|Shanghai Expeditionary Army|
Japanese troops enter Nanjing
|Country||Empire of Japan|
|Branch||Imperial Japanese Army|
|Engagements||Battle of Shanghai, Battle of Nanjing|
The Shanghai Expeditionary Army (上海派遣軍, Shanhai-haken-gun) was a corps-level ad hoc Japanese army in the Second Sino-Japanese War.
The Shanghai Expeditionary Army was first raised on February 25, 1932 as a reinforcement for Japanese forces involved during the First Battle of Shanghai. It was dissolved in June 1932, after the conclusion of that incident. Ethnic Chinese soldiers from the Taiwan Army were part of this army, and they were led by Iwane Matsui.
The Shanghai Expeditionary Army was raised a second time on August 15, 1937 on the eruption of full scale hostilities between the Empire of Japan and the Republic of China. Its forces participated in the Second Battle of Shanghai, and the subsequent drive inland to the Battle of Nanking. Troops from this army were also involved in the subsequent Nanjing Massacre.
The Shanghai Expeditionary Army was disbanded on February 1, 1938, and its component units were incorporated into the Japanese Central China Area Army.
See: Order of Battle January 28 Incident
See: Order of battle of the Battle of Shanghai
|1||General Yoshinori Shirakawa||25 February 1932||29 April 1932|
|2||General Iwane Matsui||15 August 1937||2 December 1937|
|3||Lieutenant General Prince Asaka Yasuhiko||2 December 1937||14 February 1938|
|1||Lieutenant General Kanichiro Tashiro||25 February 1932||29 April 1932|
|2||Lieutenant General Mamoru Iinuma||15 August 1937||14 February 1938|
The Nanjing Massacre or the Rape of Nanjing was an episode of mass murder and mass rape committed by Imperial Japanese troops against the residents of Nanjing (Nanking), at that time the capital of China, during the Second Sino-Japanese War.
The Battle of Nanking was fought in early December 1937 during the Second Sino-Japanese War between the Chinese National Revolutionary Army and the Imperial Japanese Army for control of Nanking (Nanjing), the capital of the Republic of China.
The Battle of Shanghai was the first of the twenty-two major engagements fought between the National Revolutionary Army (NRA) of the Republic of China (ROC) and the Imperial Japanese Army (IJA) of the Empire of Japan at the beginning of the Second Sino-Japanese War. It lasted from August 13, 1937, to November 26, 1937, and was one of the largest and bloodiest battles of the entire war, later described as "Stalingrad on the Yangtze", and is often regarded as the battle where World War II started. After over three months of extensive fighting on land, in the air and at sea, the battle concluded with a victory for Japan.
This article is concerned with the events that preceded World War II in Asia.
The China Expeditionary Army was an army group of the Imperial Japanese Army from 1939 to 1945.
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The January 28 incident or Shanghai incident was a conflict between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan. It took place in the Shanghai International Settlement which was under international control. Japanese army officers, defying higher authorities, had provoked anti-Japanese demonstrations in the international District of Shanghai following the Japanese invasion of Manchuria. The Japanese government sent a sect of militant ultranationalist Japanese Buddhist priests belonging to the Nichiren sect to Shanghai. The monks were shouting anti-Chinese, pro-Japanese nationalist slogans in Shanghai, promoting Japanese rule over East Asia. In response, a Chinese mob formed killing one monk and injuring two. In response, the Japanese in Shanghai rioted and burned down a factory, killing two Chinese. Heavy fighting broke out, and China appealed with no success to the League of Nations. A truce was finally reached on May 5, calling for Japanese military withdrawal, and an end to Chinese boycotts of Japanese products.
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Yasuji Okamura was a general of the Imperial Japanese Army, and commander-in-chief of the China Expeditionary Army from November 1944 to the end of World War II. He was found not guilty of any war crimes by the Shanghai War Crimes Tribunal after the war. As one of the Imperial Japanese Army's top China experts, General Okamura spent his entire military career on the Asian mainland.
Pang Bingxun was a high-ranking nationalist military commander who fought against the Imperial Japanese Army and Chinese Communist Army. He stopped the IJA 5th Division led by General Seishirō Itagaki, one of the principal architects of the 1931 Manchurian incident, from capturing Linyi and converging with General Rensuke Isogai's IJA 10th Division at Tai'erzhuang District, foiling their plan to assault Xuzhou.
The 13th Division was an infantry division in the Imperial Japanese Army. Its tsūshōgō code name was the Mirror Division, and its military symbol was 13D. The 13th Division was one of four new infantry divisions raised by the Imperial Japanese Army (IJA) in the closing stages of the Russo-Japanese War 1 April 1905, after it turned out what the entire IJA was committed to combat in Manchuria, leaving not a single division to guard the Japanese home islands from attack.
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The 9th Division was an infantry division in the Imperial Japanese Army. Its tsūshōgō code name was the Warrior Division or 1515 or 1573. The 9th Division was one of six infantry divisions newly raised by the Imperial Japanese Army after the First Sino-Japanese War (1894–1895). Its troops were recruited primarily from communities in the Hokuriku region of Japan (Ishikawa, Toyama and Fukui, with its headquarters located within the grounds of Kanazawa Castle.
The Japanese 10th Army was an army of the Imperial Japanese Army during the Second Sino-Japanese War.
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Estimates of the population of Nanking in December 1937 vary widely from source to source. Scholars have been heavily engaged in attempting to calculate Nanjing 's population at this time because of its relevance to estimating the death toll of the Nanjing Massacre.
The Taiwanese worked in Japan’s defense and war-related industries in Taiwan and in other ways abetted Japan’s war efforts. Many Taiwanese served in the Japanese military, including units that fought in China. Taiwanese troops even participated in the atrocities against Chinese civilians at Nanjing (Nanking) and other places on the mainland. Of the Taiwanese who served in the Japanese military, more than 30,000 were killed in combat.