Shams Pahlavi

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Princess Shams
PrincessShamsPahlavi.jpg
Born(1917-10-28)28 October 1917
Tehran, Persia
Died29 February 1996(1996-02-29) (aged 78)
Santa Barbara, United States
Burial
Santa Barbara Cemetery [1]
Spouse Fereydoun Djam (m. 1937; div. 1944)
Mehrdad Pahlbod (m. 1945; w. 1996)
IssuePrince Shahbaz Pahlbod
Prince Shahyar Pahlbod
Princess Shahrazad Pahlbod
Full name
English: Shams ul-Mulk
Persian: شمس الملوک
House Pahlavi
Father Reza Shah
Mother Tadj ol-Molouk
Religion Roman Catholicism

Princess Shams Pahlavi (Persian : شمس پهلوی; 28 October 191729 February 1996) was the elder sister of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the last Shah of Iran. During her brother's reign she was the president of the Red Lion and Sun Society. [2]

Persian language Western Iranian language

Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi, is a Western Iranian language within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family. It is a pluricentric language primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and some other regions which historically were Persianate societies and considered part of Greater Iran. It is written right to left in the Persian alphabet, a modified variant of the Arabic script.

Mohammad Reza Pahlavi 20th-century Shah of Iran

Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, also known as Mohammad Reza Shah, was the last Shah of Iran from 16 September 1941 until his overthrow by the Iranian Revolution on 11 February 1979. Mohammad Reza Shah took the title Shahanshah on 26 October 1967. He was the second and last monarch of the House of Pahlavi. Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi held several other titles, including that of Aryamehr and Bozorg Arteshtaran ("Commander-in-Chief"). His dream of what he referred to as a "Great Civilisation" in Iran led to a rapid industrial and military modernisation, as well as economic and social reforms.

Shah Persian title

Shah is a title given to the emperors, kings, princes and lords of Iran. It was also adopted by the kings of Shirvan namely the Shirvanshahs. It was also used by Persianate societies such as the rulers and offspring of the Ottoman Empire, Mughal emperors of the Indian Subcontinent, the Bengal Sultanate, as well as in Afghanistan. In Iran the title was continuously used; rather than King in the European sense, each Persian ruler regarded himself as the Shahanshah or Padishah of the Persian Empire.

Contents

Early life

Princess Shams was born in Tehran on 28 October 1917. [3] She was the elder daughter of Reza Shah and his consort Tadj ol-Molouk. [3]

Reza Shah Shah of the Imperial State of Iran

Reza Shah Pahlavi, commonly known as Reza Shah, was the Shah of Iran from 15 December 1925 until he was forced to abdicate by the Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran on 16 September 1941.

Tadj ol-Molouk Queen consort of Iran

Tadj ol-Molouk was Queen of Iran as the wife of Reza Shah, founder of the Pahlavi dynasty and Shah of Iran between 1925 and 1941. The title she was given after becoming Queen means "Crown of the Kings" in the Persian language. She was the first Queen in Iran after the Muslim conquest in the 7th century to have participated in public royal representation and played a major role in the Kashf-e hijab in 1936.

Personal life

Princess Shams Pahlavi and her husband Mehrdad Pahlbod in 1978 Shams Pahlavi and Mehrdad Pahlbod.jpg
Princess Shams Pahlavi and her husband Mehrdad Pahlbod in 1978

Shams Pahlavi married Fereydoun Djam, son of then-prime minister of Iran Mahmoud Djam, under strict orders from her father in 1937, but the marriage was an unhappy one and the couple divorced immediately after the death of Reza Shah. [3]

Arteshbod Fereydoun Djam was a senior Iranian army official, and the son of former Iranian prime minister Mahmoud Djam.

Mahmoud Djam Prime Minister of Iran

Mahmoud Modir al-Molk Djam was a prime minister of Iran from 1935 to 1939.

Following the deposition of Reza Shah after the Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran in 1941, Shams accompanied her father during his exile to Port Louis, Mauritius, and later Johannesburg, South Africa, and published her memoir of this trip in monthly installments in the Ettela'at newspaper in 1948.

Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran Invasion during World War II

The Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran, also known as the Anglo-Soviet invasion of Persia, was the joint invasion of Iran in 1941 during the Second World War by the British Commonwealth and the Soviet Union. The invasion lasted from 25 August to 17 September 1941 and was codenamed Operation Countenance. Its purpose was to secure Iranian oil fields and ensure Allied supply lines for the USSR, fighting against Axis forces on the Eastern Front. Though Iran was neutral, the Allies considered Reza Shah to be friendly to Germany, deposed him during the subsequent occupation and replaced him with his young son Mohammad Reza Pahlavi.

Port Louis City in Port Louis District, Mauritius

Port Louis is the capital city of Mauritius. It is mainly located in the Port Louis District, with a small western part in the Black River District. Port Louis is the country's economic, cultural and political centre, and most populous city. It is administered by the Municipal City Council of Port Louis. According to the 2012 census conducted by Statistics Mauritius, the population was 149,194.

Mauritius Island nation in the Indian Ocean

Mauritius, officially the Republic of Mauritius, is an island nation in the Indian Ocean. The main Island of Mauritius is located about 2,000 kilometres (1,200 mi) off the southeast coast of the African continent. The Republic of Mauritius also includes the islands of Rodrigues, Agalega and St. Brandon. The capital and largest city Port Louis is located on the main island of Mauritius.

She was deprived of her ranks and titles for a brief period of time after her second marriage to Mehrdad Pahlbod, and lived in the United States from 1945 to 1947. Later, a reconciliation with the court was achieved and the couple returned to Tehran only to leave again during the upheavals of the Abadan Crisis. She converted to Roman Catholicism in the 1940s. [4] Princess Shams was persuaded to convert to Catholicism by Ernest Perron , the best friend of the Shah. [5] Her husband and children adopted Catholicism after her .

Mehrdad Pahlbod Iranian politician

Mehrdad Pahlbod was an Iranian royal and politician who served as the first culture minister of Persia from 1964 until the 1978.

Abadan Crisis occurred from 1951 to 1954

The Abadan Crisis occurred from 1951 to 1954, after Iran nationalised the Iranian assets of the BP controlled Anglo-Iranian Oil Company (AIOC) and expelled Western companies from oil refineries in the city of Abadan.

Ernest Perron

Ernest Perron was a Swiss courtier in Iran during the regime of Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi.

After returning to Iran following the 1953 coup which reestablished the rule of her brother, she maintained a low public profile , contrary to that of her sister Princess Ashraf Pahlavi , and confined her activities to the management of the vast fortune she inherited from her father.

Ashraf Pahlavi Iranian royal

Princess Ashraf ol-Molouk Pahlavi was the twin sister of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the last Shah of Iran (Persia), and a member of the Pahlavi dynasty. She was considered the "power behind her brother" and was instrumental in the 1953 coup which led to him taking the throne. She served her brother as a palace adviser and was a strong advocate for women's rights. Following the Iranian Revolution in 1979, she lived in exile in France, New York, Paris and Monte Carlo and remained outspoken against the Islamic Republic.

In the late 1960s she commissioned the Frank Lloyd Wright Foundation architects to build her the Morvarid Palace in Mehrshahr near Karaj , and Villa Mehrafarin in Chalous , Mazandaran .

She left Iran for the United States after the Islamic Revolution and died of cancer on her Santa Barbara estate in 1996.

Santa Barbara Estate, 1981, California. SBEstate.jpg
Santa Barbara Estate, 1981, California.

Honours

See also

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References

  1. Find a Grave
  2. Sharif, Mehdi (24 June 2002). "I cannot blame them". The Iranian. Retrieved 5 November 2012.
  3. 1 2 3 "Shams Pahlavi". Fouman. Retrieved 21 February 2013.
  4. https://books.google.com/books?id=Gt-Gwo1w_AkC&pg=PA237&dq=shams+pahlavi+catholic&hl=en&sa=X&ei=I4VcUfmVKomQ9QSl4IAI&ved=0CEsQ6AEwBA#v=onepage&q&f=false
  5. Milani , Abbas The Shah , London: Macmillan , 2011 page 49.
Non-profit organization positions
Preceded by
Mohammad Reza Pahlavi
Chairwoman of the Iranian Red Lion and Sun Society
1949–1979
Succeeded by
Kazem Sami