Shehu Shagari

Last updated

Shehu Shagari
President Sharari cropped.jpg
Shagari in 1980
6th President of Nigeria
In office
October 1, 1979 December 31, 1983
Vice President Alex Ekwueme
Preceded by Olusegun Obasanjo as Military Head of State
Succeeded by Muhammadu Buhari as Military Head of State
Federal Commissioner for Finance
In office
1971–1975
Preceded by Obafemi Awolowo
Succeeded by Asumoh Ete Ekukinam
Federal Commissioner for Economic Development, Rehabilitation, and Reconstruction
In office
1970–1971
Federal Minister for Works
In office
1965–1966
Succeeded byS.O. Williams as Minister of Works and Housing [1]
Federal Minister for internal affairs
In office
1962–1965
Federal Minister for Pensions
In office
1960–1962
Federal Minister for Economic Development
In office
1959–1960
Federal Minister for Commerce and Industries
In office
1958–1959
Personal details
Born(1925-02-25)February 25, 1925
Shagari, Sokoto State, Nigeria Protectorate
DiedDecember 28, 2018(2018-12-28) (aged 93)
Abuja, Nigeria
Political party National Party of Nigeria
Children Muhammad Bala Shagari
Aminu Shehu Shagari
Relatives Bello Bala Shagari (Grandson) Muktar Shagari (Nephew)

Shehu Usman Aliyu Shagari GCFR , (February 25, 1925 – December 28, 2018) was a Nigerian politician who served as the first and only President of Nigeria's Second Republic (1979–1983), after the handover of power by General Olusegun Obasanjo's military government. Shagari also served seven times in a ministerial or cabinet post as a federal minister and federal commissioner from 1958–1975.

Order of the Federal Republic

The Order of the Federal Republic (OFR) is one of two orders of merit, established by the Federal Republic of Nigeria in 1963. It is senior to the Order of the Niger.

President of Nigeria Head of state and head of Nigerian government

The President of the Federal Republic of Nigeria is the head of state and head of the national executive of Nigeria. The President of Nigeria is also the commander-in-chief of the Nigerian Armed Forces. The President is elected in national elections which take place every four years. The first President of Nigeria was Nnamdi Azikiwe, who took office on October 1, 1963. The current President, Muhammadu Buhari took office on May 29, 2015 as the 15th President of the Federal Republic of Nigeria.

Nigeria Federal republic in West Africa

The Federal Republic of Nigeria, commonly referred to as Nigeria, is a federal republic in West Africa, bordering Niger in the north, Chad in the northeast, Cameroon in the east, and Benin in the west. Its coast in the south is located on the Gulf of Guinea in the Atlantic Ocean. The federation comprises 36 states and 1 Federal Capital Territory, where the capital, Abuja is located. Nigeria is officially a democratic secular country.

Contents

Shagari was made the Turaki of the Fula Sokoto Caliphate in 1962 by the Sultan of Sokoto Siddiq Abubakar III. Turaki means an officer at court, in this case referring to the sultan's court at the palace of Sokoto. In addition, he held the chieftaincy titles of the Ochiebuzo of Ogbaland, the Ezediale of Aboucha and the Baba Korede of Ado Ekiti.

Fula people A large ethnic group in Sahel and West Africa

The Fula people or Fulani or Fulɓe, numbering between 38 and 40 million people in total, are one of the largest ethnic groups in the Sahel and West Africa, widely dispersed across the region. As an ethnic group, they are bound together by the Fula language and their Islamic religious affiliation, their history and their culture.

Sokoto Caliphate independent Islamic Caliphate, in West Africa from 1804 to 1903

The Sokoto Caliphate was an independent Islamic Sunni Caliphate, in West Africa. Founded during the jihad of the Fulani War in 1804 by Usman dan Fodio, it was abolished when the British defeated the caliphate in 1903 and put the area under the Northern Nigeria Protectorate.

Sir Siddiq Abubakar III (1903–1988) was a Nigerian Muslim leader. He served as the sultan of Sokoto between 1938 and 1988.

He worked as a teacher for a brief period before entering politics in 1951 and in 1954 was elected to the federal House of Representatives.

Early life

Shehu Usman Shagari was born in 1925 in the northern Shagari village to a Fulani family. Shagari village was founded by his great-grandfather, Ahmadu Rufa'i, who was also the Village Head, and took the name Shagari as his family name. [2] [3] His father's name is Aliyu and his mother's name is Mariamu. [4]

Shagari, Nigeria LGA and town in Sokoto State, Nigeria

Shagari is a Local Government Area in Sokoto State, Nigeria. Its headquarters are in the town of Shagari on the A1 highway. The LGA shares a border with Zamfara State in the south.

Village Small clustered human settlement smaller than a town

A village is a clustered human settlement or community, larger than a hamlet but smaller than a town, with a population ranging from a few hundred to a few thousand. Though villages are often located in rural areas, the term urban village is also applied to certain urban neighborhoods. Villages are normally permanent, with fixed dwellings; however, transient villages can occur. Further, the dwellings of a village are fairly close to one another, not scattered broadly over the landscape, as a dispersed settlement.

His name, Usman, means "companion". [5] He was raised in a polygamous family, and was the sixth child born into the family. Prior to becoming Magajin Shagari (magajin means village head), Aliyu, Shehu's father was a farmer, trader and herder. However, due to traditional rites that prevented rulers from participating in business, Aliyu relinquished some of his trading interest when he became the Magaji, or village head, of Shagari village. [4] Aliyu died five years after Shehu's birth, and Shehu's elder brother, Bello, briefly took on his father's mantle as Magajin Shagari.

Shagari started his education in a Quranic school and then went to live with relatives at a nearby town, where from 1931-1935 he attended Yabo elementary school. In 1936-1940, he went to Sokoto for middle school, and then from 1941-1944 he attended Kaduna College. [4]

Teaching career

Between 1944 and 1952, Shehu Shagari, matriculated at the Teachers Training College, in Zaria, Kaduna, Nigeria. From 1953-1958, Shagari got a job as a visiting teacher at Sokoto Province. He was also a member of the Federal Scholarship Board from 1954-1958. [4]

Political career

Shehu Usman Shagari entered politics in 1951, when he became the secretary of the Northern People’s Congress in Sokoto, Nigeria, a position he held until 1956.

In 1954, Shehu Shagari was elected into his first public office as a member of the federal House of Representative for Sokoto west. In 1958, Shagari was appointed as parliamentary secretary (he left the post in 1959) to the Nigerian Prime Minister, Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa and that year he also served as the Federal Minister for commerce and Industries.

From 1959 to 1960, Shagari was redeployed to the ministry for economic development, as the Federal Minister for Economic Development. From 1960 to 1962, he was moved to the Pensions ministry as the Federal Minister for Pensions. From 1962-1965, Shagari was made the Federal minister for internal affairs. From 1965 up until the first military coup in January 1966, Shagari was the Federal minister for works.

In 1967 he was appointed as the secretary for Sokoto province education development fund. From 1968-1969, Shagari was given a state position in the North Western State as commissioner for establishments.

Following the Nigerian civil war, from 1970 to 1971, Shagari was appointed by the military head of state General Yakubu Gowon as the federal commissioner for economic development, rehabilitation and reconstruction.

From 1971 to 1975 he served as the Federal commissioner (position now called minister) of finance. During his tenure as the commissioner of finance for Nigeria, Shagari was also a governor for the World Bank and a member of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) committee of twenty.

In 1978, Shehu Shagari was a founding member of the National Party of Nigeria. In 1979 Shagari was chosen by the party as the presidential candidate for general election that year, which he won becoming the president and head of state of the Federal Republic of Nigeria.

Shagari ran for a second four-year term in 1983 and won the general election, however, on 31 December 1983, Shagari was overthrown by major general Muhammadu Buhari. [6]

Presidency

Shagari is greeted by BGEN Archer Durham upon his arrival for a visit. Location: Andrews Air Force Base, Maryland, United States President Sharari of Nigeria is greeted by BGEN Archer Durham upon his arrival for a visit. Andrews AFB.jpg
Shagari is greeted by BGEN Archer Durham upon his arrival for a visit. Location: Andrews Air Force Base, Maryland, United States

Shagari won the 1979 election with the help of his campaign manager, Umaru Dikko. The campaign had the support of many prominent politicians in the North and among southern minorities. The party's motto was "One Nation, One Destiny" and was seen as the party best representing Nigeria's diversity.

Seal of the President of the Federal Republic of Nigeria Nigerian-Presidential-Seal1.jpg
Seal of the President of the Federal Republic of Nigeria

Oil boom

During the oil boom, Shagari made Housing, Industries, Transportation and Agriculture the major goals of his administration. In transportation, he launched some road networks across the country. He also initiated a program to foster the use of mechanical machinery in farming. This initiative favored large scale farmers in order to produce mass products. Shagari also created a low cost housing scheme.

In 1980, with the oil revenue, Shagari finished building the Kaduna refinery, which started operating that year. Also with the oil revenue, Shagari concluded the construction of an additional steel plant and three rolling mills at Ajaokuta. Shagari completed the Delta Steel complex in 1982. In 1983, Shagari created the Aluminum Smelter Company of Nigeria at Ikot Abasi. However, Shagari reduced the share of oil royalties and rents to state of origin from 30 to 2 percent. [7]

Green Revolution

Shagari's government embarked on a "Green Revolution", distributing seed and fertilizer to farmers to increase nationwide productivity in farming.

Fall in oil prices, end of the Oil boom

The fall in oil prices that began in 1981 affected the finances of the Nigerian government. Shagari "refused to embrace" structural adjustment from the IMF and World Bank as the crisis progressed, [8] and initiated an Economic Stabilization Program to help protect the country against a hard landing from prior highs of the 1970s and to steer the economy towards positive growth. Key objectives of the program were to limit import licenses, reduce government spending and raise custom duties. However, the result from the stabilization program was minimal.

Overthrown in a military coup on 31 December 1983

The Shagari administration was plagued by allegations of corruption, including allegations of electoral fraud in the 1983 election. This, coupled with a decline in world oil prices, and a deterioration in the national finances, hardship, lead to the regime becoming deeply unpopular with citizens. Shagari was overthrown by General Muhammadu Buhari in a military coup on December 31, 1983.

Personal life

Shehu Shagari married three wives: Amina, Aishatu, Hadiza Shagari. [4] He has many children. However, His most visible children are Captain Muhammad Bala Shagari Rtd. and Aminu Shehu Shagari.

On 24 August 2001, his wife, Aisha Shagari, died in a London hospital following a brief illness.

Death

On December 28, 2018 at about 6:30pm, Shehu Shagari died from a brief illness at the National hospital, Abuja where he was admitted to and undergoing treatment before his death. [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] It was also confirmed by his grandson Bello Bala Shagari and Governor Tambuwal in similar tweets at the time of his death. [14] [15]

Award

Grand Commander of the Order of the Federal Republic (GCFR) Order of the Federal Republic (civil) - Nigeria - ribbon bar.gif

See also

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References

  1. "The old Bureaucracy is coming back – Eric Teniola". Nigerian Insight. Retrieved 19 June 2015.
  2. Pofile of Shehu Shagari
  3. Nuhu-Koko, Abubakar Atiku (26 February 2008). "Alhaji Shehu Usman Aliyu Shagari, GCFR, @ 83". Daily Triumph (Kano). Triumph Publishing Company Limited, via nigeriavillagesquare.com. Archived from the original on 27 February 2008. Retrieved 26 February 2008.
  4. 1 2 3 4 5 Shehu Shagari, Beckoned To Serve: An Autobiography.
  5. Meaning of Usman in Nigerian.name
  6. Obotetukudo, Solomon (2011). The Inaugural Addresses and Ascension Speeches of Nigerian Elected and Non elected presidents and prime minister from 1960 -2010. University Press of America. pp. 76–78.
  7. "Leadership, Policy Making, and Economic Growth in African Countries: The Case of Nigeria" (PDF).
  8. Badru, Pade (1998). Imperialism and Ethnic Politics in Nigeria, 1960-1996. Africa World Press. p. 91. ISBN   0-86543-603-7.
  9. "Shehu Shagari, Former President of Nigeria Dies at Age 93". OkayNG. 2018-12-28. Retrieved 2018-12-28.
  10. Warami, Urowayino (2018-12-29). "Buhari, Jonathan, Saraki, Ibori others mourn". Vanguard News Nigeria. Retrieved 2018-12-29.
  11. Published. "Ex-President Shehu Shagari dies at 93". Punch Newspapers. Retrieved 2018-12-29.
  12. Lawal, Nurudeen (2018-12-29). "Buhari mourns Shagari, describes him as man of unparalleled patriotism, humility". Legit.ng - Nigeria news. Retrieved 2018-12-29.
  13. https://www.nytimes.com/2018/12/29/obituaries/shehu-shagari-dead.html
  14. Oyeleke, Sodiq. "Latest News Shehu Shagari Died At National Hospital, Abuja – Tambuwal". Independent. Retrieved 30 December 2018.
  15. Shagari, Bello (2018-12-28). "I regret announcing the death of my grandfather, H.E Alhaji Shehu Shagari, who died right now after brief illness at the National hospital, Abuja". @Belshagy. Retrieved 2018-12-29.

Further reading

Political offices
Preceded by
Olusegun Obasanjo
President of Nigeria
October 1, 1979 December 31, 1983
Succeeded by
Muhammadu Buhari