Severodvinsk

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Severodvinsk

Северодвинск
Lomonosova st..jpg
Lomonosova Street in Severodvinsk
Coat of Arms of Severodvinsk.svg
Coat of arms
Anthem: Anthem of Severodvinsk [2]
Location of Severodvinsk
Russia edcp location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Severodvinsk
Location of Severodvinsk
Outline Map Archangelsk Oblast mainland.svg
Red pog.svg
Severodvinsk
Severodvinsk (Arkhangelsk Oblast)
Coordinates: 64°34′N39°52′E / 64.567°N 39.867°E / 64.567; 39.867 Coordinates: 64°34′N39°52′E / 64.567°N 39.867°E / 64.567; 39.867
Country Russia
Federal subject Arkhangelsk Oblast [3]
Founded1936 [4]
Government
  BodyCity Council of Deputies [5]
  Mayor [6] Igor Skubenko (since 2017) [7]
Area
  Total1,200 km2 (500 sq mi)
Elevation
7 m (23 ft)
Population
  Total192,353
  Estimate 
(2018) [9]
183,255
  Rank 95th in 2010
  Density160/km2 (420/sq mi)
  Subordinated to city of oblast significance of Severodvinsk [10]
   Capital ofcity of oblast significance of Severodvinsk [10]
  Urban okrugSeverodvinsk Urban Okrug [11]
   Capital ofSeverodvinsk Urban Okrug [11]
Time zone UTC+3 (MSK Blue pencil.svg [12] )
Postal code(s) [13]
164500–164502, 164504, 164505, 164507, 164509, 164510, 164512, 164514, 164515, 164518, 164520–164524, 164529
Dialing code(s) +7 81842 [14]
City DayLast Sunday of July [15]
Twin towns Bryansk, Tiraspol, Portsmouth, Sumy, Kaliningrad Blue pencil.svg
OKTMO ID11730000001
Website www.severodvinsk.info

Severodvinsk (Russian :Северодвинск,IPA:  [sʲɪvʲɪrɐdˈvʲinsk] ) is a city in the north of Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia, located in the delta of the Northern Dvina River, 35 kilometers (22 mi) west of Arkhangelsk, the administrative center of the oblast. As of the 2010 Census, the population was 192,353. [8] Due to the presence of important military shipyards (specialised in submarines since the Soviet period), Severodvinsk is an access restricted town for foreign citizens. A special pass is required. [16]

Russian language East Slavic language

Russian is an East Slavic language, which is official in the Russian Federation, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely used throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia. It was the de facto language of the Soviet Union until its dissolution on 25 December 1991. Although, nowadays, over two decades after the breakup of the Soviet Union, Russian is used in official capacity or in public life in all the post-Soviet nation-states, as well as in Israel and Mongolia, the rise of state-specific varieties of this language tends to be strongly denied in Russia, in line with the Russian World ideology.

The classification system of the types of inhabited localities in Russia, the former Soviet Union, and some other post-Soviet states has certain peculiarities compared with the classification systems in other countries.

Arkhangelsk Oblast First-level administrative division of Russia

Arkhangelsk Oblast is a federal subject of Russia. It includes the Arctic archipelagos of Franz Josef Land and Novaya Zemlya, as well as the Solovetsky Islands in the White Sea. Arkhangelsk Oblast also has administrative jurisdiction over Nenets Autonomous Okrug. Including Nenetsia, Arkhangelsk Oblast has an area of 587,400 km2. Its population was 1,227,626 as of the 2010 Census.

Contents

It was previously known as Sudostroy(until 1938), [4] Molotovsk(until 1957). [4]

History

Pre-20th century

Vikings explored the territories around the North Dvina River - part of Bjarmaland - at the start of the first millennium. British and Norman [4] [ need quotation to verify ] ships came to these places for mining, fur and fishing before the 13th century, but later the climate became colder and access to the northern seas became closed.[ citation needed ]

Bjarmaland

Bjarmaland was a territory mentioned in Norse sagas since the Viking Age and in geographical accounts until the 16th century. The term is usually seen to have referred to the southern shores of the White Sea and the basin of the Northern Dvina River as well as, presumably, some of the surrounding areas. Today, those territories comprise a part of the Arkhangelsk Oblast of Russia.

The historical records first mention the settlement on the site of modern Severodvinsk in 1419, when the Swedes sailed into the bay and burnt down the Nikolo-Korelsky Monastery that stood by the shore during the Swedish–Novgorodian Wars. Tradition states that Saint Euphemius, an Orthodox missionary in Karelia, founded this monastery. The abbey stood in ruins until 1471, when two sons of Marfa Boretskaya died in a vicious storm; their bodies were recovered on the beach near the monastery twelve days later. At the urging of Boretskaya, the monastery was restored and her sons were buried there.

Nikolo-Korelsky Monastery

Nikolo-Korelsky Monastery(Николо-Корельский монастырь) is a Russian Orthodox monastery in Severodvinsk (Russia).

Swedish–Novgorodian Wars were a series of conflicts in the 12th and 13th centuries between the Republic of Novgorod and medieval Sweden over control of the Gulf of Finland, an area vital to the Hanseatic League and part of the Varangian-Byzantine trade route. The Swedish attacks against Orthodox Russians had religious overtones, but before the 14th century there is no knowledge of official crusade bulls issued by the pope.

Russian Orthodox Church autocephalous Orthodox Christian church, headquartered in Moscow, Russia

The Russian Orthodox Church, alternatively legally known as the Moscow Patriarchate, is one of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Christian churches. The Primate of the ROC is the Patriarch of Moscow and all Rus'. The ROC, as well as the primate thereof, officially ranks fifth in the Orthodox order of precedence, immediately below the four ancient patriarchates of the Greek Orthodox Church, those of Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem. Since 15 October 2018, the ROC is not in communion with the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople, having unilaterally severed ties in reaction to the establishment of the Orthodox Church of Ukraine, which was finalised by the Ecumenical Patriarchate on 5 January 2019.

On August 24, 1553, a ship of Richard Chancellor reached the salt-mining settlement of Nyonoksa, which is still famous for its traditional wooden architecture. The British sailors visited the Nikolo-Korelsky Monastery, where they were surprised to find a community of "sailors in soutanes (cassocks)" and a pier large enough to accommodate several ships.[ citation needed ] The main church of this extraordinary establishment was dedicated to Saint Nicholas, the holy patron of sailors; hence, the whole White Sea became known in 16th-century English maps as "St. Nicholas Bay". In late 1613, during the Time of Troubles in Russia, Polish-Lithuanian vagabonds, the Lisowczycy, captured and looted Severodvinsk with the monastery.

Richard Chancellor English explorer and navigator

Richard Chancellor was an English explorer and navigator; the first to penetrate to the White Sea and establish relations with Russia.

Nyonoksa Selo in Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia

Nyonoksa is a rural locality under the administrative jurisdiction of Severodvinsk Town of Oblast Significance, Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia. It is located at the coast of the Onega Bay of the White Sea northwest of the city of Severodvinsk.

Saint Nicholas 4th-century Christian saint

Saint Nicholas of Myra, also known as Nicholas of Bari, was an early Christian bishop of the ancient Greek city of Myra in Asia Minor during the time of the Roman Empire. He is revered by many Christians as a saint. Because of the many miracles attributed to his intercession, he is also known as Nicholas the Wonderworker. Saint Nicholas is the patron saint of sailors, merchants, archers, repentant thieves, children, brewers, pawnbrokers, and students in various cities and countries around Europe. His reputation evolved among the faithful, as was common for early Christian saints, and his legendary habit of secret gift-giving gave rise to the traditional model of Santa Claus through Sinterklaas.

The Nikolo-Korelsky Monastery flourished after the establishment of the Muscovy Company, as the bulk of their trade passed through the local harbor. In August 1618 the harbour was visited by John Tradescant the elder, who conducted a survey of an island situated opposite the monastery. This island became known to the British as "Rose Island", because it was there that Tradescant found an exceedingly rare plant which he named "Rosa moscovita" and brought back to London. [17]

Muscovy Company 16th-century business enterprise

The Muscovy Company was an English trading company chartered in 1555. It was the first major chartered joint stock company, the precursor of the type of business that would soon flourish in England, and became closely associated with such famous names as Henry Hudson and William Baffin. The Muscovy Company had a monopoly on trade between England and Muscovy until 1698 and it survived as a trading company until the Russian Revolution of 1917. Since 1917 the company has operated as a charity, now working within Russia.

London Capital of the United Kingdom

London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile (80 km) estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans. The City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles (2.9 km2) and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow closely its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is also an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of London and the London Assembly.

View of the Nikolo-Korelsky Monastery in the early 20th century Korelski.jpg
View of the Nikolo-Korelsky Monastery in the early 20th century

The surviving buildings of the monastery were constructed at the close of the Muscovite period. The five-domed cathedral of St. Nicholas was built between 1670 and 1674, preceded by the Assumption church (1664–1667), to which it is joined by a gallery. Several decades later, the walls and towers were built of timber; the Soviets transported the best-preserved of these towers to Kolomenskoye, Moscow, where it still remains.

Modern city

Severodvinsk is the second-largest city in Arkhangelsk Oblast. Its main industry remains defense-related — the construction and repair of submarines at the huge Northern Machine-building Enterprise SEVMASH (Северное Машиностроительное Предприятие-СЕВМАШ). The Soviet Union's first nuclear submarine Leninsky Komsomol was built here in 1957. At the beginning of the 1980s the world's largest submarine, a Typhoon class, was also built here, later recorded in the Guinness Book of World Records .

The modern city of Severodvinsk developed in the Soviet period. As it began to be built it was called Sudostroy (Судострой - "Boat-build"). [4] It received town status in 1938 and until 1957 was named Molotovsk (Молотовск), after Vyacheslav Molotov. [4] On September 12, 1957 it was renamed Severodvinsk (meaning "Northern Dvina town").

During World War II a significant portion of the materials delivered by the Arctic Convoys to Murmansk and Arkhangelsk for the Soviet Union were unloaded in Severodvinsk. For example, the Empire Elgar , a British heavy lift ship that arrived in Arkhangelsk with convoy PQ 16 and subsequently spent eight weeks unloading ships from the ill-fated convoy PQ 17.

A Russian naval-base supports the sea trials of nuclear submarines from the major submarine construction- (64.5817 N, 39.8307 E) and repair-facilities located in the area. In Soviet times the 17th-century buildings of the Nikolo-Korelsky monastery, located on the territory of the shipyard, were adapted and used for shipbuilding purposes. [18] In recent years the monastery buildings, specifically the main church, have been restored and re-consecrated. Church-goers attending services have to be shipyard workers or able to obtain a pass to enter the church portion of the shipyard.

Severodvinsk is an access-restricted town for foreign citizens. A special pass is required. [16]

Administrative and municipal status

Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is, together with eleven rural localities, incorporated as the city of oblast significance of Severodvinsk—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts. [10] As a municipal division, the city of oblast significance of Severodvinsk is incorporated as Severodvinsk Urban Okrug. [11]

Demographics

Population: 192,353(2010 Census); [8] 201,551(2002 Census); [19] 248,670(1989 Census). [20]

From 1950 until 1990, high-tech industries generated demand for a considerable quantity of suitably qualified experts and workers which prompted growth in population. Since 1992, the population has declined due to economic crises and unemployment that has provoked significant migration from the city.

Economy

Industry

The main role of the city has been, and remains, the production and repair of submarines and military ships. During the Cold War, the city prospered, but with the decline and break-up of the Soviet Union and the end of the Cold War the city has declined. The city's large military enterprises have survived the economic crises of the 1990s and have adjusted to new economic conditions. Severodvinsk now has the largest shipbuilding yard in Russia for large ships (tankers, cargo ships).

Large and military factories

Disassembly of a Soviet submarine in Severodvinsk, as part of the Nunn-Lugar Cooperative Threat Reduction Program Disassembling of a Soviet submarine.jpg
Disassembly of a Soviet submarine in Severodvinsk, as part of the Nunn-Lugar Cooperative Threat Reduction Program
  • "SevMash"(СевМаш) or Northern Machine-building Enterprise (Северное машиностроительное предприятие)
core line of business is the construction and repair of submarines and other naval ships, as well as civilian vessels and oil platforms
Repair of submarines, military and civil ships, construction of oil platforms and faceting of diamonds.
  • "Severny Reyd" (Северный рейд("Northern Raid"))
Manufacture of marine equipment.
  • "Arktika" (Арктика("Arctic"))
Manufacture of automated equipment.
Kudemskaya narrow-gauge railway (2011) Kud-0845.jpg
Kudemskaya narrow-gauge railway (2011)

Transportation

Severodvinsk is the terminal station of a railway line which splits of at Isakogorka station from the line connecting Moscow and Arkhangelsk.

The Kudemskaya narrow-gauge railway in 2010 has appeared in Forbes ranking, of 10 most beautiful railway routes of the world.

Sevmash playing bandy Pobednyi brosok Sevmasha v vorota Iunosti.jpg
Sevmash playing bandy

Sport

Sport teams representing Severodvinsk in city, regional and all-Russian competitions:

Social sphere

Education

There are 32 middle schools of general education in Severodvinsk, including special schools for orphans and handicapped children; two musical schools and two art schools.

Secondary vocational education institutions

Higher education institutions

The city hosts branches of the following institutions:

Monuments

There are nearly twenty monuments and memorial complexes in the city, including:

Cultural heritage

Church "Resurrection of Christ" on Yagry Island Chapel on Jagry island.JPG
 Church "Resurrection of Christ" on Yagry Island

Fifteen objects in Severodvinsk are protected as cultural heritage monuments [21] In particular, the Nyonokotsky Pogost in the village of Nyonoksa is protected as an architecture monument on the federal level. This is one of the few surviving triple wooden church ensembles, consisting of two churches (a bigger, not heated, church used in the summer, a smaller, heated church used in the winter) and a bell-tower. Nyonoksa was also notable for salt production.

In addition, the wooden Church Resurrection of Christ, currently located on Yagry Island in the northern part of Severodvinsk, was relocated there in 1990s and was the first religious building open in the city. The church was built in the end of 19th century in the village of Solza about 20 kilometers (12 mi) from Severodvinsk.

The stone church of St. Nicholas is located in the eastern portion of the SEVMASH Shipyard. The church building is the last remnant of the Svyato-Nikolskoye Monastery which served as the gateway to the pilgrimage monastery on the Solovetskiy Islands from the 15th century.

City in culture

Notable people

Twin towns and sister cities

Severodvinsk is twinned with:

Climate

Serevodvinsk has a subarctic climate (Köppen climate classification Dfc).

Climate data for Severodvinsk
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Average high °C (°F)−9.6
(14.7)
−8.3
(17.1)
−2.9
(26.8)
4.1
(39.4)
10.8
(51.4)
17.6
(63.7)
20.9
(69.6)
18.3
(64.9)
11.5
(52.7)
3.9
(39.0)
−2.2
(28.0)
−6.6
(20.1)
4.8
(40.6)
Daily mean °C (°F)−14.5
(5.9)
−12.2
(10.0)
−6.3
(20.7)
−0.2
(31.6)
6.5
(43.7)
12.6
(54.7)
15.8
(60.4)
13.2
(55.8)
7.8
(46.0)
1.6
(34.9)
−4.5
(23.9)
−10.3
(13.5)
0.8
(33.4)
Average low °C (°F)−16.6
(2.1)
−15.6
(3.9)
−11.7
(10.9)
−4.6
(23.7)
1.9
(35.4)
7.9
(46.2)
11.2
(52.2)
9.8
(49.6)
5.2
(41.4)
−0.6
(30.9)
−7.2
(19.0)
−13.2
(8.2)
−2.7
(27.1)
Average precipitation days211919161515131616212224217
Source: pogoda.ru [23]

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References

Notes

  1. Государственный комитет Российской Федерации по статистике. Комитет Российской Федерации по стандартизации, метрологии и сертификации. №ОК 019-95 1 января 1997 г. «Общероссийский классификатор объектов административно-территориального деления. Код 11 430 005», в ред. изменения №278/2015 от 1 января 2016 г.. (State Statistics Committee of the Russian Federation. Committee of the Russian Federation on Standardization, Metrology, and Certification. #OK 019-95 January 1, 1997 Russian Classification of Objects of Administrative Division . Code 11 430 005, as amended by the Amendment #278/2015 of January 1, 2016. ).
  2. Decision #123
  3. Law #65-5-OZ, Article 15.1.1
  4. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Severodvinsk—test of strength (Russian), "Pravda Severa" publishing house, 1998
  5. Charter of Severodvinsk, Article 33.1.1
  6. Charter of Severodvinsk, Article 33.1.2
  7. Official website of the Administration of Severodvinsk. Mikhail Arkadyevich Gmyrin, Mayor of Severodvinsk (in Russian)
  8. 1 2 3 Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  9. "26. Численность постоянного населения Российской Федерации по муниципальным образованиям на 1 января 2018 года". Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved 23 January 2019.
  10. 1 2 3 Oblast Law #65-5-OZ
  11. 1 2 3 Oblast Law #258-vneoch.-OZ
  12. "Об исчислении времени". Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации (in Russian). 3 June 2011. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
  13. Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (in Russian)
  14. Телефонный код города Северодвинск (in Russian). Коды городов. Retrieved August 26, 2011.
  15. Charter of Severodvinsk, Article 1.3
  16. 1 2 http://www.pomorland.travel/en/kak_dobratsya/kuda_ne_dobratsya/
  17. Hamel, Joseph. England and Russia: Comprising the Voyages of John Tradescant, the Elder... Adamant Media Corporation. p. 282. ISBN   1-4021-8427-1.
  18. "XX век" (in Russian). Управление образования Северодвинска. Retrieved August 26, 2011.
  19. Russian Federal State Statistics Service (21 May 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000](XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian).
  20. "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. 1989 via Demoscope Weekly.
  21. Памятники истории и культуры народов Российской Федерации (in Russian). Russian Ministry of Culture. Retrieved 2 June 2016.
  22. Голубцова, Ольга Валентиновна (1993). Русская жена убийцы президента: Молотовск-Даллас (in Russian). Северодвинск.
  23. "Historical Weather for Severodvinsk" . Retrieved August 25, 2011.

Sources