The seventy disciples or seventy-two disciples (known in the Eastern Christian traditions as the Seventy[-two] Apostles) were early emissaries of Jesus mentioned in the Gospel of Luke.According to Luke, the only gospel in which they appear, Jesus appointed them and sent them out in pairs on a specific mission which is detailed in the text.
In Western Christianity, they are usually referred to as disciples,whereas in Eastern Christianity they are usually referred to as Apostles. Using the original Greek words, both titles are descriptive, as an apostle is one sent on a mission (the Greek uses the verb form: apesteilen) whereas a disciple is a student, but the two traditions differ on the scope of the words apostle and disciple.
The passage from Luke 10 reads (in Young's Literal Translation):
And after these things, the Lord did appoint also other seventy, and sent them by twos before his face, to every city and place whither he himself was about to come, then said he unto them, 'The harvest indeed [is] abundant, but the workmen few; beseech ye then the Lord of the harvest, that He may put forth workmen to His harvest.
'Go away; lo, I send you forth as lambs in the midst of wolves; carry no bag, no scrip, nor sandals; and salute no one on the way; and into whatever house ye do enter, first say, Peace to this house; and if indeed there may be there the son of peace, rest on it shall your peace; and if not so, upon you it shall turn back. 'And in that house remain, eating and drinking the things they have, for worthy [is] the workman of his hire; go not from house to house, and into whatever city ye enter, and they may receive you, eat the things set before you, and heal the ailing in it, and say to them, The reign of God hath come nigh to you.
'And into whatever city ye do enter, and they may not receive you, having gone forth to its broad places, say, And the dust that hath cleaved to us, from your city, we do wipe off against you, but this know ye, that the reign of God hath come nigh to you; and I say to you, that for Sodom in that day it shall be more tolerable than for that city. 'Wo to thee, Chorazin; wo to thee, Bethsaida; for if in Tyre and Sidon had been done the mighty works that were done in you, long ago, sitting in sackcloth and ashes, they had reformed; but for Tyre and Sidon it shall be more tolerable in the judgment than for you. 'And thou, Capernaum, which unto the heaven wast exalted, unto hades thou shalt be brought down. 'He who is hearing you, doth hear me; and he who is putting you away, doth put me away; and he who is putting me away, doth put away Him who sent me.'
And the seventy turned back with joy, saying, 'Sir, and the demons are being subjected to us in thy name;' and he said to them, 'I was beholding the Adversary, as lightning from the heaven having fallen; lo, I give to you the authority to tread upon serpents and scorpions, and on all the power of the enemy, and nothing by any means shall hurt you; but, in this rejoice not, that the spirits are subjected to you, but rejoice rather that your names were written in the heavens.'
This is the only mention of the group in the Bible. The number is seventy in some manuscripts of the Alexandrian (such as Codex Sinaiticus) and Caesarean text traditions but seventy-two in most other Alexandrian and Western texts. It may derive from the seventy nations of Genesis 10 or the many other occurrences of the number seventy in the Bible, or the seventy-two translators of the Septuagint from the Letter of Aristeas.In translating the Vulgate , Jerome selected the reading of seventy-two.
The Gospel of Luke is not alone among the synoptic gospels in containing multiple episodes in which Jesus sends out his followers on missions. The first occasion ( Luke 9:1–6 ) is closely based on the "limited commission" mission in Mark Mark 6:6–13 , which however recounts the sending out of the twelve apostles, rather than seventy, though with similar details. The parallels (also Matthew Matthew 9:35 , Matthew 10:1 , Matthew 10:5–42 ) suggest a common origin in the hypothesized Q document. Luke also mentions the Great Commission to "all nations" ( Luke 24:44–49 ) but in less detail than Matthew's account and Mark 16:19–20 mentions the Dispersion of the Apostles.
What has been said to the seventy (two) in Luke 10:4 is referred in passing to the Twelve in Luke 22:35 :
The feast day commemorating the seventy is known as the "Synaxis of the Seventy Apostles" in Eastern Orthodoxy, and is celebrated on January 4. Each of the seventy apostles also has individual commemorations scattered throughout the liturgical year (see Eastern Orthodox Church calendar).
Hippolytus of Rome was a disciple of Irenaeus, a disciple of Polycarp, a disciple of Apostle John. Hippolytus's works were considered lost prior to their discovery at a monastery on Mount Athos in 1854.While his major work The Refutation of All Heresies was readily accepted (once the false attribution to Origen was resolved), his two small works, On the Twelve Apostles of Christ and On the Seventy Apostles of Christ, are still regarded as dubious, put in the appendix of his works in the voluminous collection of the writings of early church fathers. Here is the complete text of Pseudo-Hippolytus's On the Seventy Apostles of Christ:
- James the Lord's brother, bishop of Jerusalem.
- Cleopas, bishop of Jerusalem.
- Matthias, who supplied the vacant place in the number of the twelve apostles.
- Thaddeus, who conveyed the epistle to Augarus (Abgar V).
- Ananias, who baptized Paul, and was bishop of Damascus.
- Stephen, the first martyr.
- Philip, who baptized the Ethiopian eunuch.
- Prochorus, bishop of Nicomedia, who also was the first that departed, 11 believing together with his daughters.
- Nicanor died when Stephen was martyred.
- Timon, bishop of Bostra.
- Parmenas, bishop of Soli.
- Nicolaus, bishop of Samaria.
- Barnabas, bishop of Milan.
- Mark the Evangelist, bishop of Alexandria.
- Luke the Evangelist.
These two belonged to the seventy disciples who were scattered by the offence of the word which Christ spoke, “Except a man eat my flesh, and drink my blood, he is not worthy of me.” But the one being induced to return to the Lord by Peter’s instrumentality, and the other by Paul’s, they were honored to preach that Gospel on account of which they also suffered martyrdom, the one being burned, and the other being crucified on an olive tree.
- Silas, bishop of Corinth.
- Silvanus, bishop of Thessalonica.
- Crisces (Crescens), bishop of Carchedon in Gaul.
- Epænetus, bishop of Carthage.
- Andronicus, bishop of Pannonia.
- Amplias, bishop of Odyssus.
- Urban, bishop of Macedonia.
- Stachys, bishop of Byzantium.
- Barnabas, bishop of Heraclea
- Phygellus, bishop of Ephesus. He was of the party also of Simon.
- Hermogenes. He, too, was of the same mind with the former.
- Demas, who also became a priest of idols.
- Apelles, bishop of Smyrna.
- Aristobulus, bishop of Britain.
- Narcissus, bishop of Athens.
- Herodion, bishop of Tarsus.
- Agabus the prophet.
- Rufus, bishop of Thebes.
- Asyncritus, bishop of Hyrcania.
- Phlegon, bishop of Marathon.
- Hermes, bishop of Dalmatia.
- Patrobulus, bishop of Puteoli.
- Hermas, bishop of Philippopolis (Thrace).
- Linus, bishop of Rome.
- Caius, bishop of Ephesus.
- Philologus, bishop of Sinope
- and 43. Olympus and Rhodion were martyred in Rome.
- Lucius, bishop of Laodicea in Syria.
- Jason, bishop of Tarsus.
- Sosipater, bishop of Iconium
- Tertius, bishop of Iconium.
- Erastus, bishop of Panellas.
- Quartus, bishop of Berytus.
- Apollos, bishop of Cæsarea.
- Sosthenes, bishop of Colophonia.
- Tychicus, bishop of Colophonia.
- Epaphroditus, bishop of Andriace.
- Cæsar, bishop of Dyrrachium.
- Mark, cousin to Barnabas, bishop of Apollonia.
- Justus, bishop of Eleutheropolis.
- Artemas, bishop of Lystra.
- Clement, bishop of Sardinia.
- Onesiphorus, bishop of Corone.
- Tychicus, bishop of Chalcedon.
- Carpus, bishop of Berytus in Thrace.
- Evodus, bishop of Antioch.
- Aristarchus, bishop of Apamea.
- Mark, who is also John, bishop of Bibloupolis.
- Zenas, bishop of Diospolis.
- Philemon, bishop of Gaza.
- Trophimus, who was martyred along with Paul.
Many of the names included among the seventy are recognizable for their other achievements. The names included in various lists differ slightly. In the lists, Luke is also one of these seventy himself. The following list gives a widely accepted[ who? ] canon.[ citation needed ] Their names are listed below:
Matthias, who would later replace Judas Iscariot as one of the twelve apostles, is also often numbered among the seventy, since John Mark is typically viewed as Mark the Evangelist.
Also, some lists name a few different disciples than the ones listed above. Other names commonly included are:[ citation needed ]
These are usually included at the expense of the aforementioned Timothy, Titus, Archippus, Crescens, Olympas, Epaphroditus, Quadratus, Aquila, Fortunatus, and/or Achaicus.
Bishop Solomon of Basra of the Church of the East in the 13th century offers the following list:
A more concise and acknowledged[ who? ] list[ citation needed ] is below:
In some accounts of the life of the legendary Saint Mantius of Évora, he is regarded as one of the disciples, having witnessed the Last Supper and Pentecost.
Barnabas, born Joseph, was according to tradition an early Christian, one of the prominent Christian disciples in Jerusalem. According to Acts 4:36, Barnabas was a Cypriot Jew. Named an apostle in Acts 14:14, he and Paul the Apostle undertook missionary journeys together and defended Gentile converts against the Judaizers. They traveled together making more converts, and participated in the Council of Jerusalem. Barnabas and Paul successfully evangelized among the "God-fearing" Gentiles who attended synagogues in various Hellenized cities of Anatolia.
Luke the Evangelist is one of the Four Evangelists—the four traditionally ascribed authors of the canonical Gospels. The Early Church Fathers ascribed to him authorship of both the Gospel of Luke and the Acts of the Apostles, which would mean Luke contributed over a quarter of the text of the New Testament, more than any other author. Prominent figures in early Christianity such as Jerome and Eusebius later reaffirmed his authorship, although a lack of conclusive evidence as to the identity of the author of the works has led to discussion in scholarly circles, both secular and religious.
Timothy was an early Christian evangelist and the first Christian bishop of Ephesus, who tradition relates died around the year AD 97.
Silas or Silvanus was a leading member of the Early Christian community, who accompanied Paul the Apostle on parts of his first and second missionary journeys.
An epistle is a writing directed or sent to a person or group of people, usually an elegant and formal didactic letter. The epistle genre of letter-writing was common in ancient Egypt as part of the scribal-school writing curriculum. The letters in the New Testament from Apostles to Christians are usually referred to as epistles. Those traditionally attributed to Paul are known as Pauline epistles and the others as catholic epistles.
The Pauline epistles are the fourteen books in the New Testament traditionally attributed to Paul the Apostle, although many dispute the anonymous Epistle to the Hebrews as being a Pauline epistle.
The First Epistle of Paul to Timothy, usually referred to simply as First Timothy and often written 1 Timothy, is one of three letters in the New Testament of the Bible often grouped together as the Pastoral Epistles, along with Second Timothy and Titus. The letter, traditionally attributed to the Apostle Paul, consists mainly of counsels to his younger colleague and delegate Timothy regarding his ministry in Ephesus (1:3). These counsels include instructions on the organization of the Church and the responsibilities resting on certain groups of leaders therein as well as exhortations to faithfulness in maintaining the truth amid surrounding errors.
Lystra was a city in central Anatolia, now part of present-day Turkey. It is mentioned five times in the New Testament. Lystra was visited several times by the Paul the Apostle, along with Barnabas or Silas. There Paul met a young disciple, Timothy. Lystra was included by various authors in ancient Lycaonia, Isauria, or Galatia.
John Mark is named in the Acts of the Apostles as an assistant accompanying Paul and Barnabas on their missionary journeys. Traditionally he is regarded as identical with Mark the Evangelist, the traditional writer of the Gospel of Mark.
January 3 - Eastern Orthodox liturgical calendar - January 5
Tychicus was an Asiatic Christian who, with Trophimus, accompanied the Apostle Paul on a part of his journey from Macedonia to Jerusalem. He is also alluded to have been with Paul in Rome, where the apostle sent him to Ephesus, probably for the purpose of building up and encouraging the church there. In the New Testament, he is mentioned five times.
Aristarchus or Aristarch, "a Greek Macedonian of Thessalonica", was an early Christian mentioned in a few passages of the New Testament. He accompanied Saint Paul on his journey to Rome. Along with Gaius, another Macedonian, Aristarchus was seized by the mob at Ephesus and taken into the theater. Later, Aristarchus returned with Paul from Greece to Asia. At Caesarea, he embarked with Paul on a ship of Edremit (Adramyttium) bound for Myra in Lycia ; whether he traveled with him from there to Rome is not recorded. Aristarchus is described as Paul's "fellow prisoner" and "fellow laborer" in Colossians 4:10 and Philemon 1:24, respectively.
According to the New Testament book of Romans, Tertius of Iconium acted as an amanuensis for Paul the Apostle, writing down his Epistle. He is numbered among the Seventy Disciples in a list pseudonymously attributed Hippolytus of Rome, which is found in the margin of several ancient manuscripts.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Christianity:
The canon of the New Testament is the set of books Christians regard as divinely inspired and constituting the New Testament of the Christian Bible. For most, it is an agreed-upon list of twenty-seven books that includes the Canonical Gospels, Acts, letters of the Apostles, and Revelation. The books of the canon of the New Testament were written before 120 AD.
Mark the cousin of Barnabas is a character mentioned in the New Testament, usually identified with John Mark. The opinion that this Mark is a different Mark is found in the writings of Hippolytus of Rome who thought them to be separate people.
Colossians 4 is the fourth chapter of the Epistle to the Colossians in the New Testament of the Christian Bible. Traditionally, it is believed to be written for the church in Colossae by Apostle Paul, with Timothy as his co-author, while he was in prison in Ephesus, although there were debatable charges that it is the work of a secondary imitator or that it was written in Rome. This chapter contains the final exhortations and greetings.
2 Timothy 4 is the fourth chapter of the Second Epistle to Timothy in the New Testament of the Christian Bible. The letter is traditionally attributed to Paul the Apostle, the last one written in Rome before his death, addressed to Timothy. There are charges that it is the work of an anonymous follower, after Paul's death in the first century AD. This chapter contains an intensely personal material, more than any other epistles, in relation to Paul's imminent death, ending with personal comments and salutations.
Titus 3 is the third chapter of the Epistle to Titus in the New Testament of the Christian Bible. The letter is traditionally attributed to Paul the Apostle, sent from Nicopolis of Macedonia, addressed to Titus in Crete. There are charges that it is the work of an anonymous follower, after Paul's death in the first century AD. This chapter contains Paul's instruction for the church as a community with responsibilities in the public realm, towards the government and also towards individuals, concluded with some personal requests for Titus before the final benediction.