Shabankara

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Shabankara or Shabankareh (Persian : ملوک شبانکاره, Kurdish: Şivankaran or Şiwankaran, other spellings: Shabankara, Shwankara, Marco Polo: Soncara, Ibn Athir: Shwankara) was the name of a tribal federation of Iranian nomads who resided some parts of the Zagros mountains. They claimed descent from the mythical Iranian king Manuchehr, and are thought to be descendants of Daylamites who had followed the Buyid dynasty from northern Iran, or "Kurds" (back then a non-ethnic term for Iranian nomads) who had been deported to eastern Fars from Isfahan by the Buyid shahanshah 'Adud al-Dawla (r. 949–983). [1]

Persian language Western Iranian language

Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi, is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family. It is a pluricentric language primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and some other regions which historically were Persianate societies and considered part of Greater Iran. It is written right to left in the Persian alphabet, a modified variant of the Arabic script.

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A federation is a political entity characterized by a union of partially self-governing provinces, states, or other regions under a central federal government (federalism). In a federation, the self-governing status of the component states, as well as the division of power between them and the central government, is typically constitutionally entrenched and may not be altered by a unilateral decision of either party, the states or the federal political body. Alternatively, federation is a form of government in which sovereign power is formally divided between a central authority and a number of constituent regions so that each region retains some degree of control over its internal affairs. It is often argued that federal states where the central government has the constitutional authority to suspend a constituent state's government by invoking gross mismanagement or civil unrest, or to adopt national legislation that overrides or infringe on the constituent states' powers by invoking the central government's constitutional authority to ensure "peace and good government" or to implement obligations contracted under an international treaty, are not truly federal states.

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Contents

In the early twelfth century there were five subdivisions of them: Ramani, Shakani, Karzuwi, Masudi and Ismaili.

History

Map of Fars and its surrounding regions in the 10th-11th centuries Map of Fars and it's surrounding regions.png
Map of Fars and its surrounding regions in the 10th–11th centuries

The Ramanid branch of the Shabankara rose in power with their chief Fadluya. He was the son of the Shabankara chief Ali bin al-Hassan, and rose to the ranks of the Buyid Army, in the service of Sahib-i Adil, the vizier of the Buyid king of Fars. Sahib-i Adil was put on death by the last Buyid of Fars, Abu Mansur Fulad Sutun, and Fadluya rose in rebellion after this. Abu Mansur was defeated and murder with his mother in 1056. The Shabankara chief, now ruler of Fars, soon came into collision with the Seljuk Turks. Fadluya submitted to Qawurd, brother of sultan Alp Arslan, but afterwards revolted. Fadluya was finally captured and executed in 1071 by the Seljuk vizier Nizam al-Mulk. The Shabankara were a nuisance in the provinces of Kerman and Fars. In 1099, with the help of the son of Qawurd, Iran Shah, they defeated the wali of Fars, Amir Unar. In 1116, the Shabankara chief Abu-al Hasan Khuzraw refused to pay homenage to the new governor of Fars, Fakhr al-din Cawuli. Cawuli besieged Khuzraw in his fortress, but came on terms with him later. Khuzraw accompanied the governor in his campaigns in Kerman. In the time of the Sekjuk sultan, Mahmud II (1117-1131), the Shabankara were illtreated and revolted again, bringing great damage to the area. The founder of the Hazaraspid dynasty, Abu Tahir ibn Muhammad, defeated the Shabankara and gained great prestige for this. After collapse of Seljukids, Shabankara ruled again the area with Shahre-Idaj as their capital. In Ilkhanid era they ruled Shabankareh province centered at Darabgird. [2]

Fadluya

Amir Abu'l-Abbas Fadl, better known as Fadluya, was an Iranian tribal chieftain of the Shabankara in Fars. He was the son of Ali ibn Hasan ibn Ayyub of the Ramani clan of the Shabankara, and was the founder of the Shabankara dynasty in Fars, which lasted sporadically from 1030 to 1355. The Shabankaras occupied the mountain region of Kuhgiluya and maintained a great scale of independence.

Abu Mansur Fulad Sutun was the last Buyid amir of Fars, ruling more or less continuously from 1048 until his death. He was the son of Abu Kalijar.

Kara Arslan Ahmad Qavurt, better simply known as Qavurt was a Seljuq prince. Upon his father's death, he led an unsuccessful rebellion against his relatives in an attempt to gain the Seljuk throne.

The Shabankara chief Kutb-al din Mubariz and his brother Nizam al din Mahmud conquered Kerman in 1201 from the Oghuz Turks, but lost it to a local rebellion and an oghuzz counter-offensive. Finally the atabeg of Fars, Sad ibn Zengi defeated the Shabankara.

In 1260, the Mongol invasor Hulegu destroyed Ig and killed the Shabankara chief Muzaffar al-Din Muhammad ibn al-Mubariz in 1260. In 1312, the Shabankara rebelled against the Ilkhans but were defeated. In 1355, the Muzzafarid Mubariz al din send his son Mahmud against the chief Ardashir, who refused to follow his orders. The chief was defeated and his country was taken by the Muzzafarid. It is possible that the Shabankara has local power until 1424.

List of rulers

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References

  1. Potts 2014, p. 166.
  2. Christensen 1993, p. 316.

Sources

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