Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2

Last updated

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2
Novel Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2.jpg
Transmission electron micrograph of SARS-CoV-2 virions with visible coronae
2019-nCoV-CDC-23312 without background.png
Illustration of a SARS-CoV-2 virion [1]      Red protrusions: spike proteins (S) [1]      Grey coating: the envelope, composed mainly of lipids, which can be destroyed with alcohol or soap [1]      Yellow deposits: envelope proteins (E) [1]      Orange deposits: membrane proteins (M) [1]
Virus classification Red Pencil Icon.png
(unranked): Virus
Realm: Riboviria
Kingdom: Orthornavirae
Phylum: Pisuviricota
Class: Pisoniviricetes
Order: Nidovirales
Family: Coronaviridae
Genus: Betacoronavirus
Subgenus: Sarbecovirus
Species:
Strain:
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2
Synonyms
  • 2019-nCoV

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) [2] [3] is the strain of coronavirus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the respiratory illness responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic. Colloquially known as simply the coronavirus, it was previously referred to by its provisional name, 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV), [4] [5] [6] [7] and has also been called human coronavirus 2019 (HCoV-19 or hCoV-19). [8] [9] [10] [11] The World Health Organization declared the outbreak a Public Health Emergency of International Concern on 30 January 2020, and a pandemic on 11 March 2020. [12] [13]

Contents

SARS-CoV-2 is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus [14] that is contagious in humans. [15] As described by the U.S. National Institutes of Health, it is the successor to SARS-CoV-1, [10] [16] the strain that caused the 2002–2004 SARS outbreak.

Taxonomically, SARS-CoV-2 is a strain of severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (SARSr-CoV). [2] It is believed to have zoonotic origins and has close genetic similarity to bat coronaviruses, suggesting it emerged from a bat-borne virus. [17] [18] [19] [9] There is no evidence yet to link an intermediate animal reservoir, such as a pangolin, to its introduction to humans. [20] [21] The virus shows little genetic diversity, indicating that the spillover event introducing SARS-CoV-2 to humans is likely to have occurred in late 2019. [22]

Epidemiological studies estimate each infection results in 1.4 to 3.9 new ones when no members of the community are immune and no preventive measures taken. The virus primarily spreads between people through close contact and via respiratory droplets produced from coughs or sneezes. [23] [24] It mainly enters human cells by binding to the receptor angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). [17] [25] [26] [27]

HeLa cells engineered to express ACE2 become susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection. ACE2 SARS-COV-2 in HeLa CELLS.png
HeLa cells engineered to express ACE2 become susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Terminology

The name "2019-nCoV" in use in a trilingual sign at a Lisbon health facility in February 2020. NOVO-NEW-Xin .2019-nCoV.jpg
The name "2019-nCoV" in use in a trilingual sign at a Lisbon health facility in February 2020.

During the initial outbreak in Wuhan, China, the virus was commonly referred to as the "coronavirus" or "Wuhan coronavirus", [28] [29] [30] or "Wuhan virus". [31] In January 2020, the World Health Organisation recommended "2019 novel coronavirus" (2019-nCov) [32] [5] as the provisional name for the virus. This was in accordance with WHO's 2015 guidance [33] against using geographical locations, animal species, or groups of people in disease and virus names. [34] [35] On 11 February 2020, the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses adopted the official name "severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2" (SARS-CoV-2). [20] To avoid confusion with the disease SARS, the WHO sometimes refers to SARS-CoV-2 as "the COVID-19 virus" in public health communications [36] [37] and the name HCoV-19 was included in some research articles. [8] [9] [10] The general public often call both SARS-CoV-2 and the disease it causes "coronavirus". U.S. President Donald Trump referred to the virus as the "Chinese virus" in tweets, interviews, and White House press briefings. [38] [39] [40]

Virology

Infection and transmission

Human-to-human transmission of SARS-CoV-2 was confirmed on 20 January 2020, during the COVID-19 pandemic. [15] [41] [42] [43] Transmission was initially assumed to occur primarily via respiratory droplets from coughs and sneezes within a range of about 1.8 metres (6 ft). [24] [44] Laser light scattering experiments suggest speaking as an additional mode of transmission. [45] [46] Indirect contact via contaminated surfaces is another possible cause of infection. [47] Preliminary research indicates that the virus may remain viable on plastic (polypropylene) and stainless steel (AISI 304) for up to three days, but does not survive on cardboard for more than one day or on copper for more than four hours; [10] the virus is inactivated by soap, which destabilises its lipid bilayer. [48] [49] Viral RNA has also been found in stool samples and semen from infected individuals. [50] [51]

The degree to which the virus is infectious during the incubation period is uncertain, but research has indicated that the pharynx reaches peak viral load approximately four days after infection [52] [53] or the first week of symptoms, and declines after. [54] On 1 February 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) indicated that "transmission from asymptomatic cases is likely not a major driver of transmission". [55] However, an epidemiological model of the beginning of the outbreak in China suggested that "pre-symptomatic shedding may be typical among documented infections" and that subclinical infections may have been the source of a majority of infections. [56] That may explain how out of 217 on board a cruise liner that docked at Montevideo, only 24 of 128 who tested positive for viral RNA showed symptoms. [57] Similarly, a study of ninety-four patients hospitalized in January and February 2020 estimated patients shed the greatest amount of virus two to three days before symptoms appear and that "a substantial proportion of transmission probably occurred before first symptoms in the index case". [58]

There is some evidence of human-to-animal transmission of SARS-CoV-2, including examples in felids. [59] [60] Some institutions have advised those infected with SARS-CoV-2 to restrict contact with animals. [61] [62]

Reservoir and zoonotic origin

Transmission of SARS-CoV-1 and SARS-CoV-2 from mammals as biological carriers to humans SARS-CoV-1 and 2 - mammals as carriers.png
Transmission of SARS-CoV-1 and SARS-CoV-2 from mammals as biological carriers to humans

The first known infections from the SARS-CoV-2 strain were discovered in Wuhan, China. [17] The original source of viral transmission to humans remains unclear, as does whether the strain became pathogenic before or after the spillover event. [22] [63] [9] Because many of the first individuals found to be infected by the virus were workers at the Huanan Seafood Market, [64] [65] it has been suggested that the strain might have originated from the market. [9] [66] However, other research indicates that visitors may have introduced the virus to the market, which then facilitated rapid expansion of the infections. [22] [67] A phylogenetic network analysis of 160 early coronavirus genomes sampled from December 2019 to February 2020 revealed that the virus type most closely related to the bat coronavirus was most abundant in Guangdong, China, and designated type "A". The predominant type among samples from Wuhan, "B", is more distantly related to the bat coronavirus than the ancestral type "A". [68] [69]

Research into the natural reservoir of the virus strain that caused the 2002–2004 SARS outbreak has resulted in the discovery of many SARS-like bat coronaviruses, most originating in the Rhinolophus genus of horseshoe bats. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that samples taken from Rhinolophus sinicus show a resemblance of 80% to SARS-CoV-2. [19] [70] [71] Phylogenetic analysis also indicates that a virus from Rhinolophus affinis , collected in Yunnan province and designated RaTG13, has a 96% resemblance to SARS-CoV-2. [17] [72]

Samples taken from Rhinolophus sinicus, a species of horseshoe bats, show a 80% resemblance to SARS-CoV-2. Naturalis Biodiversity Center - RMNH.MAM.33160.b dor - Rhinolophus sinicus - skin.jpeg
Samples taken from Rhinolophus sinicus, a species of horseshoe bats, show a 80% resemblance to SARS-CoV-2.

Bats were initially considered to be the most likely natural reservoir of SARS-CoV-2, [73] [74] but differences between the bat coronavirus sampled at the time and SARS-CoV-2 suggested that humans were infected via an intermediate host. Arinjay Banerjee, a virologist at McMaster University, notes that "the SARS virus shared 99.8% of its genome with a civet coronavirus, which is why civets were considered the source." [66] Although studies had suggested some likely candidates, the number and identities of intermediate hosts remains uncertain. [75] Nearly half of the strain's genome had a phylogenetic lineage distinct from known relatives. [76]

The pangolin coronavirus has up to 92% resemblance to SARS-CoV-2. Zoo Leipzig - Tou Feng.jpg
The pangolin coronavirus has up to 92% resemblance to SARS-CoV-2.

A phylogenetics study published in 2020 indicates that pangolins are a reservoir host of SARS-CoV-2-like coronaviruses. [78] However, there is no evidence to link pangolins as an intermediate host of SARS-CoV-2 at this moment. While there is scientific consensus that bats are the ultimate source of coronaviruses, it is hypothesized that a SARS-CoV-2-like coronavirus originated in pangolins, jumped back to bats, and then jumped to humans, resulting in SARS-CoV-2. Based on whole genome sequence similarity, a pangolin coronavirus candidate strain was found to be less similar than RaTG13, but more similar than other bat coronaviruses to SARS-CoV-2. [77] Therefore, based on maximum parsimony, a specific population of bats is more likely to have directly transmitted SARS-CoV-2 to humans than a pangolin, while an evolutionary ancestor to bats was the source of general coronaviruses. [79]

A metagenomics study published in 2019 had previously revealed that SARS-CoV, the strain of the virus that causes SARS, was the most widely distributed coronavirus among a sample of Sunda pangolins. [80] On 7 February 2020, South China Agricultural University in Guangzhou announced that researchers discovered a pangolin sample with a particular coronavirus – a single nucleic acid sequence of the virus was "99% similar" to that of a protein-coding RNA of SARS-CoV-2. [81] The authors state that "the receptor-binding domain of the S protein [that binds to the cell surface receptor during infection] of the newly discovered Pangolin-CoV is virtually identical to that of 2019-nCoV, with one amino acid difference." [82]

Microbiologists and geneticists in Texas have independently found evidence of reassortment in coronaviruses suggesting involvement of pangolins in the origin of SARS-CoV-2. [83] The majority of the viral RNA is related to a variation of bat coronaviruses. The spike protein appears to be a notable exception, however, possibly acquired through a more recent recombination event with a pangolin coronavirus. [84] Structural analysis of the receptor binding domain (RBD) and human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) complex [85] revealed key mutations on the RBD, such as F486 and N501, which form contacts with ACE2. [86] These residues are found in the pangolin coronavirus. [86]

Pangolins are protected under Chinese law, but their poaching and trading for use in traditional Chinese medicine remains common. [87] [88] Deforestation, wildlife farming and trade in unsanitary conditions increases the risk of new zoonotic diseases, biodiversity experts have warned. [89] [90] [91]

It is unlikely that SARS-CoV-2 was genetically engineered. According to computational simulations on protein folding, the RBD of the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 should have unremarkable binding affinity. In actuality, however, it has very efficient binding to the human ACE2 receptor. To expose the RBD for fusion, furin proteases must first cleave the S protein. Furin proteases are abundant in the respiratory tract and lung epithelial cells. Additionally, the backbone of the virus does not resemble any previously described in scientific literature used for genetic modification. The possibility that the virus could have gained the necessary adaptations through cell culture in a laboratory setting is challenged by scientists who assert that "the generation of the predicted O-linked glycans... suggest[s] the involvement of an immune system." [92] [93]

Phylogenetics and taxonomy

Genomic information
SARS-CoV-2 genome.svg
Genomic organisation of isolate Wuhan-Hu-1, the earliest sequenced sample of SARS-CoV-2
NCBI genome ID 86693
Genome size 29,903 bases
Year of completion 2020
Genome browser (UCSC)

SARS-CoV-2 belongs to the broad family of viruses known as coronaviruses. [29] It is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA (+ssRNA) virus, with a single linear RNA segment. Other coronaviruses are capable of causing illnesses ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases such as Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS, fatality rate ~34%). It is the seventh known coronavirus to infect people, after 229E, NL63, OC43, HKU1, MERS-CoV, and the original SARS-CoV. [94]

Like the SARS-related coronavirus strain implicated in the 2003 SARS outbreak, SARS-CoV-2 is a member of the subgenus Sarbecovirus (beta-CoV lineage B). [95] [96] Its RNA sequence is approximately 30,000 bases in length. [14] SARS-CoV-2 is unique among known betacoronaviruses in its incorporation of a polybasic cleavage site, a characteristic known to increase pathogenicity and transmissibility in other viruses. [9] [97] [98]

With a sufficient number of sequenced genomes, it is possible to reconstruct a phylogenetic tree of the mutation history of a family of viruses. By 12 January 2020, five genomes of SARS-CoV-2 had been isolated from Wuhan and reported by the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CCDC) and other institutions; [14] [99] the number of genomes increased to 42 by 30 January 2020. [100] A phylogenetic analysis of those samples showed they were "highly related with at most seven mutations relative to a common ancestor", implying that the first human infection occurred in November or December 2019. [100] As of 7 May 2020, 4,690 SARS-CoV-2 genomes sampled on six continents were publicly available. [101]

On 11 February 2020, the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses announced that according to existing rules that compute hierarchical relationships among coronaviruses on the basis of five conserved sequences of nucleic acids, the differences between what was then called 2019-nCoV and the virus strain from the 2003 SARS outbreak were insufficient to make them separate viral species. Therefore, they identified 2019-nCoV as a strain of Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus . [2]

Structural biology

Structure of a SARSr-CoV virion Coronavirus virion structure.svg
Structure of a SARSr-CoV virion

Each SARS-CoV-2 virion is 50–200 nanometres in diameter. [65] Like other coronaviruses, SARS-CoV-2 has four structural proteins, known as the S (spike), E (envelope), M (membrane), and N (nucleocapsid) proteins; the N protein holds the RNA genome, and the S, E, and M proteins together create the viral envelope. [102] The spike protein, which has been imaged at the atomic level using cryogenic electron microscopy, [103] [104] is the protein responsible for allowing the virus to attach to and fuse with the membrane of a host cell; [102] specifically, its S1 subunit catalyzes attachment, the S2 subunit fusion. [105]

SARS-CoV-2 spike homotrimer with one protein subunit highlighted. The ACE2 binding domain is magenta. 6VSB spike protein SARS-CoV-2 monomer in homotrimer.png
SARS-CoV-2 spike homotrimer with one protein subunit highlighted. The ACE2 binding domain is magenta.

Protein modeling experiments on the spike protein of the virus soon suggested that SARS-CoV-2 has sufficient affinity to the receptor angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) on human cells to use them as a mechanism of cell entry. [106] By 22 January 2020, a group in China working with the full virus genome and a group in the United States using reverse genetics methods independently and experimentally demonstrated that ACE2 could act as the receptor for SARS-CoV-2. [17] [107] [25] [108] Studies have shown that SARS-CoV-2 has a higher affinity to human ACE2 than the original SARS virus strain. [103] [109] SARS-CoV-2 may also use basigin to assist in cell entry. [110]

Initial spike protein priming by transmembrane protease, serine 2 (TMPRSS2) is essential for entry of SARS-CoV-2. [26] After a SARS-CoV-2 virion attaches to a target cell, the cell's protease TMPRSS2 cuts open the spike protein of the virus, exposing a fusion peptide in the S2 subunit, and the host receptor ACE2. [105] After fusion, an endosome forms around the virion, separating it from the rest of the host cell. The virion escapes when the pH of the endosome drops or when cathepsin, a host cysteine protease, cleaves it. [105] The virion then releases RNA into the cell and forces the cell to produce and disseminate copies of the virus, which infect more cells. [111]

SARS-CoV-2 produces at least three virulence factors that promote shedding of new virions from host cells and inhibit immune response. [102] Whether they include downregulation of ACE2, as seen in similar coronaviruses, remains under investigation (as of May 2020). [78]

SARS-CoV-2 49531042877.jpg
SARS-CoV-2 scanning electron microscope image.jpg
Digitally colourised scanning electron micrographs of SARS-CoV-2 virions (yellow) emerging from human cells cultured in a laboratory

Epidemiology

Transmission electron micrograph of SARS-CoV-2 virions (red) isolated from a patient during the COVID-19 pandemic Novel Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (49597020718).jpg
Transmission electron micrograph of SARS-CoV-2 virions (red) isolated from a patient during the COVID-19 pandemic

Based on the low variability exhibited among known SARS-CoV-2 genomic sequences, the strain is thought to have been detected by health authorities within weeks of its emergence among the human population in late 2019. [22] [112] The earliest case of infection currently known is dated back to 17 November 2019 or possibly 1 December 2019. [113] The virus subsequently spread to all provinces of China and to more than 150 other countries in Asia, Europe, North America, South America, Africa, and Oceania. [114] Human-to-human transmission of the virus has been confirmed in all these regions. [115] On 30 January 2020, SARS-CoV-2 was designated a Public Health Emergency of International Concern by the WHO, [116] [12] and on 11 March 2020 the WHO declared it a pandemic. [13] [117]

The basic reproduction number () of the virus has been estimated to be between 1.4 and 3.9. [118] [119] This means each infection from the virus is expected to result in 1.4 to 3.9 new infections when no members of the community are immune and no preventive measures are taken. The reproduction number may be higher in densely populated conditions such as those found on cruise ships. [120] Many forms of preventive efforts may be employed in specific circumstances in order to reduce the propagation of the virus.

There have been about 82,000 confirmed cases of infection in mainland China. [114] While the proportion of infections that result in confirmed cases or progress to diagnosable disease remains unclear, [121] one mathematical model estimated that 75,815 people were infected on 25 January 2020 in Wuhan alone, at a time when the number of confirmed cases worldwide was only 2,015. [122] Before 24 February 2020, over 95% of all deaths from COVID-19 worldwide had occurred in Hubei province, where Wuhan is located. [123] [124] As of 4 July 2020, the percentage had decreased to

As of 4 July 2020, there have been 11,093,182 total confirmed cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the ongoing pandemic. [114] The total number of deaths attributed to the virus is 525,491. [114] Many recoveries from confirmed infections go unreported, but at least 5,890,052 people have recovered from confirmed infections. [114]

See also

Related Research Articles

Severe acute respiratory syndrome Respiratory disease caused by the SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV)

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a viral respiratory disease of zoonotic origin caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus, the first-identified strain of the SARS coronavirus species severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (SARSr-CoV). The syndrome caused the 2002–2004 SARS outbreak. In late 2017, Chinese scientists traced the virus through the intermediary of Asian palm civets to cave-dwelling horseshoe bats in Yunnan.

Coronavirus Subfamily of viruses in the family Coronaviridae

Coronaviruses are a group of related RNA viruses that cause diseases in mammals and birds. In humans, these viruses cause respiratory tract infections that can range from mild to lethal. Mild illnesses include some cases of the common cold, while more lethal varieties can cause SARS, MERS, and COVID-19. Symptoms in other species vary: in chickens, they cause an upper respiratory tract disease, while in cows and pigs they cause diarrhea. There are as yet no vaccines or antiviral drugs to prevent or treat human coronavirus infections.

<i>Severe acute respiratory syndrome–related coronavirus</i> Species of coronavirus causing SARS and COVID-19

Severe acute respiratory syndrome–related coronavirus is a species of coronavirus that infects humans, bats and certain other mammals. It is an enveloped positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus that enters its host cell by binding to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor. It is a member of the genus Betacoronavirus and subgenus Sarbecovirus.

<i>Coronaviridae</i> Family of viruses in the order Nidovirales

Coronaviridae is a family of enveloped, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA viruses which infects amphibians, birds, and mammals. The viral genome is 26–32 kilobases in length. The particles are typically decorated with large (~20 nm), club- or petal-shaped surface projections, which in electron micrographs of spherical particles create an image reminiscent of the solar corona.

Sunda pangolin Species of pangolin found in southeast Asia

The Sunda pangolin, also known as the Malayan or Javan pangolin, is a species of pangolin.

Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 Exopeptidase enzyme that acts on angiotensin I and II

Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is an enzyme attached to the cell membranes of cells in the lungs, arteries, heart, kidney, and intestines. ACE2 lowers blood pressure by catalysing the hydrolysis of angiotensin II into angiotensin (1–7). ACE2 counters the activity of the related angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) by reducing the amount of angiotensin-II and increasing Ang(1-7) making it a promising drug target for treating cardiovascular diseases.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus Virus strain causing severe acute respiratory syndrome

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus is a strain of virus that causes severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). It is an enveloped, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA virus which infects the epithelial cells within the lungs. The virus enters the host cell by binding to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2. It infects humans, bats, and palm civets.

<i>Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus</i> species of virus

Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (MERS-CoV), or EMC/2012 (HCoV-EMC/2012), is a species of coronavirus which infects humans, bats, and camels. The infecting virus is an enveloped, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA virus which enters its host cell by binding to the DPP4 receptor. The species is a member of the genus Betacoronavirus and subgenus Merbecovirus.

Middle East respiratory syndrome Viral respiratory infection

Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), also known as camel flu, is a viral respiratory infection caused by the MERS-coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Symptoms may range from none, to mild, to severe. Typical symptoms include fever, cough, diarrhea, and shortness of breath. The disease is typically more severe in those with other health problems.

<i>Betacoronavirus</i> Genus of viruses in the subfamily Orthocoronavirinae

Betacoronaviruses are one of four genera of coronaviruses. It is in the subfamily Orthocoronavirinae in the family Coronaviridae, of the order Nidovirales. They are enveloped, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA viruses that infect humans and mammals. The coronavirus genera are each composed of varying viral lineages with the betacoronavirus genus containing four such lineages: A, B, C, D. In older literature, this genus is also known as "group 2 coronaviruses".

Shi Zhengli is a Chinese virologist who researches SARS-like coronaviruses of bat origin. Shi directs the Center for Emerging Infectious Diseases at the Wuhan Institute of Virology (WIV), a biosafety level 4 (BSL-4) laboratory located in Jiangxia District, Wuhan. In 2017, Shi and her colleague Cui Jie discovered that the SARS coronavirus likely originated in a population of bats in a remote region of the Yunnan. Shi came to prominence in the popular press as "bat woman" during the COVID-19 pandemic for her work with bat coronaviruses.

COVID-19 pandemic Ongoing pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)

The COVID-19 pandemic, also known as the coronavirus pandemic, is an ongoing global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‑19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS‑CoV‑2). The outbreak was first identified in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. The World Health Organization declared the outbreak a Public Health Emergency of International Concern on 30 January 2020, and a pandemic on 11 March. As of 4 July 2020, more than 11 million cases of COVID-19 have been reported in more than 188 countries and territories, resulting in more than 525,000 deaths; more than 5.89 million people have recovered.

Coronavirus disease Human diseases caused by coronaviruses

A coronavirus disease, coronavirus respiratory syndrome, coronavirus pneumonia, coronavirus flu, or any other variant, is a disease caused by members of the coronavirus (CoV) family.

Huanan Seafood Wholesale Market Market in Wuhan, Hubei, China

The Huanan Seafood Wholesale Market, also known as the Huanan Seafood Market, was a live animal and seafood market in Jianghan District, Wuhan, Hubei, China. The market gained media attention after being identified as a possible point of origin of the COVID-19 pandemic. The World Health Organization was notified on 31 December 2019 about an outbreak of pneumonia in Wuhan. Of the initial 41 people hospitalized with pneumonia who were officially identified as having laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection by 2 January 2020, two-thirds were exposed to the market. The market was closed on 1 January 2020 for sanitary procedures and disinfection. Thirty-three out of 585 environmental samples obtained from the market indicated evidence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), according to the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention.

The Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences is a research institute on virology administered by the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS). Located in Jiangxia District, Wuhan, Hubei, it opened mainland China's first biosafety level 4 (BSL–4) laboratory in 2015. The Institute has strong ties to the Galveston National Laboratory in the United States, the Centre International de Recherche en Infectiologie in France and the National Microbiology Laboratory in Canada.

Coronavirus disease 2019 Infectious respiratory disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). It was first identified in December 2019 in Wuhan, Hubei, China, and has resulted in an ongoing pandemic. The first confirmed case has been traced back to 17 November 2019 in Hubei. As of 4 July 2020, more than 11 million cases have been reported across 188 countries and territories, resulting in more than 525,000 deaths. More than 5.89 million people have recovered.

Timeline of the COVID-19 pandemic in December 2019 Sequence of major events in a virus pandemic

This article documents the chronology and epidemiology of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic, which was first detected in Wuhan, China. As of June 2020, the details of the origin of SARS-CoV-2 were considered an open topic of research.

Mortality due to COVID-19 Fatalities caused by the 2019 Coronavirus

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has a relatively low case fatality rate, but the actual numbers of deaths are considerable given the huge scale of the pandemic. As of 28 June 2020, worldwide over 503,000 people had died due to COVID-19, while more than 5.5 million people had recovered. Deaths are ten times more common in those aged over 60 years and those with co-morbidities. Most people affected with the disease recover without any particular treatment. Poor outcomes and mortality are associated with old age, profound disabilities, and frailty.

Management of COVID-19 is usually done through supportive care, which may include fluid therapy, oxygen support, and supporting other affected vital organs. The CDC recommends those who suspect they carry the virus wear a simple face mask. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has been used to address the issue of respiratory failure, but its benefits are still under consideration. Personal hygiene and a healthy lifestyle and diet have been recommended to improve immunity. Supportive treatments may be useful in those with mild symptoms at the early stage of infection.

Prognosis of COVID-19

The severity of COVID‑19 varies. The disease may take a mild course with few or no symptoms, resembling other common upper respiratory diseases such as the common cold. Mild cases typically recover within two weeks, while those with severe or critical diseases may take three to six weeks to recover. Among those who have died, the time from symptom onset to death has ranged from two to eight weeks.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 Giaimo C (1 April 2020). "The Spiky Blob Seen Around the World". The New York Times . Archived from the original on 2 April 2020. Retrieved 6 April 2020.
  2. 1 2 3 Gorbalenya AE, Baker SC, Baric RS, de Groot RJ, Drosten C, Gulyaeva AA, et al. (March 2020). "The species Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus: classifying 2019-nCoV and naming it SARS-CoV-2". Nature Microbiology . 5 (4): 536–544. doi:10.1038/s41564-020-0695-z. PMC   7095448 . PMID   32123347.
  3. "Coronavirus disease named Covid-19". BBC News Online . 11 February 2020. Archived from the original on 15 February 2020. Retrieved 15 February 2020.
  4. Surveillance case definitions for human infection with novel coronavirus (nCoV): interim guidance v1, January 2020 (Report). World Health Organization. January 2020. hdl: 10665/330376 . WHO/2019-nCoV/Surveillance/v2020.1.
  5. 1 2 "Healthcare Professionals: Frequently Asked Questions and Answers". United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 11 February 2020. Archived from the original on 14 February 2020. Retrieved 15 February 2020.
  6. "About Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV)". United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 11 February 2020. Archived from the original on 11 February 2020. Retrieved 25 February 2020.
  7. Harmon A (4 March 2020). "We Spoke to Six Americans with Coronavirus". The New York Times . Archived from the original on 13 March 2020. Retrieved 16 March 2020.
  8. 1 2 Wong, G.; Bi, Y. H.; Wang, Q. H.; Chen, X. W.; Zhang, Z. G.; Yao, Y. G. (2020). "Zoonotic origins of human coronavirus 2019 (HCoV-19 / SARS-CoV-2): Why is this work important?". Zoological Research. 41 (3): 213–219. doi:10.24272/j.issn.2095-8137.2020.031. PMC   7231470 . PMID   32314559.
  9. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Andersen KG, Rambaut A, Lipkin WI, Holmes EC, Garry RF (17 March 2020). "Correspondence: The proximal origin of SARS-CoV-2". Nature Medicine . 26 (4): 450–452. doi:10.1038/s41591-020-0820-9. PMC   7095063 . PMID   32284615.
  10. 1 2 3 4 van Doremalen N, Bushmaker T, Morris DH, Holbrook MG, Gamble A, Williamson BN, et al. (17 March 2020). "Correspondence: Aerosol and Surface Stability of SARS-CoV-2 as Compared with SARS-CoV-1". The New England Journal of Medicine . 382 (16): 1564–1567. doi:10.1056/NEJMc2004973. PMC   7121658 . PMID   32182409.
  11. "hCoV-19 Database". China National GeneBank. Archived from the original on 17 June 2020. Retrieved 2 June 2020.
  12. 1 2 "Statement on the second meeting of the International Health Regulations (2005) Emergency Committee regarding the outbreak of novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)". World Health Organization (WHO) (Press release). 30 January 2020. Archived from the original on 31 January 2020. Retrieved 30 January 2020.
  13. 1 2 "WHO Director-General's opening remarks at the media briefing on COVID-19 - 11 March 2020". World Health Organization (WHO) (Press release). 11 March 2020. Archived from the original on 11 March 2020. Retrieved 12 March 2020.
  14. 1 2 3 "CoV2020" . GISAID EpifluDB. Archived from the original on 12 January 2020. Retrieved 12 January 2020.
  15. 1 2 Chan JF, Yuan S, Kok KH, To KK, Chu H, Yang J, et al. (February 2020). "A familial cluster of pneumonia associated with the 2019 novel coronavirus indicating person-to-person transmission: a study of a family cluster". The Lancet . 395 (10223): 514–523. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30154-9. PMC   7159286 . PMID   31986261.
  16. "New coronavirus stable for hours on surfaces". National Institutes of Health (NIH). NIH.gov. 17 March 2020. Archived from the original on 23 March 2020. Retrieved 4 May 2020.
  17. 1 2 3 4 5 Zhou P, Yang XL, Wang XG, Hu B, Zhang L, Zhang W, et al. (February 2020). "A pneumonia outbreak associated with a new coronavirus of probable bat origin". Nature . 579 (7798): 270–273. Bibcode:2020Natur.579..270Z. doi:10.1038/s41586-020-2012-7. PMC   7095418 . PMID   32015507.
  18. Perlman S (February 2020). "Another Decade, Another Coronavirus". The New England Journal of Medicine . 382 (8): 760–762. doi:10.1056/NEJMe2001126. PMC   7121143 . PMID   31978944.
  19. 1 2 Benvenuto D, Giovanetti M, Ciccozzi A, Spoto S, Angeletti S, Ciccozzi M (April 2020). "The 2019-new coronavirus epidemic: Evidence for virus evolution". Journal of Medical Virology . 92 (4): 455–459. doi:10.1002/jmv.25688. PMC   7166400 . PMID   31994738.
  20. 1 2 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV): situation report, 22 (Report). World Health Organization. 11 February 2020. hdl: 10665/330991 .
  21. Shield C (7 February 2020). "Coronavirus: From bats to pangolins, how do viruses reach us?". Deutsche Welle. Archived from the original on 4 June 2020. Retrieved 13 March 2020.
  22. 1 2 3 4 Cohen J (January 2020). "Wuhan seafood market may not be source of novel virus spreading globally". Science . doi:10.1126/science.abb0611.
  23. "Q&A on coronaviruses (COVID-19)". World Health Organization (WHO). 11 February 2020. Archived from the original on 20 January 2020. Retrieved 24 February 2020.
  24. 1 2 "How COVID-19 Spreads". U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 27 January 2020. Archived from the original on 28 January 2020. Retrieved 29 January 2020.
  25. 1 2 Letko M, Marzi A, Munster V (February 2020). "Functional assessment of cell entry and receptor usage for SARS-CoV-2 and other lineage B betacoronaviruses". Nature Microbiology . 5 (4): 562–569. doi:10.1038/s41564-020-0688-y. PMC   7095430 . PMID   32094589.
  26. 1 2 Hoffman M, Kliene-Weber H, Krüger N, Herrler T, Erichsen S, Schiergens TS, et al. (16 April 2020). "SARS-CoV-2 Cell Entry Depends on ACE2 and TMPRSS2 and Is Blocked by a Clinically Proven Protease Inhibitor". Cell . 181 (2): 271–280.e8. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2020.02.052. PMC   7102627 . PMID   32142651.
  27. Wu, Katherine J. (15 April 2020). "There are more viruses than stars in the universe. Why do only some infect us? - More than a quadrillion quadrillion individual viruses exist on Earth, but most are not poised to hop into humans. Can we find the ones that are?". National Geographic Society . Archived from the original on 23 April 2020. Retrieved 18 May 2020.
  28. Huang P (22 January 2020). "How Does Wuhan Coronavirus Compare with MERS, SARS and the Common Cold?". NPR . Archived from the original on 2 February 2020. Retrieved 3 February 2020.
  29. 1 2 Fox D (24 January 2020). "What you need to know about the Wuhan coronavirus". Nature . doi:10.1038/d41586-020-00209-y.
  30. Yam K (12 March 2020). "GOP lawmakers continue to use 'Wuhan virus' or 'Chinese coronavirus'". NBC News. Archived from the original on 14 March 2020. Retrieved 19 March 2020.
  31. Marquardt A, Hansler J (26 March 2020). "US push to include 'Wuhan virus' language in G7 joint statement fractures alliance". CNN. Archived from the original on 1 April 2020. Retrieved 2 April 2020.
  32. World Health Organization (30 January 2020). Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV): situation report, 10 (Report). World Health Organization. hdl: 10665/330775 .
  33. "World Health Organization Best Practices for the Naming of New Human Infectious Diseases" (PDF). WHO. May 2015. Archived (PDF) from the original on 12 February 2020.
  34. "Novel coronavirus named 'Covid-19': WHO". TODAYonline. Archived from the original on 21 March 2020. Retrieved 11 February 2020.
  35. "The coronavirus spreads racism against—and among—ethnic Chinese". The Economist . 17 February 2020. Archived from the original on 17 February 2020. Retrieved 17 February 2020.
  36. Hui M (18 March 2020). "Why won't the WHO call the coronavirus by its name, SARS-CoV-2?". Quartz . Archived from the original on 25 March 2020. Retrieved 26 March 2020.
  37. "Naming the coronavirus disease (COVID-2019) and the virus that causes it". World Health Organization. Archived from the original on 28 February 2020. Retrieved 24 February 2020. From a risk communications perspective, using the name SARS can have unintended consequences in terms of creating unnecessary fear for some populations. ... For that reason and others, WHO has begun referring to the virus as "the virus responsible for COVID-19" or "the COVID-19 virus" when communicating with the public. Neither of these designations are [sic] intended as replacements for the official name of the virus as agreed by the ICTV.
  38. Gstalter, Morgan (19 March 2020). "WHO official warns against calling it 'Chinese virus', says 'there is no blame in this'". The Hill . Archived from the original on 18 April 2020. Retrieved 21 March 2020.
  39. Shinkman, Paul (17 March 2020). "Trump Fires Back at Complaints He's Stigmatizing China Over Coronavirus". US News . Archived from the original on 29 March 2020. Retrieved 21 March 2020.
  40. Will Steakin (20 June 2020). "Trump heads to Tulsa for return rally amid pandemic, despite mounting warnings from health experts". Archived from the original on 20 June 2020. Retrieved 20 June 2020.
  41. Li J, You Z, Wang Q, Zhou Z, Qiu Y, Luo R, et al. (March 2020). "The epidemic of 2019-novel-coronavirus (2019-nCoV) pneumonia and insights for emerging infectious diseases in the future". Microbes and Infection. 22 (2): 80–85. doi:10.1016/j.micinf.2020.02.002. PMC   7079563 . PMID   32087334. Archived from the original on 14 April 2020. Retrieved 19 April 2020.
  42. Kessler, Glenn (17 April 2020). "Trump's false claim that the WHO said the coronavirus was 'not communicable'". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 17 April 2020. Retrieved 17 April 2020.
  43. Kuo, Lily (21 January 2020). "China confirms human-to-human transmission of coronavirus". The Guardian . Archived from the original on 22 March 2020. Retrieved 18 April 2020.
  44. Edwards E (25 January 2020). "How does coronavirus spread?". NBC News. Archived from the original on 28 January 2020. Retrieved 13 March 2020.
  45. Anfinrud P, Stadnytskyi V, Bax CE, Bax A (May 2020). "Visualizing Speech-Generated Oral Fluid Droplets with Laser Light Scattering". The New England Journal of Medicine. 382 (21): 2061–2063. doi:10.1056/NEJMc2007800. PMC   7179962 . PMID   32294341.
  46. Stadnytskyi V, Bax CE, Bax A, Anfinrud P (June 2020). "The airborne lifetime of small speech droplets and their potential importance in SARS-CoV-2 transmission". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 117 (22): 11875–11877. doi:10.1073/pnas.2006874117. PMC   7275719 . PMID   32404416.
  47. "Getting your workplace ready for COVID-19" (PDF). World Health Organization. 27 February 2020. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 March 2020. Retrieved 3 March 2020.
  48. Yong E (20 March 2020). "Why the Coronavirus Has Been So Successful". The Atlantic. Archived from the original on 20 March 2020. Retrieved 20 March 2020.
  49. Gibbens S (18 March 2020). "Why soap is preferable to bleach in the fight against coronavirus". National Geographic . Archived from the original on 2 April 2020. Retrieved 2 April 2020.
  50. Holshue ML, DeBolt C, Lindquist S, Lofy KH, Wiesman J, Bruce H, et al. (March 2020). "First Case of 2019 Novel Coronavirus in the United States". The New England Journal of Medicine . 382 (10): 929–936. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2001191. PMC   7092802 . PMID   32004427.
  51. Li D, Jin M, Bao P, Zhao W, Zhang S (7 May 2020). "Clinical Characteristics and Results of Semen Tests Among Men With Coronavirus Disease 2019". JAMA Network Open. 3 (5): e208292. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.8292. PMC   7206502 . PMID   32379329.
  52. Wölfel R, Corman VM, Guggemos W, Seilmaier M, Zange S, Müller MA, et al. (April 2020). "Virological assessment of hospitalized patients with COVID-2019". Nature. 581 (7809): 465–469. Bibcode:2020Natur.581..465W. doi: 10.1038/s41586-020-2196-x . PMID   32235945.
  53. Kupferschmidt K (February 2020). "Study claiming new coronavirus can be transmitted by people without symptoms was flawed". Science . doi:10.1126/science.abb1524.
  54. To KK, Tsang OT, Leung W, Tam AR, Wu T, Lung DC, et al. (March 2020). "Temporal profiles of viral load in posterior oropharyngeal saliva samples and serum antibody responses during infection by SARS-CoV-2: an observational cohort study". The Lancet Infectious Diseases. 20 (5): 565–574. doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30196-1. PMC   7158907 . PMID   32213337. Archived from the original on 17 April 2020. Retrieved 21 April 2020.
  55. World Health Organization (1 February 2020). Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV): situation report, 12 (Report). World Health Organization. hdl: 10665/330777 .
  56. Li R, Pei S, Chen B, Song Y, Zhang T, Yang W, et al. (16 March 2020). "Substantial undocumented infection facilitates the rapid dissemination of novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV2)". Science . 368 (6490): 489–493. Bibcode:2020Sci...368..489L. doi:10.1126/science.abb3221. PMC   7164387 . PMID   32179701.
  57. Daily Telegraph , Thursday 28 May 2020, page 2 column 1, which refers to the medical journal Thorax; Thorax May 2020 article COVID-19: in the footsteps of Ernest Shackleton Archived 30 May 2020 at the Wayback Machine
  58. He X, Lau EH, Wu P, Deng X, Wang J, Hao X, et al. (15 April 2020). "Temporal dynamics in viral shedding and transmissibility of COVID-19". Nature Medicine. 26 (5): 672–675. doi: 10.1038/s41591-020-0869-5 . PMID   32296168. Archived from the original on 19 April 2020. Retrieved 21 April 2020.
  59. "Questions and Answers on the COVID-19: OIE - World Organisation for Animal Health". www.oie.int. Archived from the original on 31 March 2020. Retrieved 16 April 2020.
  60. Goldstein J (6 April 2020). "Bronx Zoo Tiger Is Sick with the Coronavirus". The New York Times . Archived from the original on 9 April 2020. Retrieved 10 April 2020.
  61. "USDA Statement on the Confirmation of COVID-19 in a Tiger in New York". United States Department of Agriculture . 5 April 2020. Archived from the original on 15 April 2020. Retrieved 16 April 2020.
  62. "If You Have Animals—Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 13 April 2020. Archived from the original on 1 April 2020. Retrieved 16 April 2020.
  63. Eschner K (28 January 2020). "We're still not sure where the Wuhan coronavirus really came from". Popular Science . Archived from the original on 30 January 2020. Retrieved 30 January 2020.
  64. Huang C, Wang Y, Li X, Ren L, Zhao J, Hu Y, et al. (15 February 2020). "Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China". The Lancet . 395 (10223): 497–506. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30183-5. PMC   7159299 . PMID   31986264. Archived from the original on 31 January 2020. Retrieved 26 March 2020.
  65. 1 2 Chen N, Zhou M, Dong X, Qu J, Gong F, Han Y, et al. (15 February 2020). "Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 99 cases of 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a descriptive study". The Lancet . 395 (10223): 507–513. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30211-7. PMC   7135076 . PMID   32007143. Archived from the original on 31 January 2020. Retrieved 9 March 2020.
  66. 1 2 Cyranoski D (26 February 2020). "Mystery deepens over animal source of coronavirus". Nature . 579 (7797): 18–19. Bibcode:2020Natur.579...18C. doi: 10.1038/d41586-020-00548-w . PMID   32127703.
  67. Yu WB, Tang GD, Zhang L, Corlett RT (21 February 2020). "Decoding evolution and transmissions of novel pneumonia coronavirus using the whole genomic data". ChinaXiv. doi:10.12074/202002.00033 (inactive 3 June 2020). Archived from the original on 23 February 2020. Retrieved 25 February 2020.
  68. Forster P, Forster L, Renfrew C, Forster M (8 April 2020). "Phylogenetic network analysis of SARS-CoV-2 genomes" (PDF). PNAS. 117 (17): 9241–9243. doi:10.1073/pnas.2004999117. PMC   7196762 . PMID   32269081. Archived (PDF) from the original on 16 April 2020. Retrieved 17 April 2020.
  69. "COVID-19: genetic network analysis provides 'snapshot' of pandemic origins". Cambridge University. 9 April 2020. Archived from the original on 16 April 2020. Retrieved 17 April 2020.
  70. "Bat SARS-like coronavirus isolate bat-SL-CoVZC45, complete genome". National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). 15 February 2020. Archived from the original on 4 June 2020. Retrieved 15 February 2020.
  71. "Bat SARS-like coronavirus isolate bat-SL-CoVZXC21, complete genome". National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). 15 February 2020. Archived from the original on 4 June 2020. Retrieved 15 February 2020.
  72. "Bat coronavirus isolate RaTG13, complete genome". National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). 10 February 2020. Archived from the original on 15 May 2020. Retrieved 5 March 2020.
  73. Report of the WHO-China Joint Mission on Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) (PDF) (Report). World Health Organization (WHO). 24 February 2020. Archived (PDF) from the original on 29 February 2020. Retrieved 5 March 2020.
  74. Lu R, Zhao X, Li J, Niu P, Yang B, Wu H, et al. (February 2020). "Genomic characterisation and epidemiology of 2019 novel coronavirus: implications for virus origins and receptor binding". The Lancet . 395 (10224): 565–574. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30251-8. PMC   7159086 . PMID   32007145.
  75. Wu D, Wu T, Liu Q, Yang Z (12 March 2020). "The SARS-CoV-2 outbreak: what we know". International Journal of Infectious Diseases. 94: 44–48. doi:10.1016/j.ijid.2020.03.004. ISSN   1201-9712. PMC   7102543 . PMID   32171952. Archived from the original on 9 April 2020. Retrieved 16 April 2020.
  76. Paraskevis D, Kostaki EG, Magiorkinis G, Panayiotakopoulos G, Sourvinos G, Tsiodras S (April 2020). "Full-genome evolutionary analysis of the novel corona virus (2019-nCoV) rejects the hypothesis of emergence as a result of a recent recombination event". Infection, Genetics and Evolution . 79: 104212. doi:10.1016/j.meegid.2020.104212. PMC   7106301 . PMID   32004758 . Retrieved 9 April 2020.
  77. 1 2 Zhang T, Wu Q, Zhang Z (19 March 2020). "Probable Pangolin Origin of SARS-CoV-2 Associated with the COVID-19 Outbreak". Current Biology . 30 (7): 1346–1351.e2. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2020.03.022. PMC   7156161 . PMID   32197085.
  78. 1 2 Beeching NJ, Fletcher TE, Fowler R (22 May 2020). "BMJ Best Practice: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)" (PDF). BMJ . Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 June 2020. Retrieved 25 May 2020.
  79. Kindrachuk J, Coronavirus Frontlines (17 April 2020). "A Virologist Explains Why It Is Unlikely COVID-19 Escaped From A Lab". Forbes. Archived from the original on 21 April 2020. Retrieved 22 April 2020.
  80. Liu P, Chen W, Chen JP (October 2019). "Viral Metagenomics Revealed Sendai Virus and Coronavirus Infection of Malayan Pangolins (Manis javanica)". Viruses . 11 (11): 979. doi:10.3390/v11110979. PMC   6893680 . PMID   31652964.
  81. Cyranoski D (7 February 2020). "Did pangolins spread the China coronavirus to people?". Nature . doi:10.1038/d41586-020-00364-2. S2CID   212825975. Archived from the original on 7 February 2020. Retrieved 12 February 2020.
  82. Xiao K, Zhai J, Feng Y (February 2020). "Isolation and Characterization of 2019-nCoV-like Coronavirus from Malayan Pangolins" (PDF). bioRxiv (preprint). doi:10.1101/2020.02.17.951335. S2CID   213920763. Archived (PDF) from the original on 22 April 2020. Retrieved 5 May 2020.
  83. Wong MC, Cregeen SJ, Ajami NJ, Petrosino JF (February 2020). "Evidence of recombination in coronaviruses implicating pangolin origins of nCoV-2019" (PDF). bioRxiv (preprint). doi:10.1101/2020.02.07.939207. PMC   7217297 . PMID   32511310. Archived (PDF) from the original on 22 April 2020. Retrieved 5 May 2020.
  84. Timmer, John (1 June 2020). "SARS-CoV-2 looks like a hybrid of viruses from two different species". Ars Technica. Archived from the original on 5 June 2020. Retrieved 6 June 2020.
  85. Yan, Renhong; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Li, Yaning; Xia, Lu; Guo, Yingying; Zhou, Qiang (27 March 2020). "Structural basis for the recognition of SARS-CoV-2 by full-length human ACE2". Science. 367 (6485): 1444–1448. Bibcode:2020Sci...367.1444Y. doi:10.1126/science.abb2762. ISSN   1095-9203. PMC   7164635 . PMID   32132184.
  86. 1 2 Ho, Mitchell (30 April 2020). "Perspectives on the development of neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2". Antibody Therapeutics. 3 (2): 109–114. doi:10.1093/abt/tbaa009. PMC   7291920 . PMID   32566896. S2CID   219476100. Archived from the original on 14 June 2020. Retrieved 14 June 2020.
  87. Kelly G (1 January 2015). "Pangolins: 13 facts about the world's most hunted animal". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 24 December 2019. Retrieved 9 March 2020.
  88. Gorman J (27 February 2020). "China's Ban on Wildlife Trade a Big Step, but Has Loopholes, Conservationists Say". The New York Times . Archived from the original on 13 March 2020. Retrieved 23 March 2020.
  89. Carrington, Damian (27 April 2020). "Halt destruction of nature or suffer even worse pandemics, say world's top scientists". The Guardian. ISSN   0261-3077. Archived from the original on 15 May 2020. Retrieved 31 May 2020.
  90. Pontes, Nadia (29 April 2020). "How deforestation can lead to more infectious diseases". DW.COM. Archived from the original on 5 May 2020. Retrieved 31 May 2020.
  91. Cheng, Vincent C. C.; Lau, Susanna K. P.; Woo, Patrick C. Y.; Yuen, Kwok Yung (October 2007). "Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus as an Agent of Emerging and Reemerging Infection". Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 20 (4): 660–694. doi:10.1128/CMR.00023-07. ISSN   0893-8512. PMC   2176051 . PMID   17934078.
  92. "The COVID-19 coronavirus epidemic has a natural origin, scientists say—Scripps Research's analysis of public genome sequence data from SARS‑CoV‑2 and related viruses found no evidence that the virus was made in a laboratory or otherwise engineered". EurekAlert! . Scripps Research Institute. 17 March 2020. Archived from the original on 3 April 2020. Retrieved 15 April 2020.
  93. Andersen, Kristian G.; et al. (17 March 2020). "The proximal origin of SARS‑CoV‑2". Nature Medicine . 26 (4): 450–452. doi: 10.1038/s41591-020-0820-9 . PMC   7095063 . PMID   32284615.
  94. Zhu N, Zhang D, Wang W, Li X, Yang B, Song J, et al. (February 2020). "A Novel Coronavirus from Patients with Pneumonia in China, 2019". The New England Journal of Medicine . 382 (8): 727–733. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2001017. PMC   7092803 . PMID   31978945.
  95. "Phylogeny of SARS-like betacoronaviruses". nextstrain. Archived from the original on 20 January 2020. Retrieved 18 January 2020.
  96. Wong AC, Li X, Lau SK, Woo PC (February 2019). "Global Epidemiology of Bat Coronaviruses". Viruses . 11 (2): 174. doi:10.3390/v11020174. PMC   6409556 . PMID   30791586.
  97. Walls AC, Park YJ, Tortorici MA, Wall A, McGuire AT, Veesler D (9 March 2020). "Structure, function and antigenicity of the SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein". Cell . 181 (2): 281–292.e6. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2020.02.058. PMC   7102599 . PMID   32155444.
  98. Coutard B, Valle C, de Lamballerie X, Canard B, Seidah NG, Decroly E (February 2020). "The spike glycoprotein of the new coronavirus 2019-nCoV contains a furin-like cleavage site absent in CoV of the same clade". Antiviral Research . 176: 104742. doi:10.1016/j.antiviral.2020.104742. PMC   7114094 . PMID   32057769.
  99. "Initial genome release of novel coronavirus". Virological. 11 January 2020. Archived from the original on 12 January 2020. Retrieved 12 January 2020.
  100. 1 2 Bedford T, Neher R, Hadfield N, Hodcroft E, Ilcisin M, Müller N. "Genomic analysis of nCoV spread: Situation report 2020-01-30". nextstrain.org. Archived from the original on 15 March 2020. Retrieved 18 March 2020.
  101. "Genomic epidemiology of novel coronavirus - Global subsampling". Nextstrain. Archived from the original on 20 April 2020. Retrieved 7 May 2020.
  102. 1 2 3 Wu C, Liu Y, Yang Y, Zhang P, Zhong W, Wang Y, et al. (February 2020). "Analysis of therapeutic targets for SARS-CoV-2 and discovery of potential drugs by computational methods". Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B. 10 (5): 766–788. doi:10.1016/j.apsb.2020.02.008. PMC   7102550 . PMID   32292689.
  103. 1 2 Wrapp D, Wang N, Corbett KS, Goldsmith JA, Hsieh CL, Abiona O, et al. (February 2020). "Cryo-EM structure of the 2019-nCoV spike in the prefusion conformation". Science . 367 (6483): 1260–1263. Bibcode:2020Sci...367.1260W. doi:10.1126/science.abb2507. PMC   7164637 . PMID   32075877.
  104. Mandelbaum RF (19 February 2020). "Scientists Create Atomic-Level Image of the New Coronavirus's Potential Achilles Heel". Gizmodo . Archived from the original on 8 March 2020. Retrieved 13 March 2020.
  105. 1 2 3 Aronson JK (25 March 2020). "Coronaviruses – a general introduction". Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine, Nuffield Department of Primary Care Health Sciences, University of Oxford. Archived from the original on 22 May 2020. Retrieved 24 May 2020.
  106. Xu X, Chen P, Wang J, Feng J, Zhou H, Li X, et al. (March 2020). "Evolution of the novel coronavirus from the ongoing Wuhan outbreak and modeling of its spike protein for risk of human transmission". Science China Life Sciences . 63 (3): 457–460. doi:10.1007/s11427-020-1637-5. PMC   7089049 . PMID   32009228.
  107. Letko M, Munster V (January 2020). "Functional assessment of cell entry and receptor usage for lineage B β-coronaviruses, including 2019-nCoV" (PDF). bioRxiv (preprint). doi:10.1101/2020.01.22.915660. PMC   7217099 . PMID   32511294. Archived (PDF) from the original on 22 April 2020. Retrieved 5 May 2020.
  108. El Sahly HM. "Genomic Characterization of the 2019 Novel Coronavirus". The New England Journal of Medicine . Archived from the original on 17 February 2020. Retrieved 9 February 2020.
  109. "Novel coronavirus structure reveals targets for vaccines and treatments". National Institutes of Health (NIH). 2 March 2020. Archived from the original on 1 April 2020. Retrieved 3 April 2020.
  110. Wang K, Chen W, Zhou YS, Lian JQ, Zhang Z, Du P, et al. (14 March 2020). "SARS-CoV-2 invades host cells via a novel route: CD147-spike protein" (PDF). bioRxiv (preprint). doi:10.1101/2020.03.14.988345. S2CID   214725955. Archived (PDF) from the original on 11 May 2020. Retrieved 5 May 2020.
  111. "Anatomy of a Killer: Understanding SARS-CoV-2 and the drugs that might lessen its power". The Economist . 12 March 2020. Archived from the original on 14 March 2020. Retrieved 14 March 2020.
  112. Oberholzer M, Febbo P (19 February 2020). "What We Know Today about Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 and Where Do We Go from Here". Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology News . Archived from the original on 14 March 2020. Retrieved 13 March 2020.
  113. Ma J (13 March 2020). "Coronavirus: China's first confirmed Covid-19 case traced back to November 17". South China Morning Post . Archived from the original on 13 March 2020. Retrieved 16 March 2020.
  114. 1 2 3 4 5 6 "COVID-19 Dashboard by the Center for Systems Science and Engineering (CSSE) at Johns Hopkins University (JHU)". ArcGIS . Johns Hopkins University . Retrieved 4 July 2020.
  115. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) Situation Report – 69 (Report). World Health Organization. 29 March 2020. hdl: 10665/331615 .
  116. Wee SL, McNeil Jr. DG, Hernández JC (30 January 2020). "W.H.O. Declares Global Emergency as Wuhan Coronavirus Spreads". The New York Times . Archived from the original on 30 January 2020. Retrieved 30 January 2020.
  117. McKay B, Calfas J, Ansari T (11 March 2020). "Coronavirus Declared Pandemic by World Health Organization". The Wall Street Journal . Archived from the original on 11 March 2020. Retrieved 12 March 2020.
  118. Li Q, Guan X, Wu P, Wang X, Zhou L, Tong Y, et al. (January 2020). "Early Transmission Dynamics in Wuhan, China, of Novel Coronavirus-Infected Pneumonia". The New England Journal of Medicine . 382 (13): 1199–1207. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2001316. PMC   7121484 . PMID   31995857.
  119. Riou J, Althaus CL (January 2020). "Pattern of early human-to-human transmission of Wuhan 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV), December 2019 to January 2020". Eurosurveillance . 25 (4). doi:10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.4.2000058. PMC   7001239 . PMID   32019669.
  120. Rocklöv J, Sjödin H, Wilder-Smith A (February 2020). "COVID-19 outbreak on the Diamond Princess cruise ship: estimating the epidemic potential and effectiveness of public health countermeasures". Journal of Travel Medicine. 27 (3). doi:10.1093/jtm/taaa030. PMC   7107563 . PMID   32109273.
  121. Branswell H (30 January 2020). "Limited data on coronavirus may be skewing assumptions about severity". STAT. Archived from the original on 1 February 2020. Retrieved 13 March 2020.
  122. Wu JT, Leung K, Leung GM (February 2020). "Nowcasting and forecasting the potential domestic and international spread of the 2019-nCoV outbreak originating in Wuhan, China: a modelling study". The Lancet . 395 (10225): 689–697. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30260-9. PMC   7159271 . PMID   32014114.
  123. Boseley S, McCurry J (30 January 2020). "Coronavirus deaths leap in China as countries struggle to evacuate citizens". The Guardian . Archived from the original on 6 February 2020. Retrieved 10 March 2020.
  124. Paulinus A (25 February 2020). "Coronavirus: China to repay Africa in safeguarding public health". The Sun . Archived from the original on 9 March 2020. Retrieved 10 March 2020.

Further reading

Classification
D