, are common in buildings of the Flamboyant style. In most regions of Europe, Late Gothic styles like Flamboyant replaced the earlier Rayonnant style and other early variations.

Dourdan Commune in Île-de-France, France

Dourdan is a commune in the Essonne department in Île-de-France. It is the capital of the historical region of Hurepoix.

The Route nationale 17, or RN17, is a trunk road (nationale) in France connecting Paris to the border with Belgium.

Séraphine Louis

Séraphine Louis, known as Séraphine de Senlis (1864–1942), was a French painter in the naïve style. Self-taught, she was inspired by her religious faith and by stained-glass church windows and other religious art. The intensity of her images, both in colour and replicative design, is sometimes interpreted as a reflection of her own psyche, walking a tightrope between ecstasy and mental illness.

French Gothic architecture Architectural style

French Gothic architecture is an architectural style which emerged in France in 1140, and was dominant until the mid-16th century. The most notable examples are the great Gothic cathedrals of France, including Notre-Dame Cathedral, Reims Cathedral, Chartres Cathedral, and Amiens Cathedral. Its main characteristics were the search for verticality, or height, and the innovative use of the rib vault and flying buttresses and other architectural innovations to distribute the weight of the stone structures to supports on the outside, allowing unprecedented height and volume, The new techniques also permitted the addition of larger windows, including enormous stained glass windows, which filled the cathedrals with light. The French style was widely copied in other parts of northern Europe, particularly Germany and England. It was gradually supplanted as the dominant French style in the mid-16th century by French Renaissance architecture.

Pierre-Adrien Pâris

Pierre-Adrien Pâris was a French architect, painter and designer.

Forest of Halatte

The Forest of Halatte in Picardy is one of the largest remaining blocks of natural old-growth forest in France. Situated in the département of Oise near Senlis and Pont-Sainte-Maxence, it currently embraces 43 square kilometers. Together with the Forest of Chantilly and the Forest of Ermenonville it forms the Massif des Trois Forêts. On the north it borders the Forest of Compiègne. The Forest of Halatte is still a source of oak and beech timber.

War memorials (Oise)

The War memorials (Oise) or Monuments aux Morts of Oise are French war memorials commemorating those men of the region who died in World War I.

Basse Oeuvre

The Parish Church of Our Lady of the Basse Œuvre of Beauvais, is a church at the west end of Beauvais Cathedral. Dating to the 10th century, it represents the Western end. It is the western end of a much longer church which had been Beauvais's cathedral, and was built in the form of a Roman basilica, a style which still characterized the Carolingian era.

Rieul of Senlis

Rembert Regulus (Rieul) of Senlis was the first bishop of Senlis. His feast day is March 30th.

The Ramparts of Senlis are located in Senlis (Oise), capital of the Oise arrondissement in France. They consist of the Gallo-Roman city walls and medieval ramparts proper.

Domaine du Lys-Chantilly estate in France

The Domaine du Lys-Chantilly is a private residential estate on a wooded site adjacent to Chantilly Forest in France, overlapping the border between the communes of Gouvieux and Lamorlaye in the département of the Oise.

Valence, Drôme Prefecture and commune in Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes, France

Valence is a commune in southeastern France, the capital of the Drôme department and within the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region. It is situated on the left bank of the Rhône, about 100 kilometres (62 mi) south of Lyon, along the railway line that runs from Paris to Marseille.

References

  1. "Populations légales 2018". INSEE. 28 December 2020.
  2. "Le nom des habitants des communes de France". Habitants.fr (in French). Patagos. Retrieved 2020-03-12.
  3. 1 2 Athena Review, Vol.4, No.2. "The Roman Wall of Senlis".CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  4. Bruce Klee (December 1975). "Three Gallo-Roman Multi-Purpose Theatres". JSTOR. pp. 516–520. JSTOR   3206386.Missing or empty |url= (help)
  5. "Publication de la paix de Senlis". Manuscrits de l'Institut de France. 23 May 1493.
  6. "Polémique autour des Rendez-Vous de septembre". Le Parisien. 14 January 2009.
  7. Headsman. "1914: Eugène Odent, the mayor of Senlis". www.executedtoday.com. Retrieved 2 February 2019.
  8. "Eugene Odent, the martyr of Senlis". canope.ac-amiens.fr. Retrieved 2 February 2019.
  9. Édouard Coeurdevey. Carnets de guerre. pp. 14–18.
  10. Michel Lalande (1997). "Liste de tournages sur le site". p. 125.