Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2

Last updated

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2
Novel Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2.jpg
Electron micrograph of SARS-CoV-2 virions with visible coronae
2019-nCoV-CDC-23312 without background.png
Illustration of a SARS-CoV-2 virion
Virus classification Red Pencil Icon.png
(unranked): Virus
Realm: Riboviria
Phylum: incertae sedis
Order: Nidovirales
Family: Coronaviridae
Genus: Betacoronavirus
Subgenus: Sarbecovirus
Species:
Strain:
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2
Synonyms
  • 2019-nCoV

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), [1] [2] previously known by the provisional name 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV), is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus. [3] It is contagious in humans and is the cause of the ongoing pandemic [4] of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) that has been designated a Public Health Emergency of International Concern by the World Health Organization (WHO). [5] [6]

Contents

SARS-CoV-2 has close genetic similarity to bat coronaviruses, suggesting it emerged from a bat-borne virus. [7] [8] [9] An intermediate animal reservoir such as a pangolin is also thought to be involved in its introduction to humans. [10] [11] From a taxonomic perspective, SARS-CoV-2 is classified as a strain of the species Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (SARSr-CoV). [1]

The strain was first discovered in Wuhan, China, so it is sometimes referred to as the "Wuhan virus" [12] or "Wuhan coronavirus". [13] [14] [15] [16] Because the World Health Organization discourages the use of names based upon locations [10] [17] [18] and to avoid confusion with the disease SARS, [19] it sometimes refers to the virus as "the virus responsible for COVID-19" or "the COVID-19 virus" in public health communications. [20] The general public often call both the virus and the disease "coronavirus", but scientists typically use more precise terms. [21]

Virology

Infection

Human-to-human transmission of SARS-CoV-2 has been confirmed during the 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic. [6] Transmission occurs primarily via respiratory droplets from coughs and sneezes within a range of about 2 metres (6.6 ft). [22] [23] Indirect contact via contaminated surfaces is another possible cause of infection. [24] Preliminary research indicates that the virus may remain viable on plastic and steel for up to three days, but does not survive on cardboard for more than one day or on copper for more than four hours; [25] the virus is inactivated by soap, which destabilizes its lipid bilayer. [26] [27] Viral RNA has also been found in stool samples from infected people. [28]

Whether the virus is infectious during the incubation period is uncertain. [29] On 1 February 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) indicated that "transmission from asymptomatic cases is likely not a major driver of transmission". [30] However, an epidemiological model of the beginning of the outbreak in China suggested that "pre-symptomatic shedding may be typical among documented infections" and that subclinical infections may have been the source of a majority of infections. [31]

Reservoir

Horseshoe bats are among the most likely natural reservoirs of SARS-CoV-2 Rhinolophus rouxii.jpg
Horseshoe bats are among the most likely natural reservoirs of SARS-CoV-2

The first known infections from the SARS-CoV-2 strain were discovered in Wuhan, China. [7] The original source of viral transmission to humans and when the strain became pathogenic remains unclear. [32] [33] [34] Because many of the first individuals found to be infected by the virus were workers at the Huanan Seafood Market, [35] [36] it has been suggested that the strain might have originated from the market. [34] [37] However, other research indicates that visitors may have introduced the virus to the market, which then facilitated rapid expansion of the infections. [32] [38]

Research into the natural reservoir of the virus strain that caused the 2002–2004 SARS outbreak has resulted in the discovery of many SARS-like bat coronaviruses, most originating in the Rhinolophus genus of horseshoe bats, and two viral nucleic acid sequences found in samples taken from Rhinolophus sinicus show a resemblance of 80% to SARS-CoV-2. [9] [39] [40] A third viral nucleic acid sequence from Rhinolophus affinis , collected in Yunnan province and designated RaTG13, has a 96% resemblance to SARS-CoV-2. [7] [41] The WHO considers bats the most likely natural reservoir of SARS-CoV-2, [42] but differences between the bat coronavirus and SARS-CoV-2 suggest that humans were infected via an intermediate host. [37]

A metagenomic study published in 2019 previously revealed that SARS-CoV, the strain of the virus that causes SARS, was the most widely distributed coronavirus among a sample of Sunda pangolins. [43] On 7 February 2020, it was announced that researchers from Guangzhou had discovered a pangolin sample with a viral nucleic acid sequence "99% identical" to SARS-CoV-2. [44] When released, the results clarified that "the receptor-binding domain of the S protein of the newly discovered Pangolin-CoV is virtually identical to that of 2019-nCoV, with one amino acid difference." [45] Pangolins are protected under Chinese law, but their poaching and trading for use in traditional Chinese medicine remains common. [46] [47]

Microbiologists and geneticists in Texas have independently found evidence of reassortment in coronaviruses suggesting involvement of pangolins in the origin of SARS-CoV-2. [48] However, pangolin coronaviruses found to date only share at most 92% of their whole genomes with SARS-CoV-2, making them less similar than RaTG13 to SARS-CoV-2. [49] This is insufficient to prove pangolins to be the intermediate host; in comparison, the SARS virus responsible for the 2002–2004 outbreak shared 99.8% of its genome with a known civet coronavirus. [37]

Phylogenetics and taxonomy

Genomic information
SARS-CoV-2 genome.svg
Genomic organisation of isolate Wuhan-Hu-1, the earliest sequenced sample of SARS-CoV-2
NCBI genome ID MN908947
Genome size 29,903 bases
Year of completion 2020

SARS-CoV-2 belongs to the broad family of viruses known as coronaviruses. It is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA (+ssRNA) virus. Other coronaviruses are capable of causing illnesses ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases such as Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). It is the seventh known coronavirus to infect people, after 229E, NL63, OC43, HKU1, MERS-CoV, and the original SARS-CoV. [50]

Like the SARS-related coronavirus strain implicated in the 2003 SARS outbreak, SARS-CoV-2 is a member of the subgenus Sarbecovirus (beta-CoV lineage B). [51] [52] [53] Its RNA sequence is approximately 30,000 bases in length. [3] SARS-CoV-2 is unique among known betacoronaviruses in its incorporation of a polybasic cleavage site, a characteristic known to increase pathogenicity and transmissibility in other viruses. [34] [54] [55]

With a sufficient number of sequenced genomes, it is possible to reconstruct a phylogenetic tree of the mutation history of a family of viruses. By 12 January 2020, five genomes of SARS-CoV-2 had been isolated from Wuhan and reported by the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CCDC) and other institutions; [3] [56] the number of genomes increased to 42 by 30 January 2020. [57] A phylogenetic analysis of those samples showed they were "highly related with at most seven mutations relative to a common ancestor", implying that the first human infection occurred in November or December 2019. [57] As of 13 March 2020, 410 SARS-CoV-2 genomes sampled on five continents were publicly available. [58]

On 11 February 2020, the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) announced that according to existing rules that compute hierarchical relationships among coronaviruses on the basis of five conserved sequences of nucleic acids, the differences between what was then called 2019-nCoV and the virus strain from the 2003 SARS outbreak were insufficient to make them separate viral species. Therefore, they identified 2019-nCoV as a strain of severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus . [1]

Structural biology

Structure of a SARSr-CoV virion Coronavirus virion structure.svg
Structure of a SARSr-CoV virion

Each SARS-CoV-2 virion is approximately 50–200 nanometres in diameter. [59] Like other coronaviruses, SARS-CoV-2 has four structural proteins, known as the S (spike), E (envelope), M (membrane), and N (nucleocapsid) proteins; the N protein holds the RNA genome, and the S, E, and M proteins together create the viral envelope. [60] The spike protein, which has been imaged at the atomic level using cryogenic electron microscopy, [61] [62] is the protein responsible for allowing the virus to attach to the membrane of a host cell. [60]

SARS-CoV-2 spike homotrimer with one protein subunit highlighted; ACE2 binding domain in magenta 6VSB spike protein SARS-CoV-2 monomer in homotrimer.png
SARS-CoV-2 spike homotrimer with one protein subunit highlighted; ACE2 binding domain in magenta

Protein modeling experiments on the spike protein of the virus soon suggested that SARS-CoV-2 has sufficient affinity to the angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors of human cells to use them as a mechanism of cell entry. [63] By 22 January 2020, a group in China working with the full virus genome and a group in the United States using reverse genetics methods independently and experimentally demonstrated that ACE2 could act as the receptor for SARS-CoV-2. [7] [64] [65] [66] [67] [68] Studies have shown that SARS-CoV-2 has a higher affinity to human ACE2 than the original SARS virus strain. [61] SARS-CoV-2 may also use basigin to gain cell entry. [69]

SARS-CoV-2 49531042877.jpg
SARS-CoV-2 scanning electron microscope image.jpg
Digitally colourised electron micrographs of SARS-CoV-2 (yellow) emerging from human cells cultured in a laboratory

Initial spike protein priming by transmembrane protease, serine 2 (TMPRSS2) is essential for entry of SARS-CoV-2. [70] After a SARS-CoV-2 virion attaches to a target cell, the cell's protease TMPRSS2 cuts open the spike protein of the virus, exposing a fusion peptide. The virion then releases RNA into the cell, forcing the cell to produce copies of the virus that are disseminated to infect more cells. [71] [ better source needed ] SARS-CoV-2 produces at least three virulence factors that promote shedding of new virions from host cells and inhibit immune response. [60]

Epidemiology

Micrograph of SARS-CoV-2 virions (red) isolated from a patient during the 2019-20 coronavirus pandemic Novel Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (49597020718).jpg
Micrograph of SARS-CoV-2 virions (red) isolated from a patient during the 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic

Based upon the low variability exhibited among known SARS-CoV-2 genomic sequences, the strain is thought to have been detected by health authorities within weeks of its emergence among the human population in late 2019. [32] [72] The earliest case of infection currently known is thought to have been found on 17 November 2019. [73] The virus subsequently spread to all provinces of China and to more than one hundred other countries in Asia, Europe, North America, South America, Africa, and Oceania. [74] Human-to-human transmission of the virus has been confirmed in all of these regions. [6] [75] [76] [77] [78] [79] On 30 January 2020, SARS-CoV-2 was designated a Public Health Emergency of International Concern by the WHO, [5] [80] and on 11 March 2020 the WHO declared it a pandemic. [81] [82]

As of 30 March 2020 (04:00 UTC), there were 723,328 confirmed cases of infection, of which approximately 81,400 were in mainland China. [74] While the proportion of infections that result in confirmed infection or progress to diagnosable disease remains unclear, [83] one mathematical model estimated the number of people infected in Wuhan alone at 75,815 as of 25 January 2020, at a time when confirmed infections were far lower. [84] The total number of deaths attributed to the virus was 34,005 as of 30 March 2020 (04:00 UTC); 151,991 people had recovered from infection by that time. [74] Less than a tenth of all deaths have occurred in Hubei province, where Wuhan is located. [74] Before 24 February 2020, the proportion was over 95%. [85] [86]

The basic reproduction number () of the virus has been estimated to be between 1.4 and 3.9. [87] [88] This means that each infection from the virus is expected to result in 1.4 to 3.9 new infections when no members of the community are immune and no preventive measures are taken. The reproduction number may be higher in densely populated conditions such as those found on cruise ships. [89]

Related Research Articles

Coronavirus Subfamily of viruses in the family Coronaviridae

Coronaviruses are a group of related viruses that cause diseases in mammals and birds. In humans, coronaviruses cause respiratory tract infections that can be mild, such as some cases of the common cold, and others that can be lethal, such as SARS, MERS, and COVID-19. Symptoms in other species vary: in chickens, they cause an upper respiratory tract disease, while in cows and pigs they cause diarrhea. There are yet to be vaccines or antiviral drugs to prevent or treat human coronavirus infections.

<i>Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus</i> Species of coronavirus causing SARS and COVID-19

Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (SARSr-CoV) is a species of coronavirus that infects humans, bats and certain other mammals. It is an enveloped positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus that enters its host cell by binding to the ACE2 receptor. It is a member of the genus Betacoronavirus and subgenus Sarbecoronavirus.

<i>Coronaviridae</i> Family of viruses in the order Nidovirales

Coronaviridae is a family of enveloped, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA viruses. The viral genome is 26–32 kilobases in length. The particles are typically decorated with large (~20 nm), club- or petal-shaped surface projections, which in electron micrographs of spherical particles create an image reminiscent of the solar corona.

Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 Exopeptidase enzyme that acts on angiotensin I and II

Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is an enzyme attached to the outer surface of cells in the lungs, arteries, heart, kidney, and intestines. ACE2 lowers blood pressure by catalysing the cleavage of angiotensin II into angiotensin 1–7. ACE2 also serves as the entry point into cells for some coronaviruses.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus virus strain causing severe acute respiratory syndrome

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) is the strain of virus that causes severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). It is an enveloped, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA virus which infects the epithelial cells within the lungs. The virus enters the host cell by binding to the ACE2 receptor. It infects humans, bats, and palm civets.

Middle East respiratory syndrome Viral respiratory infection

Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), also known as camel flu, is a viral respiratory infection caused by the MERS-coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Symptoms may range from mild to severe. They include fever, cough, diarrhea and shortness of breath. Disease is typically more severe in those with other health problems. Mortality is about one-third of diagnosed cases.

<i>Betacoronavirus</i> Genus of viruses in the subfamily Orthocoronavirinae

Betacoronaviruses are one of four genera of coronaviruses of the subfamily Orthocoronavirinae in the family Coronaviridae, of the order Nidovirales. They are enveloped, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA viruses of zoonotic origin. The coronavirus genera are each composed of varying viral lineages with the betacoronavirus genus containing four such lineages. In older literature, this genus is also known as group 2 coronaviruses.

A bat-borne virus is any virus whose primary reservoir is any species of bat. The viruses include coronaviruses such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2); hantaviruses; lyssaviruses such as rabies virus and Australian bat lyssavirus; henipaviruses such as nipah virus and Hendra virus; Lassa virus; Ebola virus; and Marburg virus. Several bat-borne viruses are considered important emerging viruses.

Remdesivir Antiviral drug

Remdesivir is a novel antiviral drug in the class of nucleotide analogs. It was developed by Gilead Sciences as a treatment for Ebola virus disease and Marburg virus infections, though it subsequently was found to show antiviral activity against other single stranded RNA viruses such as respiratory syncytial virus, Junin virus, Lassa fever virus, Nipah virus, Hendra virus, and the coronaviruses. It is being studied for SARS-CoV-2 and Henipavirus infections. Based on success against other coronavirus infections, Gilead provided remdesivir to physicians who treated an American patient in Snohomish County, Washington in 2020, who was infected with SARS-CoV-2, and is providing the compound to China to conduct a pair of trials in infected individuals with and without severe symptoms.

Shi Zhengli is a Chinese virologist and writer. She is a researcher at the Wuhan Institute of Virology (WIV), which is part of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS). Shi and her colleague Cui Jie found that the SARS virus originated in bats. Shi is a member of the Virology Committee of the Chinese Society for Microbiology. She is an editor of the Board of Virologica Sinica, the Chinese Journal of Virology, and the Journal of Fishery Sciences of China.

2019–20 coronavirus pandemic ongoing pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)

The 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic is an ongoing pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The outbreak was first identified in Wuhan, Hubei, China, in December 2019. The World Health Organization (WHO) declared the outbreak to be a Public Health Emergency of International Concern on 30 January 2020 and recognized it as a pandemic on 11 March. As of 30 March 2020, more than 723,000 cases of COVID-19 have been reported in over 190 countries and territories, resulting in approximately 34,000 deaths. More than 151,500 people have since recovered.

The Huanan Seafood Wholesale Market, also known as the Huanan Seafood Market, was a live animal and seafood market in Jianghan District, Wuhan, Hubei, China. The market gained media attention after being identified as a point of origin of the 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic. The World Health Organization was notified on 31 December 2019 about an outbreak of pneumonia in Wuhan. Of the initial 41 people hospitalized with pneumonia who were officially identified as having laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection by 2 January 2020, two-thirds were exposed to the market. The market was closed on 1 January 2020 for sanitary procedures and disinfection. 33 out of 585 environmental samples obtained from the market indicated evidence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).

Timeline of the 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic in November 2019 – January 2020 major events in a virus pandemic

This article documents the chronology and epidemiology of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus responsible for the 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic originating in Wuhan, China. Some developments may become known or fully understood only in retrospect.

The Wuhan Institute of Virology is a research institute on virology administered by the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS). Located in Jiangxia District, Wuhan, Hubei, it opened mainland China's first biosafety level 4 (BSL–4) laboratory in 2015.

Coronavirus disease 2019 Viral respiratory disease first detected in 2019

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The disease was first identified in 2019 in Wuhan, the capital of China's Hubei province, and has since spread globally, resulting in the ongoing 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic. Common symptoms include fever, cough, and shortness of breath. Other symptoms may include muscle pain, sputum production, diarrhea, sore throat, loss of smell, and abdominal pain. While the majority of cases result in mild symptoms, some progress to pneumonia and multi-organ failure. As of March 28, 2020, the overall rate of deaths per number of diagnosed cases is 4.6 percent; ranging from 0.2 percent to 15 percent according to age group and other health problems.

Laboratory testing for the respiratory coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and the associated SARS-CoV-2 virus includes methods that detect the presence of virus and those that detect antibodies produced in response to infection. Detection of antibodies (serology) can be used both for clinical purposes and population surveillance.

COVID-19 vaccine Hypothetical vaccine against COVID-19

A COVID-19 vaccine is a hypothetical vaccine against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Although no vaccine has completed clinical trials, there are multiple attempts in progress to develop such a vaccine. In late February 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) said it did not expect a vaccine against SARS-CoV-2, the causative virus, to become available in less than 18 months. By late March 2020, some 40 vaccine candidates were in development.

COVID-19 drug repurposing research Drug repurposing research related to COVID-19

Drug repositioning – the investigation of existing drugs for new therapeutic purposes – is one line of scientific research which is followed to develop safe and effective COVID-19 treatments. Other research directions include the development of a COVID-19 vaccine.

COVID-19 drug development Preventative vaccines and therapies for COVID-19 infection

COVID-19 drug development is the research process to develop a preventative vaccine or therapeutic prescription drug that would alleviate the severity of 2019-20 coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Internationally as of March 2020, some 100 drug companies, biotechnology firms, university research groups, and health organizations were involved in stages of vaccine or drug development. The World Health Organization (WHO), European Medicines Agency (EMA), US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and the Chinese government and drug manufacturers were coordinating with academic and industry researchers to speed development of vaccines, antiviral drugs, and monoclonal antibody therapies.

References

  1. 1 2 3 Gobalenya AE, Baker SC, Baric RS, de Groot RJ, Drosten C, Gulyaeva AA, et al. (March 2020). "The species Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus: classifying 2019-nCoV and naming it SARS-CoV-2". Nature Microbiology . 5 (4): 536–544. doi:10.1038/s41564-020-0695-z. PMID   32123347. Archived from the original on 5 March 2020. Retrieved 3 March 2020.
  2. "Coronavirus disease named Covid-19". BBC News Online . 11 February 2020. Archived from the original on 15 February 2020. Retrieved 15 February 2020.
  3. 1 2 3 "CoV2020" . GISAID EpifluDB. Archived from the original on 12 January 2020. Retrieved 12 January 2020.
  4. "WHO Director-General's opening remarks at the media briefing on COVID-19 - 11 March 2020". www.who.int. Retrieved 28 March 2020.
  5. 1 2 Wee SL, McNeil Jr. DG, Hernández JC (30 January 2020). "W.H.O. Declares Global Emergency as Wuhan Coronavirus Spreads". The New York Times . Archived from the original on 30 January 2020. Retrieved 30 January 2020.
  6. 1 2 3 Chan JF, Yuan S, Kok KH, To KK, Chu H, Yang J, et al. (February 2020). "A familial cluster of pneumonia associated with the 2019 novel coronavirus indicating person-to-person transmission: a study of a family cluster". The Lancet . 395 (10223): 514–523. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30154-9. PMID   31986261.
  7. 1 2 3 4 Zhou P, Yang XL, Wang XG, Hu B, Zhang L, Zhang W, et al. (February 2020). "A pneumonia outbreak associated with a new coronavirus of probable bat origin". Nature . 579 (7798): 270–273. doi:10.1038/s41586-020-2012-7. PMC   7095418 . PMID   32015507.
  8. Perlman S (February 2020). "Another Decade, Another Coronavirus". The New England Journal of Medicine . 382 (8): 760–762. doi:10.1056/NEJMe2001126. PMID   31978944.
  9. 1 2 Benvenuto D, Giovanetti M, Ciccozzi A, Spoto S, Angeletti S, Ciccozzi M (April 2020). "The 2019-new coronavirus epidemic: Evidence for virus evolution". Journal of Medical Virology . 92 (4): 455–459. doi:10.1002/jmv.25688. PMID   31994738.
  10. 1 2 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV): situation report, 22 (Report). World Health Organization. 11 February 2020. hdl: 10665/330991 .
  11. Shield C (7 February 2020). "Coronavirus: From bats to pangolins, how do viruses reach us?". Deutsche Welle . Retrieved 13 March 2020.
  12. "Wuhan virus sees Olympic football qualifiers moved". Xinhua. 22 January 2020. Archived from the original on 22 January 2020. Retrieved 29 March 2020.
  13. Huang P (22 January 2020). "How Does Wuhan Coronavirus Compare with MERS, SARS and the Common Cold?". NPR . Archived from the original on 2 February 2020. Retrieved 3 February 2020.
  14. Fox D (24 January 2020). "What you need to know about the Wuhan coronavirus". Nature . doi:10.1038/d41586-020-00209-y. ISSN   0028-0836.
  15. Yam K (12 March 2020). "GOP lawmakers continue to use 'Wuhan virus' or 'Chinese coronavirus'". NBC News. Archived from the original on 14 March 2020. Retrieved 19 March 2020.
  16. Dorman S (11 March 2020). "McCarthy knocks Dems after they claim saying 'Chinese coronavirus' is racist". Fox News. Archived from the original on 12 March 2020. Retrieved 12 March 2020.
  17. Taylor-Coleman J (5 February 2020). "How the new coronavirus will finally get a proper name". BBC News. Archived from the original on 5 February 2020. Retrieved 6 February 2020.
  18. World Health Organization best practices for the naming of new human infectious diseases (Report). World Health Organization. May 2015. hdl: 10665/163636 . WHO/HSE/FOS/15.1.
  19. Hui M (18 March 2020). "Why won't the WHO call the coronavirus by its name, SARS-CoV-2?". Quartz . Retrieved 26 March 2020.
  20. "Naming the coronavirus disease (COVID-2019) and the virus that causes it". World Health Organization. Archived from the original on 28 February 2020. Retrieved 24 February 2020. From a risk communications perspective, using the name SARS can have unintended consequences in terms of creating unnecessary fear for some populations.... For that reason and others, WHO has begun referring to the virus as "the virus responsible for COVID-19" or "the COVID-19 virus" when communicating with the public. Neither of these designations are [sic] intended as replacements for the official name of the virus as agreed by the ICTV.
  21. Harmon A (4 March 2020). "We Spoke to Six Americans with Coronavirus". The New York Times . Archived from the original on 13 March 2020. Retrieved 16 March 2020.
  22. Edwards E (25 January 2020). "How does coronavirus spread?". NBC News. Archived from the original on 28 January 2020. Retrieved 13 March 2020.
  23. "How COVID-19 Spreads". U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 27 January 2020. Archived from the original on 28 January 2020. Retrieved 29 January 2020.
  24. "Getting your workplace ready for COVID-19" (PDF). World Health Organization. 27 February 2020. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 March 2020. Retrieved 3 March 2020.
  25. van Doremalen N, Bushmaker T, Morris DH, Holbrook MG, Gamble A, Williamson BN, et al. (17 March 2020). "Correspondence: Aerosol and Surface Stability of SARS-CoV-2 as Compared with SARS-CoV-1". The New England Journal of Medicine . doi:10.1056/NEJMc2004973. PMID   32182409.
  26. Yong E (20 March 2020). "Why the Coronavirus Has Been So Successful". The Atlantic. Archived from the original on 20 March 2020. Retrieved 20 March 2020.
  27. "Unite against COVID-19". New Zealand Government - Unite against COVID-19.
  28. Holshue ML, DeBolt C, Lindquist S, Lofy KH, Wiesman J, Bruce H, et al. (March 2020). "First Case of 2019 Novel Coronavirus in the United States". The New England Journal of Medicine . 382 (10): 929–936. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2001191. PMID   32004427.
  29. Kupferschmidt K (February 2020). "Study claiming new coronavirus can be transmitted by people without symptoms was flawed". Science . doi:10.1126/science.abb1524.
  30. World Health Organization (1 February 2020). Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV): situation report, 12 (Report). World Health Organization. hdl: 10665/330777 .
  31. Li R, Pei S, Chen B, Song Y, Zhang T, Yang W, et al. (16 March 2020). "Substantial undocumented infection facilitates the rapid dissemination of novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV2)". Science : eabb3221. doi:10.1126/science.abb3221. PMID   32179701. Archived from the original on 17 March 2020. Retrieved 17 March 2020.
  32. 1 2 3 Cohen J (January 2020). "Wuhan seafood market may not be source of novel virus spreading globally". Science . doi:10.1126/science.abb0611. ISSN   0036-8075.
  33. Eschner K (28 January 2020). "We're still not sure where the Wuhan coronavirus really came from". Popular Science . Archived from the original on 29 January 2020. Retrieved 30 January 2020.
  34. 1 2 3 Andersen KG, Rambaut A, Lipkin WI, Holmes EC, Garry RF (17 March 2020). "Correspondence: The proximal origin of SARS-CoV-2". Nature Medicine : 1–3. doi:10.1038/s41591-020-0820-9. Archived from the original on 18 March 2020. Retrieved 18 March 2020.
  35. Huang C, Wang Y, Li X, Ren L, Zhao J, Hu Y, et al. (15 February 2020). "Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China". The Lancet . 395 (10223): 497–506. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30183-5. PMID   31986264.
  36. Chen N, Zhou M, Dong X, Qu J, Gong F, Han Y, et al. (15 February 2020). "Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 99 cases of 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a descriptive study". The Lancet . 395 (10223): 507–513. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30211-7. PMID   32007143.
  37. 1 2 3 Cyranoski D (26 February 2020). "Mystery deepens over animal source of coronavirus". Nature . 579 (7797): 18–19. Bibcode:2020Natur.579...18C. doi:10.1038/d41586-020-00548-w. PMID   32127703.
  38. Yu WB, Tang GD, Zhang L, Corlett RT (21 February 2020). "Decoding evolution and transmissions of novel pneumonia coronavirus using the whole genomic data". ChinaXiv. doi:10.12074/202002.00033 (inactive 28 March 2020). Archived from the original on 23 February 2020. Retrieved 25 February 2020.
  39. "Bat SARS-like coronavirus isolate bat-SL-CoVZC45, complete genome". National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). 15 February 2020. Retrieved 15 February 2020.
  40. "Bat SARS-like coronavirus isolate bat-SL-CoVZXC21, complete genome". National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). 15 February 2020. Retrieved 15 February 2020.
  41. "Bat coronavirus isolate RaTG13, complete genome". National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). 10 February 2020. Retrieved 5 March 2020.
  42. Report of the WHO-China Joint Mission on Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) (PDF) (Report). World Health Organization (WHO). 24 February 2020. Archived (PDF) from the original on 29 February 2020. Retrieved 5 March 2020.
  43. Liu P, Chen W, Chen JP (October 2019). "Viral Metagenomics Revealed Sendai Virus and Coronavirus Infection of Malayan Pangolins (Manis javanica)". Viruses . 11 (11): 979. doi:10.3390/v11110979. PMC   6893680 . PMID   31652964.
  44. Cyranoski D (7 February 2020). "Did pangolins spread the China coronavirus to people?". Nature . doi:10.1038/d41586-020-00364-2. Archived from the original on 7 February 2020. Retrieved 12 February 2020.
  45. Xiao K, Zhai J, Feng Y (February 2020). "Isolation and Characterization of 2019-nCoV-like Coronavirus from Malayan Pangolins". bioRxiv (preprint). doi:10.1101/2020.02.17.951335.
  46. Kelly G (1 January 2015). "Pangolins: 13 facts about the world's most hunted animal". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 24 December 2019. Retrieved 9 March 2020.
  47. Gorman J (27 February 2020). "China's Ban on Wildlife Trade a Big Step, but Has Loopholes, Conservationists Say". The New York Times . ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved 23 March 2020.
  48. Wong MC, Cregeen SJ, Ajami NJ, Petrosino JF (February 2020). "Evidence of recombination in coronaviruses implicating pangolin origins of nCoV-2019". bioRxiv (preprint). doi:10.1101/2020.02.07.939207.
  49. Zhang T, Wu Q, Zhang Z (19 March 2020). "Probable Pangolin Origin of SARS-CoV-2 Associated with the COVID-19 Outbreak". Current Biology . 30: 1–6. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2020.03.022. PMID   32197085.
  50. Zhu N, Zhang D, Wang W, Li X, Yang B, Song J, et al. (February 2020). "A Novel Coronavirus from Patients with Pneumonia in China, 2019". The New England Journal of Medicine . 382 (8): 727–733. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2001017. PMID   31978945.
  51. Hui DS, I Azhar E, Madani TA, Ntoumi F, Kock R, Dar O, et al. (February 2020). "The continuing 2019-nCoV epidemic threat of novel coronaviruses to global health – The latest 2019 novel coronavirus outbreak in Wuhan, China". The International Journal of Infectious Diseases . 91: 264–266. doi:10.1016/j.ijid.2020.01.009. PMID   31953166. Open Access logo PLoS transparent.svg
  52. "Phylogeny of SARS-like betacoronaviruses". nextstrain. Archived from the original on 20 January 2020. Retrieved 18 January 2020.
  53. Wong AC, Li X, Lau SK, Woo PC (February 2019). "Global Epidemiology of Bat Coronaviruses". Viruses . 11 (2): 174. doi:10.3390/v11020174. PMC   6409556 . PMID   30791586.
  54. Walls AC, Park YJ, Tortorici MA, Wall A, McGuire AT, Veesler D (9 March 2020). "Structure, function and antigenicity of the SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein". Cell . doi:10.1016/j.cell.2020.02.058. PMID   32155444.CS1 maint: display-authors (link)
  55. Coutard B, Valle C, de Lamballerie X, Canard B, Seidah NG, Decroly E (February 2020). "The spike glycoprotein of the new coronavirus 2019-nCoV contains a furin-like cleavage site absent in CoV of the same clade". Antiviral Research . 176: 104742. doi:10.1016/j.antiviral.2020.104742. PMID   32057769.CS1 maint: display-authors (link)
  56. "Initial genome release of novel coronavirus". Virological. 11 January 2020. Archived from the original on 12 January 2020. Retrieved 12 January 2020.
  57. 1 2 Bedford T, Neher R, Hadfield N, Hodcroft E, Ilcisin M, Müller N. "Genomic analysis of nCoV spread: Situation report 2020-01-30". nextstrain.org. Archived from the original on 15 March 2020. Retrieved 18 March 2020.CS1 maint: display-authors (link)
  58. Hodcroft E, Müller N, Wagner C, Ilcisin M, Hadfield J, Bell SM, et al. "Genomic analysis of COVID-19 spread: Situation report 2020-03-13". nextstrain.org. Archived from the original on 13 March 2020. Retrieved 18 March 2020.
  59. Chen N, Zhou M, Dong X, Qu J, Gong F, Han Y, et al. (15 February 2020). "Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 99 cases of 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a descriptive study". The Lancet . 395 (10223): 507–513. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30211-7. PMID   32007143. Archived from the original on 31 January 2020. Retrieved 9 March 2020.
  60. 1 2 3 Wu C, Liu Y, Yang Y, Zhang P, Zhong W, Wang Y, et al. (February 2020). "Analysis of therapeutic targets for SARS-CoV-2 and discovery of potential drugs by computational methods". Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B. doi:10.1016/j.apsb.2020.02.008.
  61. 1 2 Wrapp D, Wang N, Corbett KS, Goldsmith JA, Hsieh CL, Abiona O, et al. (February 2020). "Cryo-EM structure of the 2019-nCoV spike in the prefusion conformation". Science . 367 (6483): 1260–1263. Bibcode:2020Sci...367.1260W. doi:10.1126/science.abb2507. PMID   32075877.
  62. Mandelbaum RF (19 February 2020). "Scientists Create Atomic-Level Image of the New Coronavirus's Potential Achilles Heel". Gizmodo . Archived from the original on 8 March 2020. Retrieved 13 March 2020.
  63. Xu X, Chen P, Wang J, Feng J, Zhou H, Li X, et al. (March 2020). "Evolution of the novel coronavirus from the ongoing Wuhan outbreak and modeling of its spike protein for risk of human transmission". Science China Life Sciences . 63 (3): 457–460. doi:10.1007/s11427-020-1637-5. PMC   7089049 . PMID   32009228.
  64. Letko M, Munster V (January 2020). "Functional assessment of cell entry and receptor usage for lineage B β-coronaviruses, including 2019-nCoV". bioRxiv (preprint). doi:10.1101/2020.01.22.915660.
  65. Letko M, Marzi A, Munster V (February 2020). "Functional assessment of cell entry and receptor usage for SARS-CoV-2 and other lineage B betacoronaviruses". Nature Microbiology . 5 (4): 562–569. doi:10.1038/s41564-020-0688-y. PMID   32094589.
  66. El Sahly HM. "Genomic Characterization of the 2019 Novel Coronavirus". The New England Journal of Medicine . Retrieved 9 February 2020.
  67. Gralinski LE, Menachery VD (January 2020). "Return of the Coronavirus: 2019-nCoV". Viruses . 12 (2): 135. doi:10.3390/v12020135. PMC   7077245 . PMID   31991541.
  68. Lu R, Zhao X, Li J, Niu P, Yang B, Wu H, et al. (February 2020). "Genomic characterisation and epidemiology of 2019 novel coronavirus: implications for virus origins and receptor binding". The Lancet . 395 (10224): 565–574. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30251-8. PMID   32007145.
  69. Wang K, Chen W, Zhou YS, Lian JQ, Zhang Z, Du P, et al. (14 March 2020). "SARS-CoV-2 invades host cells via a novel route: CD147-spike protein". bioRxiv (preprint). doi:10.1101/2020.03.14.988345.
  70. Hoffman M, Kliene-Weber H, Krüger N, Herrler T, Erichsen S, Schiergens TS, et al. (16 April 2020). "SARS-CoV-2 Cell Entry Depends on ACE2 and TMPRSS2 and Is Blocked by a Clinically Proven Protease Inhibitor". Cell . 181: 1–10. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2020.02.052. PMID   32142651.
  71. "Anatomy of a Killer: Understanding SARS-CoV-2 and the drugs that might lessen its power". The Economist . 12 March 2020. Archived from the original on 14 March 2020. Retrieved 14 March 2020.
  72. Oberholzer M, Febbo P (19 February 2020). "What We Know Today about Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 and Where Do We Go from Here". Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology News . Archived from the original on 14 March 2020. Retrieved 13 March 2020.
  73. Ma J (13 March 2020). "Coronavirus: China's first confirmed Covid-19 case traced back to November 17". South China Morning Post . Archived from the original on 13 March 2020. Retrieved 16 March 2020.
  74. 1 2 3 4 "Coronavirus COVID-19 Global Cases by the Center for Systems Science and Engineering (CSSE) at Johns Hopkins University (JHU)". ArcGIS. Johns Hopkins CSSE. Retrieved 30 March 2020.
  75. Rothe C, Schunk M, Sothmann P, Bretzel G, Froeschl G, Wallrauch C, et al. (March 2020). "Transmission of 2019-nCoV Infection from an Asymptomatic Contact in Germany". The New England Journal of Medicine . 382 (10): 970–971. doi:10.1056/NEJMc2001468. PMID   32003551.
  76. Molteni M (30 January 2020). "The Coronavirus Is Now Infecting More People Outside China". Wired . Retrieved 13 March 2020.
  77. Khalik S (4 February 2020). "Coronavirus: Singapore reports first cases of local transmission; 4 out of 6 new cases did not travel to China". The Straits Times . Archived from the original on 4 February 2020. Retrieved 5 February 2020.
  78. "Ecuador confirms five new cases of coronavirus, all close to initial patient". Reuters . 2 March 2020. Archived from the original on 2 March 2020. Retrieved 5 March 2020.
  79. "Algeria confirms two more coronavirus cases". Reuters . 2 March 2020. Archived from the original on 3 March 2020. Retrieved 5 March 2020.
  80. "Statement on the second meeting of the International Health Regulations (2005) Emergency Committee regarding the outbreak of novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)". World Health Organization (WHO) (Press release). 30 January 2020. Archived from the original on 31 January 2020. Retrieved 30 January 2020.
  81. McKay B, Calfas J, Ansari T (11 March 2020). "Coronavirus Declared Pandemic by World Health Organization". The Wall Street Journal . Archived from the original on 11 March 2020. Retrieved 12 March 2020.
  82. "WHO Director-General's opening remarks at the media briefing on COVID-19 - 11 March 2020". World Health Organization (WHO) (Press release). 11 March 2020. Archived from the original on 11 March 2020. Retrieved 12 March 2020.
  83. Branswell H (30 January 2020). "Limited data on coronavirus may be skewing assumptions about severity". STAT. Archived from the original on 1 February 2020. Retrieved 13 March 2020.
  84. Wu JT, Leung K, Leung GM (February 2020). "Nowcasting and forecasting the potential domestic and international spread of the 2019-nCoV outbreak originating in Wuhan, China: a modelling study". The Lancet . 395 (10225): 689–697. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30260-9. PMID   32014114.
  85. Boseley S, McCurry J (30 January 2020). "Coronavirus deaths leap in China as countries struggle to evacuate citizens". The Guardian . Archived from the original on 6 February 2020. Retrieved 10 March 2020.
  86. Paulinus A (25 February 2020). "Coronavirus: China to repay Africa in safeguarding public health". The Sun . Archived from the original on 9 March 2020. Retrieved 10 March 2020.
  87. Li Q, Guan X, Wu P, Wang X, Zhou L, Tong Y, et al. (January 2020). "Early Transmission Dynamics in Wuhan, China, of Novel Coronavirus-Infected Pneumonia". The New England Journal of Medicine . 382 (13): 1199–1207. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2001316. PMID   31995857.
  88. Riou J, Althaus CL (January 2020). "Pattern of early human-to-human transmission of Wuhan 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV), December 2019 to January 2020". Eurosurveillance . 25 (4). doi:10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.4.2000058. PMC   7001239 . PMID   32019669.
  89. Rocklöv, J.; Sjödin, H.; Wilder-Smith, A. "COVID-19 outbreak on the Diamond Princess cruise ship: estimating the epidemic potential and effectiveness of public health countermeasures". The Journal of Travel Medicine . doi:10.1093/jtm/taaa030.

Further reading

Classification
D