Separation of Panama from Colombia

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Map showing the shrinking territory of Gran Colombia from 1824 (colored areas, including Venezuela and Ecuador) to 1890 (red line) and the Cundinamarca region. Panama seceded in 1903 from Colombia, and comprises the yellow area in the Central American isthmus. AGHRC (1890) - Carta XI - Division politica de Colombia, 1824.jpg
Map showing the shrinking territory of Gran Colombia from 1824 (colored areas, including Venezuela and Ecuador) to 1890 (red line) and the Cundinamarca region. Panama seceded in 1903 from Colombia, and comprises the yellow area in the Central American isthmus.

The separation of Panama from Colombia was formalized on 3 November 1903, with the establishment of the Republic of Panama. From the Independence of Panama from Spain in 1821, Panama had simultaneously declared independence from Spain and joined itself to the confederation of Gran Colombia through the Independence Act of Panama. Panama was always tenuously connected to the rest of the country to the south, owing to its remoteness from the government in Bogotá and lack of a practical overland connection to the rest of Gran Colombia. In 1840-1841, a short-lived independent republic was established under Tomás de Herrera. After rejoining Colombia following a 13-month independence, it remained a province which saw frequent rebellious flare-ups, notably the Panama crisis of 1885, which saw the intervention of the United States Navy.

Panama Republic in Central America

Panama, officially the Republic of Panama, is a country in Central America, bordered by Costa Rica to the west, Colombia to the southeast, the Caribbean Sea to the north, and the Pacific Ocean to the south. The capital and largest city is Panama City, whose metropolitan area is home to nearly half the country's 4 million people.

Independence of Panama from Spain was accomplished through a bloodless revolt between 10 November 1821 and 28 November 1821. Seizing the opportunity, when the Spanish governor left Panama to march on rebellious Ecuadorians, José de Fábrega led a push for independence. Rebels in the small town of Villa de Los Santos made the first declaration for independence and the movement quickly spread to the capital. Fearing that Spain would retake the country, the rebels quickly joined the Republic of Gran Colombia.

Gran Colombia Former republic

Gran Colombia is the name historians use to refer to the state that encompassed much of northern South America and part of southern Central America from 1819 to 1831. The state included the territories of present-day Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, Venezuela, and parts of northern Peru, western Guyana and northwestern Brazil. The term Gran Colombia is used historiographically to distinguish it from the current Republic of Colombia, which is also the official name of the former state.

Contents

During the construction of the Panama canal, the initial attempts by France to construct a sea-level canal across the isthmus were secured through treaty with Colombia; however French cost overruns and corruption in the Panama scandals led to abandonment of the Canal for a decade. During the intervening years, local separatists used the political instability of the Thousand Days' War to agitate for political separation from Colombia and establishment of an independent republic. When the United States sought to take over the canal project, the government of Colombia proved difficult to work with, and with the cooperation of French financier Philippe-Jean Bunau-Varilla, Panama simultaneously declared independence from Colombia and negotiated a treaty granting the U.S. the right to construct the canal.

History of the Panama Canal

The idea of the Panama canal dates back to 1513, when Vasco Núñez de Balboa first crossed the isthmus. The narrow land bridge between North and South America houses the Panama Canal, a water passage between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. The earliest European colonists recognized this potential, and several proposals for a canal were made.

Panama scandals

The Panama scandals was a corruption affair that broke out in the French Third Republic in 1892, linked to the building of the Panama Canal. Close to half a billion francs were lost when the French government took bribes to keep quiet about the Panama Canal Company's financial troubles in what is regarded as the largest monetary corruption scandal of the 19th century.

Thousand Days War 1899–1902 civil war in Colombia

The Thousand Days' War (1899–1902), was a civil armed conflict in the Republic of Colombia, between the Conservative Party, the Liberal Party and radical factions. During 1899 the ruling conservatives were accused of maintaining power by fraudulent elections rather than democratic procedure. The situation was worsened by an economic crisis caused by decreasing international coffee prices. This mainly affected the opposition Liberal Party, which had lost power.

The United States was the first country to recognize the independence of the nascent republic, sending the U.S. Navy to prevent Colombia from retaking the territory during the first days of the new Republic. In exchange for its role in defending the Republic, and for constructing the canal, the U.S. was granted a perpetual lease on the land around the canal, known as the Panama Canal Zone, which was later returned to Panama under the terms of the Torrijos–Carter Treaties.

Gunboat diplomacy pursuit of foreign policy objectives with the aid of conspicuous displays of naval power

In international politics, gunboat diplomacy refers to the pursuit of foreign policy objectives with the aid of conspicuous displays of naval power – implying or constituting a direct threat of warfare, should terms not be agreeable to the superior force.

Panama Canal Zone Former unincorporated territory of the United States surrounded by the Republic of Panama

The Panama Canal Zone was an unincorporated territory of the United States from 1903 to 1979, centered on the Panama Canal and surrounded by the Republic of Panama. The zone consisted of the canal and an area generally extending five miles (8.0 km) on each side of the centerline, excluding Panama City and Colón, which otherwise would have been partly within the limits of the Zone. Its border spanned three of Panama's provinces. When reservoirs were created to assure a steady supply of water for the locks, those lakes were included within the Zone.

Torrijos–Carter Treaties Two treaties signed by Panama and the United States in 1977, concerning the Panama Canal

The Torrijos–Carter Treaties are two treaties signed by the United States and Panama in Washington, D.C., on September 7, 1977, which superseded the Hay–Bunau-Varilla Treaty of 1903. The treaties guaranteed that Panama would gain control of the Panama Canal after 1999, ending the control of the canal that the U.S. had exercised since 1903. The treaties are named after the two signatories, U.S. President Jimmy Carter and the Commander of Panama's National Guard, General Omar Torrijos.

After the United States, many other nations quickly recognized the independent republic, though Colombia refused to do so until 1909, after receiving a $500,000 concession from Panama to cover its share of the debts it owed at independence.

Prelude

After it achieved independence from Spain on November 28, 1821, Panama became a part of the Republic of Gran Colombia which consisted of today's Colombia, Venezuela, Panama, and most of Ecuador.

Colombia Country in South America

Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia, is a sovereign state largely situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in Central America. Colombia shares a border to the northwest with Panama, to the east with Venezuela and Brazil and to the south with Ecuador and Peru. It shares its maritime limits with Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras, Jamaica, Haiti, and the Dominican Republic. Colombia is a unitary, constitutional republic comprising thirty-two departments, with the capital in Bogotá.

Venezuela Republic in northern South America

Venezuela, officially the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, is a country on the northern coast of South America, consisting of a continental landmass and a large number of small islands and islets in the Caribbean Sea. The capital and largest urban agglomeration is the city of Caracas. It has a territorial extension of 916,445 km2. The continental territory is bordered on the north by the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean, on the west by Colombia, Brazil on the south, Trinidad and Tobago to the north-east and on the east by Guyana. With this last country, the Venezuelan government maintains a claim for Guayana Esequiba over an area of 159,542 km2. For its maritime areas, it exercises sovereignty over 71,295 km2 of territorial waters, 22,224 km2 in its contiguous zone, 471,507 km2 of the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean under the concept of exclusive economic zone, and 99,889 km2 of continental shelf. This marine area borders those of 13 states. The country has extremely high biodiversity and is ranked seventh in the world's list of nations with the most number of species. There are habitats ranging from the Andes Mountains in the west to the Amazon basin rain-forest in the south via extensive llanos plains, the Caribbean coast and the Orinoco River Delta in the east.

Ecuador Republic in South America

Ecuador, officially the Republic of Ecuador, is a country in northwestern South America, bordered by Colombia on the north, Peru on the east and south, and the Pacific Ocean on the west. Ecuador also includes the Galápagos Islands in the Pacific, about 1,000 kilometres (620 mi) west of the mainland. The capital city is Quito, which is also the largest city.

The political struggle between federalists and centralists that followed independence from Spain resulted in a changing administrative and jurisdictional status for Panama. Under centralism Panama was established as the Department of the Isthmus and during federalism as the Sovereign State of Panama.

Federalism political concept

Federalism is the mixed or compound mode of government, combining a general government with regional governments in a single political system. Its distinctive feature, exemplified in the founding example of modern federalism by the United States under the Constitution of 1787, is a relationship of parity between the two levels of government established. It can thus be defined as a form of government in which there is a division of powers between two levels of government of equal status.

Centralisation or centralization is the process by which the activities of an organization, particularly those regarding planning and decision-making, framing strategy and policies become concentrated within a particular geographical location group. This moves the important decision-making and planning powers within the center of the organisation.

Panama State

Following independence from Spain in 1821, Panamá State was one of the states of the Republic of Gran Colombia. Created 27 February 1855 under the name Estado Federal de Panamá. It later was recognized as Estado de la Federación in the constitution of the Granadine Confederation of 1858, and in the constitution of 1863 renamed as Estado Soberano in the national and state constitutions of 1863. Since 1903, most of its territory has become the Republic of Panama.

1885 crisis

An 1846 treaty between Colombia and the United States, the Mallarino–Bidlack Treaty, [1] pledged the United States to maintain "neutrality" in Panama in exchange for transit rights in the isthmus on behalf of Colombia. [1] In March 1885 Colombia thinned its military presence in Panama, sending troops stationed there to fight rebels in other provinces. [1] These favourable conditions prompted an insurgency in Panama. [1] The United States Navy was sent there to keep order, in spite of invoking its obligations according to the treaty of 1846. [1]

The Mallarino–Bidlack Treaty was a treaty signed between New Granada and the United States, on December 12, 1846. U.S. minister Benjamin Alden Bidlack negotiated the pact with New Granada's commissioner Manuel María Mallarino.

United States Navy Naval warfare branch of the United States Armed Forces

The United States Navy (USN) is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States. It is the largest and most capable navy in the world and it has been estimated that in terms of tonnage of its active battle fleet alone, it is larger than the next 13 navies combined, which includes 11 U.S. allies or partner nations. with the highest combined battle fleet tonnage and the world's largest aircraft carrier fleet, with eleven in service, and two new carriers under construction. With 319,421 personnel on active duty and 99,616 in the Ready Reserve, the Navy is the third largest of the service branches. It has 282 deployable combat vessels and more than 3,700 operational aircraft as of March 2018, making it the second-largest air force in the world, after the United States Air Force.

In 1885 the United States occupied the city of Colón, Panama. Chile, which at that time had the strongest fleet in the Americas, sent the cruiser Esmeralda to occupy Panama City in response. Esmeralda's captain was ordered to stop by any means an eventual annexation of Panama by the United States. [2]

Thousand Days' War

The Thousand Days' War (1899–1902) was one of the many armed struggles between the Liberal and Conservative Parties which devastated Colombia, including Panama, during the 19th century. This new civil war ended with the signing of the Treaty of Wisconsin. However, the Liberal leader Victoriano Lorenzo refused to accept the terms of the agreement and was executed on May 15, 1903.

On July 25, 1903, the headquarters of the Panamanian newspaper El Lápiz were assaulted by orders of the military commander for Panama, General José Vásquez Cobo, brother of the then Colombian Minister of War, as a retaliation for the publication of a detailed article narrating the execution and protests in Panama. This event damaged the trust of Panamanian liberals in the Conservative government based in Bogotá, and they later joined the separatist movement.

In 1903, the United States and Colombia signed the Hay–Herrán Treaty to finalize the construction of the Panama Canal but the process[ clarification needed ] was not completed because the Congress of Colombia rejected the measure (which the Colombian government had proposed) on August 12, 1903. The United States then moved to support the separatist movement in Panama to gain control over the remnants of the French attempt at building a canal. [3]

Separation

The separation of Panama from Colombia was formalized on 3 November 1903 Separacion Panama de Colombia.png
The separation of Panama from Colombia was formalized on 3 November 1903

Panamanian politician José Domingo De Obaldía was selected for the Governor of the Isthmus of Panama office that he had previously held, and was supported by separatist movements. Another Panamanian politician named José Agustín Arango began to plan the revolution and separation. The separatists wanted to negotiate the construction of the Panama Canal directly with the United States due to the negativity of the Colombian government.

The separatist network was formed by Arango, Dr. Manuel Amador Guerrero, General Nicanor de Obarrio, Ricardo Arias, Federico Boyd, Carlos Constantino Arosemena, Tomás Arias, Manuel Espinosa Batista and others. Amador Guerrero was in charge of going to the United States to get support for the separatist plan; he also gained the support of important Panamanian liberal leaders and the support of another military commander, Esteban Huertas.

With strong support the separatist movement set November 1903 as the time for the separation. However, rumors in Colombia spread but the information managed by the government of Colombia indicated that Nicaragua was planning to invade a region of northern Panama known as the Calovébora. The Government deployed troops from the Tiradores Battalion from Barranquilla, and instructed the commander to take over the functions of the Governor of Panama José Domingo de Obaldía and General Esteban Huertas, whom the government did not trust.

The Tiradores Battalion was led by Generals Juan Tovar and Ramón Amaya and arrived in the Panamanian city of Colón the morning of November 3, 1903. It suffered delays on its way to Panama City caused by the complicity of the Panama Railway authorities who sympathized with the separatist movement. On arrival in Panama City, the troops were put under the command of Col. Eliseo Torres. General Huertas commander of the Colombia Battalion in Panama ordered the arrest of Tovar and his other officials.

The Colombian gunboat Bogotá fired shells upon Panama City the night of November 3, causing injuries and mortally wounding Mr. Wong Kong Yee of Hong Sang, China. [4]

A United States Navy gunboat, USS Nashville, commanded by Commander John Hubbard, who had also helped to delay the disembarkation of the Colombian troops in Colón, continued to interfere with their mission by insisting that the "neutrality" of the railway had to be respected.

With the suppression of the Colombian troops, the Revolutionary Junta declared the secession of the Isthmus and later its independence, with the declaration of the Republic of Panama. A naval squadron in the Bay of Panama was captured without resistance.

Demetrio H. Brid president of the Municipal Council of Panama became the de facto President of Panama and on November 4, 1903 appointed a Provisional Government Junta, which governed the country until February 1904 and the Constituent National Convention The convention elected Manuel Amador Guerrero as first constitutional president. News of the separation of Panama from Colombia reached Bogotá only on November 6, 1903 due to a problem with the submarine cables.

Reactions

1903 political cartoon Panama canal cartooon 1903.jpg
1903 political cartoon

On November 13, 1903, the United States formally recognized the Republic of Panama (after recognizing it unofficially on November 6 and 7). On November 18, 1903, the United States Secretary of State John Hay and Philippe-Jean Bunau-Varilla signed the Hay–Bunau-Varilla Treaty. No Panamanians signed the treaty, although Bunau-Varilla was present as the diplomatic representative of Panama (a role he had purchased through financial assistance to the rebels), even though he had not lived in Panama for seventeen years prior to independence, and never returned afterwards. [5] The treaty was later approved by the Panamanian government and the Senate of the United States.

The ambassador of Colombia in Ecuador Emiliano Isaza was informed of the situation in Panama but did not inform his government to prevent a revolt in Bogotá. The government of Colombia then sent a diplomatic mission to Panama in an effort to make them reconsider by suggesting an approval by the senate of Colombia if they reconsidered the Hay–Herrán Treaty instead of the Hay–Bunau-Varilla Treaty and also proposed making Panama City the capital of Colombia. [6] [ dubious ]

The mission met aboard the ship USS Mayflower with the Panamanian delegation formed by Constantino Arosemena, Tomás Arias and Eusebio A. Morales, which rejected all proposals. Colombia then sent later a delegation of prominent politicians and political figures; General Rafael Reyes, Pedro Nel Ospina, Jorge Holguín and Lucas Caballero who met with the same representative for Panama and Carlos Antonio Mendoza, Nicanor de Obarrio y Antonio Zubieta, without reaching any consensus.

Recognition

#CountryDate for recognition
1Flag of the United States.svg  United States 6 November 1903 [7]
2Flag of France (1794-1958).svg  France 16 November 1903 [8]
3Flag of the Qing Dynasty (1889-1912).svg  China 26 November 1903 [8]
4Flag of Austria-Hungary (1869-1918).svg  Austria-Hungary 27 November 1903 [8]
5Flag of the German Empire.svg  Germany 30 November 1903 [8]
6Flag of Denmark.svg  Denmark 3 December 1903 [8]
7Flag of The Russian Empire 1883.svg  Russia 6 December 1903 [8]
8Flag of Norway.svg  Norway 7 December 1903 [8]
9Swedish civil ensign (1844-1905).svg  Sweden 7 December 1903 [8]
10Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium 8 December 1903 [8]
11Flag of Nicaragua (1896-1908).svg  Nicaragua 15 December 1903 [8]
12Flag of Peru.svg  Peru 19 December 1903 [8]
13Flag of Cuba.svg  Cuba 23 December 1903 [8]
14Flag of Italy (1861-1946) crowned.svg  Italy 24 December 1903 [8]
16Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom 26 December 1903 [9]
17Merchant flag of Japan (1870).svg  Japan 28 December 1903 [8]
18Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland 28 December 1903 [8]
19Bandera de Costa Rica de 1848.svg  Costa Rica 28 December 1903 [8]
20Flag of Guatemala.svg  Guatemala 15 January 1904 [8]
21Flag of Korea (1899).svg  Korea 24 January 1904 [8]
22Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands 6 February 1904 [8]
23Flag of Persia (1907-1933).svg  Persia February 1904 [8]
24Flag of Venezuela (1863-1905).svg  Venezuela 3 February 1904 [8] [10]
25Flag of Chile.svg  Chile 1 March 1904 [8] [11]
26Flag of Mexico (1893-1916).svg  Mexico 1 March 1904 [8] [12]
27Flag of Brazil (1889-1960).svg  Brazil 2 March 1904 [8] [13]
28Flag of Argentina.svg  Argentina 3 March 1904 [9]
29Flag of Thailand 1855.svg  Siam 4 March 1904 [9]
30Flag of Honduras.svg  Honduras March 1904 [8]
31Flag of El Salvador.svg  El Salvador March 1904 [8]
32Flag of Spain (1785-1873, 1875-1931).svg  Spain 10 May 1904 [8] [11]
33Flag of the Vatican City.svg  Holy See May 1904 [8]
34Flag Portugal (1830).svg  Portugal 21 May 1904 [8] [11]
35State Flag of Serbia (1882-1918).svg  Serbia June 1904 [8]
36Flag of Paraguay (1842-1954).svg  Paraguay July 1904 [8]
37Flag of Romania.svg  Romania July 1904 [8]
38Flag of Greece (1822-1978).svg  Greece 1904 [8]
39Flag of Uruguay.svg  Uruguay 1904 [8]
40Flag of Ecuador.svg  Ecuador 21 September 1904 [9]
41Flag of Colombia.svg  Colombia 7 January 1909 [14]

See also

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References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 Wicks, Daniel H. (1980). "Dress Rehearsal: United States Intervention on The Isthmus of Panama, 1885". Pacific Historical Review . 49 (4): 581–605. JSTOR   3638968.
  2. William Sater, Chile and the United States: Empires in Conflict (Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 1990), 52. ISBN   0-8203-1249-5.
  3. History of the Panama Canal#The United States and the canal
  4. https://books.google.com/books?id=S5YjpSZ5AdYC&lpg=PA16
  5. "The 1903 Treaty and Qualified Independence". U.S. Library of Congress. 2009. Retrieved 2009-05-01.
  6. (in Spanish) Biblioteca Luis Angel Arango: CAPITULO XIV MEMORIAL DE AGRAVIOS, Luis Angel Arango Library Accessed 28 August 2007.
  7. "A Guide to the United States' History of Recognition, Diplomatic, and Consular Relations, by Country, since 1776: Panama" . Retrieved 23 July 2016.
  8. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 Luis Martínez Delgado (1972). Panamá: su independencia de España, su incorporación a la Gran Colombia, su separación de Colombia. p. 158.|access-date= requires |url= (help)
  9. 1 2 3 4 Willis Fletcher Johnson (1906). Four Centuries of the Panama Canal. p. 186.|access-date= requires |url= (help)
  10. "Relaciones Bilaterales" . Retrieved 23 July 2016.
  11. 1 2 3 "Memoria 2011-2012" (PDF) (in Spanish). p. 195. Retrieved 23 July 2016.
  12. "MANUAL DE ORGANIZACIÓN DE LA EMBAJADA DE MÉXICO EN PANAMÁ" (PDF) (in Spanish). December 2008. Retrieved 23 July 2016.
  13. "Panamá sede de la Primera Reunión Técnica Preparatoria de las Comisiones Mixtas de Cooperación entre Panamá y Brasil" (in Spanish). Retrieved 23 July 2016.
  14. "SECESSION OF PANAMA". 8 January 1909. Retrieved 23 July 2016.

Further reading