|Parent department||Secretariat of Environment and Natural Resources|
|Parent agency||National Water Commission|
The Servicio Meteorológico Nacional (SMN) is Mexico's national weather organization. It collects data and issues forecasts, advisories, and warnings for the entire country.
A presidential decree founded El Observatorio Meteorológico y Astrónomico de México (The Meteorological and Astronomical Observatory of Mexico) on February 6, 1877 as part of the Geographic Exploring of the National Territory commission. By 1880, it became an independent agency located at Chapultepec Castle, then encompassing six observatories. In 1901, the Servicio Meteorologia Nacional was formed with 31 sections for each state and 18 independent observatories which reported back to the central office in Tacubaya via telegraph. It joined the World Meteorological Organization in 1947. By 1980, the organization included 72 observatories, of which eight launched weather balloons and radiosondes, and five radars serviced the country. In 1989, it became a subagency of the General de Administracion del Agua.
The agency issues forecasts out to five days in the future, hydrological bulletins including recent rainfall, agricultural bulletins, and run their own regional forecast model based upon the MM5. They also issue warnings for intense storms, strong northerlies in the Gulf of Mexico, snowfall, and excessive rainfall.Surface analyses for the region are drawn by the Tropical Prediction Center which are incorporated onto the Hydrometeorological Prediction Center analysis and then linked to by SMN on their website. They issue their own tropical cyclone reports that describe the impact of storms on Mexico, which are then relayed to the U.S. National Hurricane Center and the World Meteorological Organization.
The National Hurricane Center (NHC) is the division of the United States' NOAA/National Weather Service responsible for tracking and predicting tropical weather systems between the Prime Meridian and the 140th meridian west poleward to the 30th parallel north in the northeast Pacific Ocean and the 31st parallel north in the northern Atlantic Ocean. The agency, which is co-located with the Miami branch of the National Weather Service, is situated on the campus of Florida International University in University Park, Florida.
A severe thunderstorm warning is an alert issued by national weather forecasting agencies to warn the public that severe thunderstorms are imminent or occurring. The warning is issued when a trained storm spotters or Doppler weather radar indicate that a thunderstorm is producing or will soon produce dangerously large hail and high winds, capable of causing significant damage. Flooding caused by a thunderstorm's extreme rainfall. A similar warning is issued by Environment Canada's Meteorological Service of Canada from their offices in Vancouver, Edmonton, Toronto, Montreal and Dartmouth. Skywarn issues the severe thunderstorm warnings for the United Kingdom. In Australia, severe thunderstorm warnings are issued by the Bureau of Meteorology.
The National Weather Service (NWS) is an agency of the United States federal government that is tasked with providing weather forecasts, warnings of hazardous weather, and other weather-related products to organizations and the public for the purposes of protection, safety, and general information. It is a part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) branch of the Department of Commerce, and is headquartered in Silver Spring, Maryland, within the Washington metropolitan area. The agency was known as the United States Weather Bureau from 1890 until it adopted its current name in 1970.
Tropical cyclone warnings and watches are two levels of alert issued by national weather forecasting bodies to coastal areas threatened by the imminent approach of a tropical cyclone of tropical storm or hurricane intensity. They are notices to the local population and civil authorities to make appropriate preparation for the cyclone, including evacuation of vulnerable areas where necessary. It is important that interests throughout the area of an alert make preparations to protect life and property, and do not disregard it on the strength of the detailed forecast track. Tropical cyclones are not points, and forecasting their track remains an uncertain science.
The Weather Prediction Center (WPC), located in College Park, Maryland, is one of nine service centers under the umbrella of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), a part of the National Weather Service (NWS), which in turn is part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) of the U.S. government. Until March 5, 2013 the Weather Prediction Center was known as the Hydrometeorological Prediction Center (HPC). The Weather Prediction Center serves as a center for quantitative precipitation forecasting, medium range forecasting, and the interpretation of numerical weather prediction computer models.
The 2004 Pacific hurricane season was notable in that no tropical cyclone of at least tropical storm intensity moved ashore, an unusual occurrence. The season officially began on May 15 in the eastern Pacific, and on June 1 in the central Pacific; it officially ended in both basins on November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period during each year when a majority of tropical cyclones form. Activity throughout the year fell slightly below the long-term average, with 12 named storms, 6 hurricanes, and 3 major hurricanes. The season was reflected by an Accumulated Cyclone Energy (ACE) index of 71 units.
Hurricane Nora was only the third tropical cyclone on record to reach Arizona as a tropical storm, and one of the rare cyclones to make landfall in Baja California. Nora was the fourteenth named tropical cyclone and seventh hurricane of the 1997 Pacific hurricane season. The September storm formed off the Pacific coast of Mexico, and aided by waters warmed by the 1997–98 El Niño event, eventually peaked at Category 4 intensity on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane scale.
The Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration is the National Meteorological and Hydrological Services (NMHS) agency of the Philippines mandated to provide protection against natural calamities and to insure the safety, well-being and economic security of all the people, and for the promotion of national progress by undertaking scientific and technological services in meteorology, hydrology, climatology, astronomy and other geophysical sciences. Created on December 8, 1972 by reorganizing the Weather Bureau, PAGASA now serves as one of the Scientific and Technological Services Institutes of the Department of Science and Technology.
A tropical cyclone forecast model is a computer program that uses meteorological data to forecast aspects of the future state of tropical cyclones. There are three types of models: statistical, dynamical, or combined statistical-dynamic. Dynamical models utilize powerful supercomputers with sophisticated mathematical modeling software and meteorological data to calculate future weather conditions. Statistical models forecast the evolution of a tropical cyclone in a simpler manner, by extrapolating from historical datasets, and thus can be run quickly on platforms such as personal computers. Statistical-dynamical models use aspects of both types of forecasting. Four primary types of forecasts exist for tropical cyclones: track, intensity, storm surge, and rainfall. Dynamical models were not developed until the 1970s and the 1980s, with earlier efforts focused on the storm surge problem.
Tropical Storm Chris was the fourth tropical storm of the 2006 Atlantic hurricane season. Forming on July 31 in the Atlantic Ocean east of the Leeward Islands from a tropical wave, Chris moved generally to the west-northwest, skirting the northern fringes of the Caribbean islands. Chris was a relatively short-lived storm, reaching a peak intensity with winds at 65 mph (100 km/h) on August 2, while positioned north of St. Martin. The storm gradually weakened before finally dissipating on August 5, near eastern Cuba. Overall impact was minimal, amounting to moderate amounts of rainfall throughout its path. No deaths were reported.
Mexico tropical cyclone rainfall climatology discusses precipitation characteristics of tropical cyclones that have struck Mexico over the years. One-third of the annual rainfall received along the Mexican Riviera and up to half of the rainfall received in Baja California Sur is directly attributable to tropical cyclones moving up the west coast of Mexico. The central plateau is shielded from the high rainfall amounts seen on the oceanward slopes of the Sierra Madre Oriental and Occidental mountain chains.
The Mozambique National Institute of Meteorology is the national meteorological organization of Mozambique.
Tropical Storm Norman was a weak tropical cyclone that brought heavy rainfall to southwestern Mexico in October 2006. The twelfth named storm of the 2006 Pacific hurricane season, Norman developed on October 9 from a tropical wave well to the southwest of Mexico. Unfavorable conditions quickly encountered the system, and within two days of forming, Norman dissipated as its remnants turned to the east. Thunderstorms gradually increased again, as it interacted with a disturbance to its east, and on October 15 the cyclone regenerated just off the coast of Mexico. The center became disorganized and quickly dissipated, bringing a large area of moisture which dropped up to 6 inches (150 mm) of rainfall to southwestern Mexico. Rainfall from the storm flooded about 150 houses, of which 20 were destroyed. One person was injured, and initially there were reports of two people missing due to the storm; however, it was not later confirmed.
Tropical Depression Two-E was a short-lived tropical cyclone that brought heavy rainfall to southwestern Mexico. It was the only cyclone during the month in the eastern North Pacific Ocean, forming on June 3 from a tropical wave. The depression initially moved northeastward, threatening the Mexican states of Michoacán and Guerrero with a potential of it attaining tropical storm status. It remained a tropical depression, weakening due to land interaction and wind shear, and on June 5 it dissipated just off the coast. Rainfall from the depression peaked at 19.1 inches (486 mm) in Acapulco, which resulted in mudslides and flooding. A total of 42 houses were flooded, and 72 people were forced to leave their homes due to the storm; no deaths were reported.
Hurricane Madeline is tied with 1992's Hurricane Iniki as the second-strongest landfalling tropical cyclone on record in the Eastern Pacific basin, only behind 2015's Hurricane Patricia. Madeline formed on September 29, not far from Central America. The next day, the circulation dissipated, and as a result weakened to a remnant low. Four days later, on October 3, the low regenerated into a tropical depression. The system remained weak for three days as it drifted west-northwest. When it began to recurve towards Mexico on October 6, the cyclone rapidly intensified, eventually making landfall at peak intensity as a Category 4. Shortly after landfall, the cyclone rapidly dissipated.
The history of Atlantic tropical cyclone warnings details the progress of tropical cyclone warnings in the north Atlantic Ocean. The first service was set up in the 1870s from Cuba with the work of Father Benito Viñes. After his death, hurricane warning services were assumed by the US Army Signal Corps and United States Weather Bureau over the next few decades, first based in Jamaica and Cuba before shifting to Washington, D.C.. The central office in Washington, which would evolve into the National Meteorological Center and the Weather Prediction Center, assumed the responsibilities by the early 20th century. This responsibility passed to regional hurricane offices in 1935, and the concept of the Atlantic hurricane season was established in order to keep a vigilant lookout for tropical cyclones during certain times of the year. Hurricane advisories issued every six hours by the regional hurricane offices began at this time.
The Servicio Meteorológico Nacional (SMN) is Argentina's national weather service under the Ministry of Defense that is tasked with observing, understanding, and predicting the weather and climate in Argentina and its surrounding waters. It provides weather forecasts, radar images, ozone, temperature and rainfall graphs, and satellite images. The purpose of these tasks is to contribute to protection of its inhabitants, sustainable economic development and to provide representation of Argentina to international meteorological organizations. Founded on 4 October 1872 by Federal law Nº559 during the presidency of Domingo Faustino Sarmiento, the organisation was the first meteorological organisation in South America and the third one in the world, after Hungary and the United States which were created in 1870 and 1871 respectively. It became a member of the World Meteorological Organization on 2 January 1951. Throughout its history, the organisation was dependent under different government ministries until in 2007 when it is currently under the Ministry of Defense.