Part of a series on the
|History of Iran|
| Timeline |
Shabankara or Shabankareh (Persian : ملوک شبانکاره, Kurdish: Şivankaran or Şiwankaran, other spellings: Shabankara, Shwankara, Marco Polo: Soncara, Ibn Athir: Shwankara) was the name of a tribal federation of Iranian nomads who resided some parts of the Zagros mountains. They claimed descent from the mythical Iranian king Manuchehr, and are thought to be descendants of Daylamites who had followed the Buyid dynasty from northern Iran, or "Kurds" (back then a non-ethnic term for Iranian nomads) who had been deported to eastern Fars from Isfahan by the Buyid shahanshah 'Adud al-Dawla (r. 949–983).
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi, is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family. It is primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, and Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and some other regions which historically were Persianate societies and considered part of Greater Iran. It is written right to left in the Persian alphabet, a modified variant of the Arabic script, which itself evolved from the Aramaic alphabet.
A federation is a political entity characterized by a union of partially self-governing provinces, states, or other regions under a central federal government (federalism). In a federation, the self-governing status of the component states, as well as the division of power between them and the central government, is typically constitutionally entrenched and may not be altered by a unilateral decision of either party, the states or the federal political body. Alternatively, federation is a form of government in which sovereign power is formally divided between a central authority and a number of constituent regions so that each region retains some degree of control over its internal affairs. It is often argued that federal states where the central government has the constitutional authority to suspend a constituent state's government by invoking gross mismanagement or civil unrest, or to adopt national legislation that overrides or infringe on the constituent states' powers by invoking the central government's constitutional authority to ensure "peace and good government" or to implement obligations contracted under an international treaty, are not truly federal states.
The Iranian peoples, or the Iranic peoples, are a diverse Indo-European ethno-linguistic group that comprise the speakers of the Iranian languages.
In the early twelfth century there were five subdivisions of them: Ramani, Shakani, Karzuwi, Masudi and Ismaili.
The Ramanid branch of the Shabankara rose in power with their chief Fadluya. He was the son of the Shabankara chief Ali bin al-Hassan, and rose to the ranks of the Buyid Army, in the service of Sahib-i Adil, the vizier of the Buyid king of Fars. Sahib-i Adil was put on deathby the last Buyid of Fars, Abu Mansur Fulad Sutun, and Fadluya rose in rebellion after this. Abu Mansur was defeated and murder with his mother in 1056. The Shabankara chief, now ruler of Fars, soon came into collision with the Seljuk Turks. Fadluya submitted to Qawurd, brother of sultan Alp Arslan, but afterwards revolted. Fadluya was finally captured and executed in 1071 by the Seljuk vizier Nizam al-Mulk. The Shabankara were a nuisance in the provinces of Kerman and Fars. In 1099, with the help of the son of Qawurd, Iran Shah, they defeated the wali of Fars, Amir Unar. In 1116, the Shabankara chief Abu-al Hasan Khuzraw refused to pay homenage to the new governor of Fars, Fakhr al-din Cawuli. Cawuli besieged Khuzraw in his fortress, but came on terms with him later. Khuzraw accompanied the governor in his campaigns in Kerman. In the time of the Sekjuk sultan, Mahmud II (1117-1131), the Shabankara were illtreted and revolted again, broughting great damage in the area. The founder of the Hazaraspid dynasty, Abu Tahir ibn Muhammad, defeated the Shabankara and gained great prestige for this. After collapse of Seljukids, Shabankara ruled again the area with Shahre-Idaj as their capital. In Ilkhanid era they ruled Shabankareh province centered at Darabgird.
Amir Abu'l-Abbas Fadl, better known as Fadluya, was an Iranian tribal chieftain of the Shabankara in Fars. He was the son of Ali ibn Hasan ibn Ayyub of the Ramani clan of the Shabankara, and was the founder of the Shabankara dynasty in Fars, which lasted sporadically from 1030 to 1355. The Shabankaras occupied the mountain region of Kuhgiluya and maintained a great scale of independence.
Abu Mansur Fulad Sutun was the last Buyid amir of Fars, ruling more or less continuously from 1048 until his death. He was the son of Abu Kalijar.
Kara Arslan Ahmad Qavurt, better simply known as Qavurt was a Seljuq prince. Upon his father's death, he led an unsuccessful rebellion against his relatives in an attempt to gain the Seljuk throne.
The Shabankara chief Kutb-al din Mubariz and his brother Nizam al din Mahmud conquered Kerman in 1201 from the Oghuz Turks, but lost it to a local rebellion and an oghuzz counter-offensive. Finally the atabeg of Fars, Sad ibn Zengi defeated the Shabankara.
In 1260, the Mongol invasor Hulegu destroyed Ig and killed the Shabankara chief Muzaffar al-Din Muhammad ibn al-Mubariz in 1260. In 1312, the Shabankara rebelled against the Ilkhans but were defeated. In 1355, the Muzzafarid Mubariz al din send his son Mahmud against the chief Ardashir, who refused to follow his orders. The chief was defeated and his country was taken by the Muzzafarid. It is possible that the Shabankara has local power until 1424.
Tughril Beg also spelled Toghrul I, Tugril, Toghril, Tugrul or Toghrïl Beg; was the Turkic founder of the Seljuk Empire, ruling from 1037 to 1063. Tughril united the Turkic warriors of the Great Eurasian Steppes into a confederacy of tribes, who traced their ancestry to a single ancestor named Seljuq, and led them in conquest of eastern Iran. He would later establish the Seljuq Sultanate after conquering Persia and retaking the Abbasid capital of Baghdad from the Buyid dynasty in 1055. Tughril relegated the Abbasid Caliphs to state figureheads and took command of the caliphate's armies in military offensives against the Byzantine Empire and the Fatimid Caliphate in an effort to expand his empire's borders and unite the Islamic world.
Muhammad I was a son of Seljuq Sultan Malik Shah I. In Turkish, Tapar means "he who obtains, finds".
The Muzaffarid dynasty was a Persian dynasty of Arab origin which came to power in Iran following the breakup of the Ilkhanate in the 14th century. At their zenith, they ruled a kingdom comprising Iranian Azerbaijan, Central Persia, and Persian Iraq.
The House of Inju was a Shia dynasty of Mongol origin that came to rule over the Persian cities of Shiraz and Isfahan during the 14th century AD. Its members became de facto independent rulers following the breakup of the Ilkhanate until their defeat in 1357.
Abu Kalijar Marzuban was the Buyid amir of Fars (1024–1048), Kerman (1028–1048) and Iraq (1044–1048). He was the eldest son of Sultan al-Dawla.
Abu Tahir Firuz Khusrau, better known by his laqab of Jalal al-Dawla, was the Buyid amir of Iraq (1027–1044). He was the son of Baha' al-Dawla.
Abu Nasr Firuz Kharshadh, better known by his laqab of Baha' al-Dawla was the Buyid amir of Iraq (988–1012), along with Fars and Kerman (998–1012). His early reign was dominated by struggles with his rival relatives over control of the western Persian provinces, but by 998 he managed to establish his supremacy over the Buyid confederation. His reign nevertheless saw the increasing encroachment of neighbouring powers on Buyid territory, and marks the beginning of the decline of the Buyids' power. He was the third son of 'Adud al-Dawla.
Hasan, better known by his laqab as Rukn al-Dawla, was the first Buyid amir of northern and central Iran. He was the son of Buya.
Fannā (Panāh) Khusraw, better known by his laqab of ʿAḍud al-Dawla was an emir of the Buyid dynasty, ruling from 949 to 983, and at his height of power ruling an empire stretching from Makran as far to Yemen and the shores of the Mediterranean Sea. He is widely regarded as the greatest monarch of the dynasty, and by the end of his reign was the most powerful ruler in the Middle East.
Abu al-Muzaffar Rukn ud-Din Barkyaruq ibn Malikshah, better known as Barkyaruq. The Turkic word Berk Yaruq means, was the sultan of the Seljuk Empire from 1092 to 1105.
Hasanawayhid or Hasanuyid was a Kurdish Muslim principality from 961 to 1015, centered at Dinawar. The principality ruled western Iran and upper Mesopotamia. The founder of the dynasty was Hasanwayh from the Kurdish tribe of Barzikani. He managed to successfully resist Sahlan ibn Musafir, the Buyid governor of Hamadan, and the Buyid vizier, Ibn al-Amid. In 970 he reached a compromise with Amid's successor which guaranteed his autonomy. Hasanwayh died in 979 at Sarmaj, located in south of Bisitun.
The Seljuq dynasty, or Seljuqs, was an Oghuz Turk Sunni Muslim dynasty that gradually became a Persianate society and contributed to the Turco-Persian tradition in the medieval West and Central Asia. The Seljuqs established both the Seljuk Empire and the Sultanate of Rum, which at their heights stretched from Anatolia through Iran, and were targets of the First Crusade.
The Hazaraspids (1155–1424), was a Kurdish Sunni Muslim dynasty that ruled the Zagros Mountains region of southwestern Iran, essentially in Lorestan and the adjacent parts of Fars which flourished in the later Saljuq, Ilkhanid, Muzaffarid, and Timurid periods.
Mas'ud I of Ghazni, known as Amīr-i Shahīd, was sultan of the Ghaznavid Empire from 1030 to 1040. He rose to power by seizing the Ghaznavid throne from his younger twin Mohammad, who had been nominated as the heir upon the death of their father Mahmud of Ghazni. His twin was shortly blinded and imprisoned. However, when much of Mas'ud's western domains had been wrested from his control, his troops rebelled against him and reinstated Mohammad to the throne.
Ḍiyaʾ al-Mulk Aḥmad ibn Niẓām al-Mulk, was a Persian vizier of the Seljuq Empire and then the Abbasid Caliphate. He was the son of Nizam al-Mulk, one of the most famous viziers of the Seljuq Empire.
Mubariz al-Din Muhammad (1301-1358), was the founder of the Muzaffarid dynasty, ruling from 1314 to 1358. He was born to a family of distant Arab origin which settled in Khurasan during the Islamic conquest. He was the son of Sharaf al-Din Muzaffar, a servant of the Ilkhanids and on his father's death in 1314 Mubariz inherited his father's offices.
Bahram ibn Mafinna, also known as al-'Adil was an Iranian statesman who served as the vizier of the Buyid ruler Abu Kalijar from 1025/6 to 1041/2.
The International Standard Book Number (ISBN) is a numeric commercial book identifier which is intended to be unique. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.