Serbs

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Serbs
Срби
Srbi
Srpska nosnja.jpg
Traditional Serbian costumes from Šumadija
Total population
c.10 milliona
Regions with significant populations
Balkans.
Flag of Serbia.svg  Serbia (excl. Kosovo)5,988,150 (2011)
Flag of Kosovo.svg  Kosovo b146,128 (2013 est.) [1]
Flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina.svg  Bosnia and Herzegovina 1,086,733 (2013) [2]
Flag of Croatia.svg  Croatia 186,633 (2011) [3]
Flag of Montenegro.svg  Montenegro c178,110 (2011) [4]
Flag of Slovenia.svg  Slovenia 38,964 (2002) [5]
Flag of North Macedonia.svg  North Macedonia 35,939 (2002) [6]
Flag of Romania.svg  Romania 18,076 (2011) [7]
Rest of Europe·
Flag of Germany.svg  Germany c. 700,000 (est.) [8]
Flag of Austria.svg  Austria c. 300,000 (2010 est.) [9]
Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland c. 150,000 (2000 est.) [10]
Flag of France.svg  France c. 120,000 (2002 est.) [11]
Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden c. 110–120,000 (est.)
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom c. 70,000 (2001 est.) [12]
Flag of Italy.svg  Italy 46,958 [13]
Flag of Norway.svg  Norway c. 15,000 (est.) [14]
Flag of Hungary.svg  Hungary 11,127 (2016) [15]
North America·
Flag of the United States.svg  United States 199,080 (2012) [16]
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada 80,320 (2011) [17]
Rest of the world·
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia 69,544 (2011) [18]
Flag of South Africa.svg  South Africa c. 20,000 (est.) [19]
Flag of the United Arab Emirates.svg  UAE c. 15,000 (est.) [20]
Languages
Serbian
Religion
Orthodox Christianity
(Serbian Orthodox Church)
Related ethnic groups
Other South Slavs

a The total figure is merely an estimation; sum of all the referenced populations.

b Kosovo is the subject of a territorial dispute between the Republic of Serbia and Republic of Kosovo. The 2011 census in Kosovo was largely boycotted by the Serb community.

Contents

cSome 265,895 (or 42.88% of Montenegro's total population) declared Serbian language as their mother tongue. [21]

The Serbs (Serbian : Срби / Srbi, pronounced  [sr̩̂bi] ) are a nation and South Slavic ethnic group that formed in the Balkans. The majority of Serbs inhabit the nation state of Serbia, as well as the disputed territory of Kosovo, [a] and the neighboring countries of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia and Montenegro. They form significant minorities in North Macedonia and Slovenia. There is a large Serb diaspora in Western Europe, and outside Europe there are significant communities in North America and Australia.

Serbian language South Slavic language

Serbian is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language mainly used by Serbs. It is the official language of Serbia, co-official in the territory of Kosovo, and one of the three official languages of Bosnia and Herzegovina. In addition, it is a recognized minority language in Montenegro, where it is spoken by the relative majority of the population, as well as in Croatia, North Macedonia, Romania, Hungary, Slovakia, and the Czech Republic.

A nation is a stable community of people, formed on the basis of a common language, territory, history, ethnicity, or psychological make-up manifested in a common culture.

South Slavs ethnic group

The South Slavs are a subgroup of Slavic peoples who speak the South Slavic languages. They inhabit a contiguous region in the Balkan Peninsula and the eastern Alps, and in the modern era are geographically separated from the body of West Slavic and East Slavic people by the Romanians, Hungarians, and Austrians in between. The South Slavs today include the nations of Bosniaks, Bulgarians, Croats, Macedonians, Montenegrins, Serbs and Slovenes. They are the main population of the Eastern and Southeastern European countries of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Serbia and Slovenia.

The Serbs share many cultural traits with the rest of the peoples of Southeast Europe. They are predominantly Eastern Orthodox Christians by religion. The Serbian language is official in Serbia, co-official in Kosovo and Bosnia and Herzegovina, and is spoken by the plurality in Montenegro.

Southeast Europe Geographic region in Europe

Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe (SEE) is a geographical region of Europe, consisting primarily of the coterminous Balkan Peninsula. There are overlapping and conflicting definitions as to where exactly Southeastern Europe begins or ends or how it relates to other regions of the continent. Sovereign states that are most frequently included in the region are, in alphabetical order: Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece, Kosovo, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, and Slovenia.

Ethnology

The modern identity of Serbs is rooted in Eastern Orthodoxy and traditions. In the 19th century, the Serbian national identity was manifested, with awareness of history and tradition, medieval heritage, cultural unity, despite living under different empires.[ citation needed ] Three elements, together with the legacy of the Nemanjić dynasty, were crucial in forging identity and preservation during foreign domination: the Serbian Orthodox Church, the Serbian language, and Kosovo Myth. [22] When the Principality of Serbia gained independence from the Ottoman Empire, Orthodoxy became crucial in defining the national identity, instead of language which was shared by other South Slavs (Croats and Bosniaks). [23] The tradition of slava , the family saint feast day, is an important ethnic marker of Serb identity, [24] and is usually regarded their most significant and most solemn feast day. [25]

Serbian national identity

Serbia is the nation state of the Serbs, who are Serbia's dominant ethnic group. Serbs are also dominant in Republika Srpska, an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina. In the 19th century, the Serbian national identity was manifested, with awareness of history and tradition, medieval heritage, cultural unity, despite Serbs living under different empires. Three elements, together with the legacy of the Nemanjić dynasty, were crucial in forging identity and preservation during foreign domination: the Serbian Orthodox Church, Kosovo Myth, and the Serbian language. The identification with medieval heritage through venerating Serbian saints, together with Serbian epic poetry, had helped develop a national consciousness separate from other Orthodox peoples in the Balkans. The heroic epic cycles inspired the Serbs to revive their heroic past and freedom. In the stories, the hajduks were heroes: they had played the role of the Serbian elite during Ottoman rule, they had defended the Serbs against Ottoman oppression, and prepared for the national liberation and contributed to it in the Serbian Revolution. The symbolical Kosovo Myth became the mythomoteur, signifying martyrdom and defence of Serb honour and Christendom against Turks (Muslims). When the Principality of Serbia gained independence from the Ottoman Empire, Orthodoxy became crucial in defining the national identity, instead of language which was shared by other South Slavs.

Nemanjić dynasty

The Nemanjić was the most prominent dynasty of Serbia in the Middle Ages. The princely, royal and imperial house produced Twelve Serbian monarchs between 1166 and 1371.

The origin of the ethnonym is unclear (See: Names of the Serbs and Serbia ). Genetic studies on Serbs show that they have close affinity with the rest of the Balkan peoples, and especially those within former Yugoslavia; Y-DNA results show that haplogroups I2a and R1a together stand for the majority of the makeup (as of 2014). [26] Serbia's people are among the tallest in the world, after Montenegro and the Netherlands, with an average male height of 1.82 metres (6 ft 0 in). [27]

An ethnonym is a name applied to a given ethnic group. Ethnonyms can be divided into two categories: exonyms and autonyms, or endonyms.

Names of the Serbs and Serbia are terms and other designations referring to general terminology and nomenclature on the Serbs and Serbia. Throughout history, various endonyms and exonyms have been used in reference to ethnic Serbs and their lands. Basic terms, used in Serbian language, were introduced via classical languages into other languages, including English. The process of interlingual transmission began during the early medieval period, and continued up to the modern times, being finalized in major international languages at the beginning of the 20th century.

Genetic studies on Serbs show close affinity to other neighboring South Slavs.

History

Arrival of the Slavs

Early Slavs, especially Sclaveni and Antae, including the White Serbs, invaded and settled the Southeastern Europe in the 6th and 7th centuries. [28] Up until the late 560s their activity was raiding, crossing from the Danube, though with limited Slavic settlement mainly through Byzantine foederati colonies. [29] The Danube and Sava frontier was overwhelmed by large-scale Slavic settlement in the late 6th and early 7th century. [30] What is today central Serbia was an important geo-strategical province, through which the Via Militaris crossed. [31] This area was frequently intruded by barbarians in the 5th and 6th centuries. [31] The numerous Slavs mixed with and assimilated the descendants of the indigenous population. [32] According to the Royal Frankish Annals, by 822, Serbs were controlling a great part of Dalmatia ("ad Sorabos, quae natio magnam Dalmatiae partem obtinere dicitur"). [33] [34] [35] [36] [37]

Early Slavs

The early Slavs were a diverse group of tribal societies who lived during the Migration Period and Early Middle Ages in Eastern Europe and established the foundations for the Slavic nations through the Slavic states of the High Middle Ages. The first written use of the name "Slavs" dates to the 6th century, when the Slavic tribes inhabited a large portion of Central and Eastern Europe. By that century, nomadic Iranian ethnic groups living on the Eurasian Steppe had been absorbed by the region's Slavic population. Over the next two centuries, the Slavs expanded southwest toward the Balkans and the Alps and northeast towards the Volga River. It's still a matter of controversy where the original habitat of the Slavs was, but scholars believe it was somewhere in Eastern Europe. In the past not much attention was paid to the origin of the Slavic people.

Sclaveni Early Slavic tribes

The Sclaveni or Sklavenoi were early Slavic tribes that raided, invaded and settled the Balkans in the Early Middle Ages and eventually became known as the ethnogenesis of the South Slavs. They were mentioned by early Byzantine chroniclers as barbarians having appeared at the Byzantine borders along with the Antes, another Slavic group. The Sclaveni were differentiated from the Antes and Wends ; however, they were described as kin. Eventually, most South Slavic tribes accepted Byzantine suzerainty, and came under Byzantine cultural influence. The term was widely used as general catch-all term until the emergence of separate tribal names by the 10th century.

Foederati were foreign states, client kingdoms, or barbarian tribes to which ancient Rome provided benefits in exchange for military assistance. The term was also used, especially under the Roman Empire, for groups of "barbarian" mercenaries of various sizes, who were typically allowed to settle within the Roman Empire.

Middle Ages

Nemanjic dynasty members, most important dynasty of Serbia in the Middle Ages Loza nemanjica.jpg
Nemanjić dynasty members, most important dynasty of Serbia in the Middle Ages

The history of the early medieval Serbian Principality is recorded in the 10th-century work De Administrando Imperio , which describes the Serbs as a people living in Roman Dalmatia, subordinate to the Byzantine Empire. [38] Numerous small Serbian states were created, chiefly under Vlastimorović and Vojislavjević dynasties, located in modern Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Montenegro, and Serbia, but the population's Serbian ethnic identity remains a matter of dispute. [39] [40] With the decline of the Serbian state of Duklja in the late 11th century, "Raška" separated from it and replaced it as the most powerful Serbian state. [41] Prince Stefan Nemanja (r. 1169–96) conquered the neighbouring territories of Kosovo, Duklja and Zachlumia. The Nemanjić dynasty ruled over Serbia until the 14th century. Nemanja's older son, Stefan Nemanjić, became Serbia's first recognized king, while his younger son, Rastko, founded the Serbian Orthodox Church in the year 1219, and became known as Saint Sava after his death. [42]

Principality of Serbia (early medieval) Medieval principality in Eastern Europe

Principality of Serbia was one of the early medieval states of the Serbs, located in western regions of Southeastern Europe. It existed from the 8th century up to c. 969-971 and was ruled by the Vlastimirović dynasty. Its first ruler known by name was Višeslav who started ruling around 780. In 822, the Serbs were said to rule the "greater part of Dalmatia", while at the same time the Bulgars had taken the lands to the east, preparing to conquer Serbia. Vlastimir defeated the Bulgar army in a three-year-war (839–842), and the two powers lived in peace for some decades. Vlastimir's three sons succeeded in ruling Serbia together, although not for long; Serbia became a key part in the power struggle between the Byzantines and Bulgars, which also resulted in major dynastic wars for a period of three decades. Central parts of the principality were shortly occupied by the Bulgarian army for three years (924–927), until Serbian prince Časlav succeeded to liberate the land and unite several Serbian regions, becoming the most powerful ruler of the Vlastimirović dynasty. An important process during this period was the Christianization of the Serbs, the establishment of Christianity as state-religion c. 869, and the founding of the first Serbian eparchy (diocese), the Eparchy of Ras. The principality was annexed by the Byzantines in c. 969-971 and ruled as the Catepanate of Ras. The main information of the history of the principality and Vlastimirović dynasty are recorded in the contemporary historical work De Administrando Imperio.

<i>De Administrando Imperio</i> literary work

De Administrando Imperio is the Latin title of a Greek-language work written by the 10th-century Eastern Roman Emperor Constantine VII. The Greek title of the work is Πρὸς τὸν ἴδιον υἱὸν Ρωμανόν. It is a domestic and foreign policy manual for the use of Constantine's son and successor, the Emperor Romanos II.

Dalmatia (theme) Byzantine province

The Theme of Dalmatia was a Byzantine theme on the eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea in Southeastern Europe, headquartered at Jadera.

Over the next 140 years, Serbia expanded its borders, from numerous minor principalities, reaching to a unified Serbian Empire. Its cultural model remained Byzantine, despite political ambitions directed against the empire. The medieval power and influence of Serbia culminated in the reign of Stefan Dušan, who ruled the state from 1331 until his death in 1355. Ruling as Emperor from 1346, his territory included Macedonia, northern Greece, Montenegro, and almost all of modern Albania. [43] When Dušan died, his son Stephen Uroš V became Emperor. [44]

With Turkish invaders beginning their conquest of the Balkans in the 1350s, a major conflict ensued between them and the Serbs, the first major battle was the Battle of Maritsa (1371), [44] in which the Serbs were defeated. [45] With the death of two important Serb leaders in the battle, and with the death of Stephen Uroš that same year, the Serbian Empire broke up into several small Serbian domains. [44] These states were ruled by feudal lords, with Zeta controlled by the Balšić family, Raška, Kosovo and northern Macedonia held by the Branković family and Lazar Hrebeljanović holding today's Central Serbia and a portion of Kosovo. [45] Hrebeljanović was subsequently accepted as the titular leader of the Serbs because he was married to a member of the Nemanjić dynasty. [44] In 1389, the Serbs faced the Ottomans at the Battle of Kosovo on the plain of Kosovo Polje, near the town of Priština. [45] Both Lazar and Sultan Murad I were killed in the fighting. [45] The battle most likely ended in a stalemate, and afterwards Serbia enjoyed a short period of prosperity under despot Stefan Lazarević and resisted falling to the Turks until 1459. [45]

Early modern period

The Serbs had taken an active part in the wars fought in the Balkans against the Ottoman Empire, and also organized uprisings; [46] [47] because of this, they suffered persecution and their territories were devastated – major migrations from Serbia into Habsburg territory ensued. [48] After allied Christian forces had captured Buda from the Ottoman Empire in 1686 during the Great Turkish War, Serbs from Pannonian Plain (present-day Hungary, Slavonia region in present-day Croatia, Bačka and Banat regions in present-day Serbia) joined the troops of the Habsburg Monarchy as separate units known as Serbian Militia. [49] Serbs, as volunteers, massively joined the Austrian side. [50]

Migration of the Serbs a painting by Paja Jovanovic, depicting the Great Serb Migrations led by Patriarch Arsenije III Carnojevic, 17th century. Serbmigra.jpg
Migration of the Serbs a painting by Paja Jovanović, depicting the Great Serb Migrations led by Patriarch Arsenije III Carnojevic, 17th century.

In 1688, the Habsburg army took Belgrade and entered the territory of present-day Central Serbia. Louis William, Margrave of Baden-Baden called Serbian Patriarch Arsenije III Čarnojević to raise arms against the Turks; the Patriarch accepted and returned to the liberated Peć. As Serbia fell under Habsburg control, Leopold I granted Arsenije nobility and the title of duke. In early November, Arsenije III met with Habsburg commander-in-chief, General Enea Silvio Piccolomini in Prizren; after this talk he sent a note to all Serb bishops to come to him and collaborate only with Habsburg forces.

A Great Migration of the Serbs (1690) to Habsburg lands was undertaken by Patriarch Arsenije III. [51] The large community of Serbs concentrated in Banat, southern Hungary and the Military Frontier included merchants and craftsmen in the cities, but mainly refugees that were peasants. [51]

The Serbian Revolution for independence from the Ottoman Empire lasted eleven years, from 1804 until 1815. [52] The revolution comprised two separate uprisings which gained autonomy from the Ottoman Empire that eventually evolved towards full independence (1835–1867). [53] [54] During the First Serbian Uprising, led by Duke Karađorđe Petrović, Serbia was independent for almost a decade before the Ottoman army was able to reoccupy the country. Shortly after this, the Second Serbian Uprising began. Led by Miloš Obrenović, it ended in 1815 with a compromise between Serbian revolutionaries and Ottoman authorities. [55] Likewise, Serbia was one of the first nations in the Balkans to abolish feudalism. [56]

Modern period

In the early 1830s Serbia gained autonomy and its borders were recognized, with Miloš Obrenović being recognized as its ruler. The last Ottoman troops withdrew from Serbia in 1867, although Serbia's independence was not recognized internationally until the Congress of Berlin in 1878. [48]

Gavrilo Princip, who assassinated Franz Ferdinand, which triggered the start of World War I. Gavrilo Princip, cell, headshot.jpg
Gavrilo Princip, who assassinated Franz Ferdinand, which triggered the start of World War I.

Serbia fought in the Balkan Wars of 1912–13, which forced the Ottomans out of the Balkans and doubled the territory and population of the Kingdom of Serbia. In 1914, a young Bosnian Serb student named Gavrilo Princip assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, which directly contributed to the outbreak of World War I. [57] In the fighting that ensued, Serbia was invaded by Austria-Hungary. Despite being outnumbered, the Serbs subsequently defeated the Austro-Hungarians at the Battle of Cer, which marked the first Allied victory over the Central Powers in the war. [58] Further victories at the battles of Kolubara and the Drina meant that Serbia remained unconquered as the war entered its second year. However, an invasion by the forces of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Bulgaria overwhelmed the Serbs in the winter of 1915, and a subsequent withdrawal by the Serbian Army through Albania took the lives of more than 240,000 Serbs. Serb forces spent the remaining years of the war fighting on the Salonika Front in Greece, before liberating Serbia from Austro-Hungarian occupation in November 1918. [59]

Stone Flower, a monument dedicated to the victims, including mostly Serbs, of Jasenovac concentration camp Logor Jasenovac.JPG
Stone Flower, a monument dedicated to the victims, including mostly Serbs, of Jasenovac concentration camp

Serbs subsequently formed the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes with other South Slavic peoples. The country was later renamed the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, and was led from 1921 to 1934 by King Alexander I of the Serbian Karađorđević dynasty. [60] During World War II, Yugoslavia was invaded by the Axis powers in April 1941. The country was subsequently divided into many pieces, with Serbia being directly occupied by the Germans. [61] Serbs in the Independent State of Croatia (NDH) experienced persecution at the hands of the Croatian ultra-nationalist, fascist Ustaše, who attempted to exterminate the Serb population in death camps. More than half a million Serbs were killed in the territory of Yugoslavia during World War II. Serbs in occupied Yugoslavia subsequently formed a resistance movement known as the Yugoslav Army in the Homeland, or the Chetniks. The Chetniks had the official support of the Allies until 1943, when Allied support shifted to the Communist Yugoslav Partisans, a multi-ethnic force, formed in 1941, which also had a large majority of Serbs in its ranks in the first two years of war. Later, after the fall of Italy (September 1943), other ethnic groups joined Partisans in larger numbers. [61]

At the end of the war, the Partisans, led by Josip Broz Tito, emerged victorious. Yugoslavia subsequently became a Communist state. Tito died in 1980, and his death saw Yugoslavia plunge into economic turmoil. [62] Yugoslavia disintegrated in the early 1990s, and a series of wars resulted in the creation of five new states. The heaviest fighting occurred in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, whose Serb populations rebelled and declared independence. The war in Croatia ended in August 1995, with a Croatian military offensive known as Operation Storm crushing the Croatian Serb rebellion and causing as many as 200,000 Serbs to flee the country. The Bosnian War ended that same year, with the Dayton Agreement dividing the country along ethnic lines. In 1998–99, a conflict in Kosovo between the Yugoslav Army and Albanians seeking independence erupted into full-out war, resulting in a 78-day-long NATO bombing campaign which effectively drove Yugoslav security forces from Kosovo. [63] Subsequently, more than 200,000 Serbs and other non-Albanians fled the province. [64] On 5 October 2000, Yugoslav President Slobodan Milosević was overthrown in a bloodless revolt after he refused to admit defeat in the 2000 Yugoslav general election. [65]

Demographics

There are nearly 8 million Serbs living in the Western Balkans. In Serbia (the nation state), around 6 million people identify themselves as Serbs, and constitute about 83% of the population. More than a million live in Bosnia and Herzegovina (predominantly in Republika Srpska), where they are one of the three constituent ethnic groups. The ethnic communities in Croatia and Montenegro number some 186,000 and 178,000 people, respectively, while another estimated 146,000 still inhabit the disputed area of Kosovo. [1] Smaller minorities exist in Slovenia and North Macedonia, some 36,000 and 39,000 people, respectively.

Outside of the Western Balkans, Serbs are an officially recognized minority in Romania (18,000), Hungary (7,000), Albania, the Czech Republic and Slovakia. There is a large diaspora in Western Europe, particularly in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, France, and Sweden. Outside Europe, there are significant Serb communities in the United States, Canada, Australia, South America and Southern Africa.

Diaspora

Geographical distribution of the diaspora World Map of Serbian Diaspora.png
Geographical distribution of the diaspora

There are over 2 million Serbs in diaspora throughout the world, although some sources put that figure as high as 4 million. [66] The existence of a large diaspora is mainly a consequence of either economic or political (coercion or expulsions) reasons. There were several waves of Serb emigration:

Language

Linguistic map of Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, and Croatia; Serbian language in yellow Serbo croatian languages2006 02.png
Linguistic map of Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, and Croatia; Serbian language in yellow
Vuk Karadzic, reformer of modern Serbian language Vuk Karadzic Kriehuber cropped.jpg
Vuk Karadžić, reformer of modern Serbian language

Serbs speak Serbian, a member of the South Slavic group of languages, specifically the Southwestern group. Standard Serbian is a standardized variety of Serbo-Croatian, and therefore mutually intelligible with Standard Croatian and Standard Bosnian (see Differences in standard Serbian, Croatian and Bosnian), which are all based on the Shtokavian dialect. [69]

Serbian is an official language in Serbia and Bosnia-Herzegovina and is a recognized minority language in Montenegro (although spoken by a plurality of population), Croatia, North Macedonia, Romania, Hungary, Czech Republic and Slovakia. Older forms of literary Serbian are Church Slavonic of the Serbian recension, which is still used for ecclesiastical purposes, and Slavonic-Serbian—a mixture of Serbian, Church Slavonic and Russian used from mid-18th century to the first decades of the 19th century.

Serbian has active digraphia, using both Cyrillic and Latin alphabets. [70] Serbian Cyrillic was devised in 1814 by Serbian linguist Vuk Karadžić, who created the alphabet on phonemic principles. [71]

Loanwords in the Serbian language besides common internationalisms are mostly from Turkish, German and Italian, while words of Hungarian origin are present mostly in the north and Greek words are predominant in the liturgy.[ citation needed ] One Serbian word that is used in many of the world's languages is "vampire" (vampir). [72] [73] [74] [75]

Culture

Literature, icon painting, music and dance and medieval architecture are the artistic forms for which Serbia is best known. Traditional Serbian visual art (specifically frescoes, and to some extent icons), as well as ecclesiastical architecture, are highly reflective of Byzantine traditions, with some Mediterranean and Western influence[ citation needed ].

In modern times (since the 19th century) Serbs also have a noteworthy classical music and works of philosophy. [76] Notable philosophers include Branislav Petronijević, Radomir Konstantinović, Ksenija Atanasijević, Nikola Milošević, Mihailo Marković, Svetozar Marković, Mihailo Đurić.

Art, music, theatre and cinema

Kosovo Maiden (1919) by Uros Predic. Kosovo Maiden, Uros Predic, 1919.jpg
Kosovo Maiden (1919) by Uroš Predić.
Emir Kusturica, film director who won the Palme d'Or twice OIFF 2013-07-12 Opening Ceremony. Opera-House kusturica.jpg
Emir Kusturica, film director who won the Palme d'Or twice

During the 12th and 13th centuries, many icons, wall paintings and manuscript miniatures came into existence, as many Serbian Orthodox monasteries and churches such as Hilandar, Žiča, Studenica, Sopoćani, Mileševa, Gračanica and Visoki Dečani were built. [77] The architecture of some of these monasteries is world-famous. [42] Prominent architectural styles in the middle ages were Raška architectural school, Morava architectural school and Serbo-Byzantin architectural style. During the same period UNESCO protected Stećak monumental medieval tombstones were built. The Independence of Serbia in the 19th century was soon followed with Serbo-Byzantine Revival in architecture.

Since the mid-1800s, Serbia has produced many famous painters who are representative of general European artistic trends. [77] One of the most prominent of these was Paja Jovanović, who painted massive canvases on historical themes such as the Migration of the Serbs (1896). Painter Uroš Predić was also very prominent in the field of Serbian art, painting the Kosovo Maiden (1919). While Jovanović and Predić were both realist painters, artist Đura Jakšić was an accomplished Romanticist and Nadežda Petrović was an impressionist and fauvist. Painters Petar Lubarda, Vladimir Veličković and Ljubomir Popović were famous for their surrealism. [78]

Traditional Serbian music includes various kinds of bagpipes, flutes, horns, trumpets, lutes, psalteries, drums and cymbals. The kolo is the traditional collective folk dance, which has a number of varieties throughout the regions. Composer and musicologist Stevan Stojanović Mokranjac is considered one of the most important founders of modern Serbian music. [79] [80] Other noted classical composers include Kornelije Stanković, Stanislav Binički, Petar Konjović, Miloje Milojević, Stevan Hristić, Josif Marinković and Vasilije Mokranjac. [81]

Serbia has produced many talented filmmakers, the most famous of whom are Dušan Makavejev, [82] Živojin Pavlović, Goran Paskaljević, Emir Kusturica, Želimir Žilnik and Srdan Golubović. Želimir Žilnik and Stefan Arsenijević won the Golden Bear award at Berlinale. Kusturica became world-renowned after winning the Palme d'Or twice at the Cannes Film Festival, numerous other prizes, and is a UNICEF National Ambassador for Serbia. [83] Several Americans of Serb origin have been featured prominently in Hollywood. The most notable of these are Academy-award winners Karl Malden, [84] Steve Tesich, Peter Bogdanovich, Tony-winning theatre director Darko Tresnjak, Emmy-winning director Marina Zenovich and actresses Milla Jovovich and Stana Katic.

Literature

Most literature written by early Serbs was about religious themes. Various gospels, psalters, menologies, hagiographies, and essays and sermons of the founders of the Serbian Orthodox Church were written. At the end of the 12th century, two of the most important pieces of Serbian medieval literature were created– the Miroslav Gospels and the Vukan Gospels, which combined handwritten Biblical texts with painted initials and small pictures. [42] Notable Baroque-influenced authors were Andrija Zmajević, Gavril Stefanović Venclović, Jovan Rajić, Zaharije Orfelin and others. Dositej Obradović was the most prominent figure of the Age of Enlightenment, while the most notable Classicist writer was Jovan Sterija Popović, although his works also contained elements of Romanticism. Modern Serbian literature began with Vuk Karadžić's collections of folk songs in the 19th century, and the writings of Njegoš and Branko Radičević. The first prominent representative of Serbian literature in the 20th century was Jovan Skerlić, who wrote in pre–World War I Belgrade and helped introduce Serbian writers to literary modernism. The most important Serbian writer in the inter-war period was Miloš Crnjanski. [85]

The first Serb authors who appeared after World War II were Mihailo Lalić and Dobrica Ćosić. [86] Having become the cultural center of the region, other notable post-war Yugoslav authors such as Ivo Andrić and Meša Selimović, a Bosnian Croat and Bosniak respectively, were assimilated to Serbian culture, and both identified as Serbs. [85] Andrić went on to win the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1961. [86] Danilo Kiš, another popular Serbian writer, was known for writing A Tomb for Boris Davidovich , as well as several acclaimed novels. [87] Amongst contemporary Serbian writers, Milorad Pavić stands out as being the most critically acclaimed, with his novels Dictionary of the Khazars , Landscape Painted with Tea and The Inner Side of the Wind bringing him international recognition. Highly revered in Europe and in South America, Pavić is considered one of the most intriguing writers from the beginning of the 21st century. [88]

Education and science

Many Serbs have contributed to the field of science and technology. Serbian American scientist, inventor, physicist, mechanical engineer and electrical engineer Nikola Tesla is regarded as one of the most important inventors in history. He is renowned for his contributions to the discipline of electricity and magnetism in the late 19th and early 20th century.

Physicist and physical chemist Mihajlo Pupin is best known for his landmark theory of modern electrical filters as well as for his numerous patents, while Milutin Milanković is best known for his theory of long-term climate change caused by changes in the position of the Earth in comparison to the Sun, now known as Milankovitch cycles. [89] Mihailo Petrović is known for having contributed significantly to differential equations and phenomenology, as well as inventing one of the first prototypes of an analog computer. Roger Joseph Boscovich was a Ragusan physicist, astronomer, mathematician and polymath of paternal Serbian origin [90] [91] [92] [93] (although there are competing claims for Bošković's nationality) who produced a precursor of atomic theory and made many contributions to astronomy and also discovered the absence of atmosphere on the Moon. Jovan Cvijić founded modern geography in Serbia and made pioneering research on the geography of the Balkan Peninsula, Dinaric race and karst. Josif Pančić made contributions to botany and discovered more than 100 new floral species including the Serbian spruce. Biologist and physiologist Ivan Đaja performed research in the role of the adrenal glands in thermoregulation, as well as pioneering work in hypothermia. [94] [95] Valtazar Bogišić is considered to be a pioneer in the sociology of law and sociological jurisprudence. Gordana Vunjak-Novakovic is a Serbian American biomedical engineer focusing on engineering human tissues for regenerative medicine, stem cell research and modeling of disease. She is one of the most highly cited scientists of all times. [96]

Names

There are several different layers of Serbian names. Serbian given names largely originate from Slavic roots: e.g., Vuk, Bojan, Goran, Zoran, Dragan, Milan, Miroslav, Vladimir, Slobodan, Dušan, Milica, Nevena, Vesna, Radmila. Other names are of Christian origin, originating from the bible (Hebrew, through Greek), such as Lazar, Mihailo, Ivan, Jovan, Ilija, Marija, Ana, Ivana. Along similar lines of non-Slavic Christian names are Greek ones such as: Stefan, Nikola, Aleksandar, Filip, Đorđe, Andrej, Jelena, Katarina, Vasilije, Todor, while those of Latin origin include: Marko, Antonije, Srđan, Marina, Petar, Pavle, Natalija, Igor (through Russian).

Most Serbian surnames are paternal, maternal, occupational or derived from personal traits. It is estimated that over two thirds of all Serbian surnames have the suffix -ić (-ић) ( [itɕ] ), a Slavic diminutive, originally functioning to create patronymics. Thus the surname Petrović means the "son of Petar" (from a male progenitor, the root is extended with possessive -ov or -ev). Due to limited use of international typewriters and unicode computer encoding, the suffix may be simplified to -ic, historically transcribed with a phonetic ending, -ich or -itch in foreign languages. Other common surname suffixes found among Serbian surnames are -ov, -ev, -in and -ski (without -ić) which is the Slavic possessive case suffix, thus Nikola's son becomes Nikolin, Petar's son Petrov, and Jovan's son Jovanov. Other, less common suffices are -alj/olj/elj, -ija, -ica, -ar/ac/an. The ten most common surnames in Serbia, in order, are Jovanović, Petrović, Nikolić, Marković, Đorđević, Stojanović, Ilić, Stanković, Pavlović and Milošević. [98]

Religion

Pecka Patrijarsija (XIII,XIV vek).JPG
St. Sava Temple.jpg
Left: Patriarchal Monastery of Peć in Kosovo, the seat of the Serbian Orthodox Church from the 14th century
Right: Church of Saint Sava, one of the largest Orthodox churches in the world

Serbs are predominantly Orthodox Christians. The autocephaly of the Serbian Orthodox Church, was established in 1219, as an Archbishopric, and raised to the Patriarchate in 1346. [99] It is led by the Serbian Patriarch, and consists of three archbishoprics, six metropolitanates and thirty-one eparchies, having around 10 million adherents. Followers of the church form the largest religious group in Serbia and Montenegro, and the second-largest in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia. The church has an archbishopric in North Macedonia and dioceses in Western Europe, North America and Australia. [100]

The identity of ethnic Serbs was historically largely based on Orthodox Christianity and on the Serbian Church in particular, to the extent of the claims that those who are not its faithful are not Serbs. The conversion of the South Slavs from paganism to Christianity took place before the Great Schism, the split between the Greek East and the Catholic West. After the Schism, those who lived under the Orthodox sphere of influence became Orthodox and those who lived under the Catholic sphere of influence became Catholic. Some ethnologists consider that the distinct Serb and Croat identities relate to religion rather than ethnicity. With the arrival of the Ottoman Empire, some Serbs converted to Islam. This was particularly, but not wholly, the case in Bosnia. Since the second half of the 19th century, some Serbs converted to Protestantism,[ citation needed ] while historically some Serbs were Catholics (especially in Dalmatia; e.g. Serb-Catholic movement in Dubrovnik). [101] The remainder of Serbs remain predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christians.

Symbols

Among the most notable national and ethnic symbols are the flag of Serbia and the coat of arms of Serbia. The flag consists of a red-blue-white tricolour, rooted in Pan-Slavism, and has been used since the 19th century. Apart from being the national flag, it is also used officially in Republika Srpska (by Bosnian Serbs) and as the official ethnic flag of Croatian Serbs. The coat of arms, which includes both the Serbian eagle and Serbian cross, has also been officially used since the 19th century, its elements dating back to the Middle Ages, showing Byzantine and Christian heritage. These symbols are used by various Serb organisations, political parties and institutions. The Three-finger salute, also called the "Serb salute", is a popular expression for ethnic Serbs and Serbia, originally expressing Serbian Orthodoxy and today simply being a symbol for ethnic Serbs and the Serbian nation, made by extending the thumb, index, and middle fingers of one or both hands.

Traditions and customs

Folklore
Traditions

Cuisine

Christmas table is often made with roasted pork and Russian salad Christmas table (Serbian cuisine).jpg
Christmas table is often made with roasted pork and Russian salad
Cevapi, or Cevapcici, the national dish of Serbia, served with ajvar Cevapcici Bosnia (10675837796).jpg
Ćevapi, or Ćevapčići, the national dish of Serbia, served with ajvar

Serbian cuisine is largely heterogeneous, with heavy Oriental, Central European and Mediterranean influences. [106] Despite this, it has evolved and achieved its own culinary identity. Food is very important in Serbian social life, particularly during religious holidays such as Christmas, Easter and feast days, i.e., slava . [106] Staples of the Serbian diet include bread, meat, fruits, vegetables, and dairy products. Traditionally, three meals are consumed per day. Breakfast generally consists of eggs, meat and bread. Lunch is considered the main meal, and is normally eaten in the afternoon. Traditionally, Turkish coffee is prepared after a meal, and is served in small cups. [106] Bread is the basis of all Serbian meals, and it plays an important role in Serbian cuisine and can be found in religious rituals. A traditional Serbian welcome is to offer bread and salt to guests, and also slatko (fruit preserve). Meat is widely consumed, as is fish. Serbian specialties include kajmak (a dairy product similar to clotted cream), proja (cornbread), kačamak (corn-flour porridge), and gibanica (cheese and kajmak pie). Ćevapčići, caseless grilled and seasoned sausages made of minced meat, is the national dish of Serbia. [106]

Šljivovica (Slivovitz) is the national drink of Serbia in domestic production for centuries, and plum is the national fruit. The international name Slivovitz is derived from Serbian. [107] Plum and its products are of great importance to Serbs and part of numerous customs. [108] A Serbian meal usually starts or ends with plum products and Šljivovica is served as an aperitif. [108] A saying goes that the best place to build a house is where a plum tree grows best. [108] Traditionally, Šljivovica (commonly referred to as "rakija") is connected to Serbian culture as a drink used at all important rites of passage (birth, baptism, military service, marriage, death, etc.), and in the Serbian Orthodox patron saint celebration ( slava ). [108] It is used in numerous folk remedies, and is given certain degree of respect above all other alcoholic drinks. The fertile region of Šumadija in central Serbia is particularly known for its plums and Šljivovica. [109] Serbia is the largest exporter of Slivovitz in the world, and second largest plum producer in the world. [110] [111]

Sport

Aleksandar Dordevic is the only person to win a medal in Olympics, World Cup and EuroBasket as a player and as a coach Aleksandar Dordevic.jpg
Aleksandar Đorđević is the only person to win a medal in Olympics, World Cup and EuroBasket as a player and as a coach

Serbs are famous for their sporting achievements, and have produced many talented athletes.

Over the years Serbia has been home to many internationally renowned football players such as Dragan Džajić (officially recognized as "the best Serbian footballer of all times" by Football Association of Serbia; 1968 European Footballer of the Year third place) and more recent likes of Dejan Stanković (Serbia's most capped player), Nemanja Vidić (Premier League Player of the Season and member of FIFPro World XI, both awards for 2008–09 and 2010–11 seasons respectively), Branislav Ivanović and Nemanja Matić. Serbia has developed a reputation as one of the world's biggest exporters of expat footballers. [112]

Novak Djokovic, one of the greatest tennis players of all time. Novak Djokovic AO win 2011.jpg
Novak Djokovic, one of the greatest tennis players of all time.

A total of 22 Serbian players have played in the NBA in the last two decades, including three-time NBA All-Star Predrag "Peja" Stojaković and NBA All-Star and FIBA Hall of Fame inductee Vlade Divac. Serbian players that made a great impact in Europe include four members of the FIBA Hall of Fame from the 1960s and 1970s – Dragan Kićanović, Dražen Dalipagić, Radivoj Korać, and Zoran Slavnić – as well as recent stars such as Dejan Bodiroga (2002 All-Europe Player of the Year), Aleksandar Đorđević (1994 and 1995 Mr. Europa) and currently active Miloš Teodosić (2009–2010 Euroleague MVP) and NBA All-Star Nikola Jokić. The renowned "Serbian coaching school" produced many of the most successful European coaches of all times, such as Željko Obradović (a record eight Euroleague titles), Božidar Maljković (four Euroleague titles), Aleksandar Nikolić (three Euroleague titles), Dušan Ivković (two Euroleague titles), and Svetislav Pešić.

Novak Đoković, twelve-time Grand Slam champion and 2011, 2014 and 2015 Laureus Sportsman of the Year, finished 2011, 2012, 2014, and 2015 as the No. 1 ranked player in the world. Ana Ivanovic (champion of 2008 French Open) and Jelena Janković were both ranked No. 1 in the WTA Rankings, while Nenad Zimonjić and Slobodan Živojinović were ranked No. 1 in doubles.

The most successful water polo players are Vladimir Vujasinović, Aleksandar Šapić, Vanja Udovičić, Andrija Prlainović and Filip Filipović.

Other noted Serbian athletes, including Olympic and world champions and medalists, are: swimmer Milorad Čavić, volleyball player Nikola Grbić, handball player Svetlana Kitić, long-jumper Ivana Španović, shooter Jasna Šekarić and taekwondoist Milica Mandić.

See also

Notes

a.   ^ Kosovo is the subject of a territorial dispute between the Republic of Kosovo and the Republic of Serbia . The Republic of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence on 17 February 2008, but Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory . The two governments began to normalise relations in 2013, as part of the 2013 Brussels Agreement . Kosovo has been recognized as an independent state by 112 out of 193 United Nations member states , while 10 states have recognized Kosovo only to later withdraw their recognition.

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