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Sheikh Mohammadi or Sheikhan (Pashto:"شيخ محمدى "شيخان) various tribal communities in Afghanistan and Pakistan identify as Sheikhan. In 2001 over half a dozen Pashtun tribes and sub-tribes were formally registered as Sheikhan.
Pashto, sometimes spelled Pukhto, is the language of the Pashtuns. It is known in Persian literature as Afghāni (افغانی) and in Hindustani literature as Paṭhānī. Speakers of the language are called Pashtuns/Pakhtuns/Pathans and sometimes Afghans. It is an Eastern Iranian language, belonging to the Indo-European family. Pashto is one of the two official languages of Afghanistan, and it is the second-largest regional language of Pakistan, mainly spoken in the west and northwest of the country. In Pakistan, it is the majority language of the province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and the northern districts of Balochistan. Along with Dari Persian, Pashto is the main language among the Pashtun diaspora around the world. The total number of Pashto-speakers is estimated to be 45–60 million people worldwide.
However, two distinct communities specifically identify as Sheikh Mohammadi. One of these communities claims direct lineage to Sheikh Mohammad Rohani. This community is also known as Sadat.Members of this community speak Pashto and primarily reside in the Bannu region of Pakistan, Zermat, and the Arghestan river basin in southern Afghanistan. Most members of this community are sedentary agriculturalists.
Sheikh Mohammad Rohani(1220-1305 AD)(Pashto:شيخ محمد روحانى) also known as Shah Mohammad Rohani and Rohani Ba Ba was a Sufi cleric born around 1220 AD. The cleric, whose shrine in southern Afghanistan attracts thousands of Sufi visitors every year, is said to have migrated to current day Afghanistan in the later parts of the 13th century AD during the decline of the Abbasid Caliphate in Baghdad. He was a disciple of the renowned Sheikh Rukn-e-Alam.
Banū or Bannu is a city located in Bannu District in southern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Founded by Sir Herbert Benjamin Edwardes in 1848 during the British colonial era, Bannu was once a British military base used for action against the Pashtun border tribes of the Tochi Valley and Waziristan. Bannu’s residents are primarily members of the Banuchi tribe and speak a dialect of Pashto that is similar to the distinct Wazir dialect.
Afghanistan, officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located in South and Central Asia. Afghanistan is bordered by Pakistan in the south and east; Iran in the west; Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan in the north; and in the far northeast, China. Its territory covers 652,000 square kilometers (252,000 sq mi) and much of it is covered by the Hindu Kush mountain range, which experiences very cold winters. The north consists of fertile plains, whilst the south-west consists of deserts where temperatures can get very hot in summers. Kabul serves as the capital and its largest city.
Another group of people that identifies as Sheikh Mohammadi is mostly a community of peddlers with residence in eastern Afghanistan and the vicinity of Peshawar city in Pakistan. Members of this community speak Adurgari and are widely distinguished by their peripatetic lifestyle. According to local ethnographers ancestors of the Fermuli tribe and Adurgar tribe were guided to Islam by Sheikh Mohammad Rohani.After conversion to Islam the Adurgar adopted ‘Sheikh Mohammadi’ as their communal identity.
In 1976 a Danish anthropologist, Asta Olesen, suggested that the Sheikh Mohammadis were originally a "spiritual fraternity" constituted by "unrelated disciples of the pious Shaykh Ruhani Baba."According to Olesen, "it appears that there exist no kinship connections between the various Shaykh Mohammadi communities, and in most cases no genealogical connection between them and Shaykh Ruhani Baba. There is nothing unusual in an ethnic group or community being joined by outsiders, but the scale at which this has occurred among the Shaykh Mohammadi seems extraordinary." A plausible reason for outsiders claiming Sheikh Mohammadi identity was to benefit from tax exemptions. Historically the descendants of Sheikh Mohammad Rohani have been exempt from state taxes. Some have also enjoyed state patronage under the Durrani rulers in Afghanistan.
The Pashtuns, historically known as ethnic Afghans and Pathans, are an Iranian ethnic group who mainly live in Pakistan and Afghanistan. They speak the Pashto language and adhere to Pashtunwali, which is a traditional set of ethics guiding individual and communal conduct. The ethnogenesis of the Pashtun ethnic group is unclear but historians have come across references to various ancient peoples called Pakthas (Pactyans) between the 2nd and the 1st millennium BC, who may be their early ancestors. Their history is mostly spread amongst the present-day countries of Afghanistan and Pakistan, centred on their traditional seat of power in that region.
Mohmand (Pashto:مومند) is a Pashtun tribe son of Daulatyar tribe grandson of Ghoryakhel mainly live in Nangarhar, Afghanistan and Mohmand Agency, FATA.
Nowshera District is a district in Peshawar Division of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province in Pakistan. The capital and district headquarter is Nowshera city.
The Qadiriyya are members of the Qadiri tariqa. The tariqa got its name from Abdul Qadir Gilani, who was from Gilan. The order relies strongly upon adherence to the fundamentals of Islam.
Mohammadzai, also spelled "Moḥammadzay" is a sub-tribe or clan of the Barakzai which is part of the Durrani confederacy of tribes. They are primarily centered on Kandahar, Kabul and Ghazni in Afghanistan. The Mohammadzai ruled Afghanistan from 1826 to 1978, for a total 152 years. The monarchy ended under Mohammad Zahir Shah when his brother in law Sardar Daoud Khan took power via a coup.
The Zazi, also spelled Zazai, or Jaji, is a Karlani Pashtun tribe. They are found in Paktia and Khost provinces in the Loya Paktia region of southeastern Afghanistan, as well as Kurram Valley of Pakistan, but also have an effective presence in Kabul, Logar, Ghazni, Nangharhar, Kunduz, and Baghlan in Afghanistan.
Dahamtore is situated at about 6 km towards east of Abbottabad, Hazara, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan and is the largest village and union council of Abbottabad. Their language is Hindko which is the traditional mother tongue of the Hazara Division but in some villages specially Nagakki village, gojri is also mother tongue. Dhamtour village is the gate way to places like Murree, Nathiagali, Dunga Gali, Bara_Gali, Ayubia_National_Park, Miranjani, Mukeshpuri and most famous picnic spot of Abbottabad, Harnoi. The Union council is located in Abbottabad District in the Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan.
Abdur Rahmān Mohmand (1632–1706), or Rahmān Bābā, was a renowned Pashtun Sufi Dervish and poet from Peshawar in the Mughal Empire. He, along with his contemporary Khushal Khan Khattak, is considered one of the most popular poets among the Pashtuns in Pakistan and Afghanistan. His poetry expresses a peaceful mystical side of local culture which is becoming increasingly threatened by less tolerant interpretations of Islam.
Pashto media includes Pashto literature, Pashto-language newspapers, magazines, television and radio stations, as well as Pashto films and Pashto internet. Pashto media involves the Pashtuns of Pakistan, Afghanistan and the Pashtun diaspora around the world.
The Bettani, also spelled Baittani or Bhittani, is a Pashtun tribal confederacy located mostly in Afghanistan and Pakistan with a small number dwelling in India. The Bettani are named after Shaykh Beṭ, their legendary ancestor who is said to be the second son of Qais Abdur Rashid. The Bettani's are Sunni Muslims of Hanafi sect. The Bettani confederacy includes the supertribes of Lohani, Ghilji and Lodi, as well as the tribe of Shirani.
The Pashtun tribes, or Afghan tribes, are the tribes of the Pashtun people, a large Eastern Iranian ethnic group who use the Pashto language and follow Pashtunwali code of conduct. They are found primarily in Afghanistan and Pakistan and form the world's largest tribal society, comprising over 49 million people and between 350 and 400 tribes and clans. They are traditionally divided into four tribal confederacies: the Sarbani (سړبني), the Bettani (بېټني), the Gharghashti (غرغښتي) and the Karlani (کرلاڼي).
Mohammad Gul Khan Momand, also spelled as Mohmand, was both a literary figure and a well-known politician in Afghanistan. He was also known as Wazir Mohammad Gul Khan Momand or Momand Baba. Mohammad Gul Khan was an Army Officer during Afghanistan's Independence war in 1919. He served numerous Government and Leadership positions including Home Minister of Afghanistan.
Kāṇīguram is a town in South Waziristan, Pakistan. Located within the heart of Mahsud land in Waziristan, Kaniguram is the principal place associated with the Ormur or Burki tribe. It was the hometown of the sixteenth-century Pashtun revolutionary leader and warrior-poet Bayazid Pir Roshan, who wrote the first known book of Pashto language.
The Lohani(لوحانی), sometimes called Nuhani is a Pashtun tribe. The renowned personality and spiritual leader of Bettani tribe is Sheikh Mohammad Rohani (Pashto:شيخ محمد روحانى) also known as Shah Mohammad Rohani and Rohani Ba Ba was a Sufi cleric born around 1220 AD. The cleric, whose shrine in southern Afghanistan attracts thousands of Sufi visitors every year The Lohani(لوحانی), sometimes called Nuhani found in Pakistan especially in the region of Bannu, Dera Ismail Khan, Tank, Lakki Marwat, Shakargarh, Afghanistan and India.
The Ormur, also called Burki or Baraki, is a Pashtun tribe mainly living in Pakistan and parts of Afghanistan.
The Banuchi (Shitak), originally BannuZai, also Banusi or Banisi, is a Pashtun tribe inhabiting the Bannu District of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan and North Waziristan of the Federally Administered Tribal Areas, with some members settled in Afghanistan. The Banuchi trace their descent to the Shitak superclan of the larger Karlani tribe. The word banuchi is strictly used for the people who descend from the Shitak super tribe namely Surani (Sur), Mirian (Miri) and Sam (Sami).
Dara Utmankhel, also known as Shaikhan, is a valley in Lower Dir District, Pakistan. It is composed of nine villages: Maniband ما نی بند, Jabaghi جبګۍ, Zara Doghay زړه ډوګۍ, Koot Kusha کوټ کو شاه, Sarebegham سا رۍ بيغم, Koot کوټ, Ghonday غونډئ, Fazal Abad and Shah Kuroonu شاه کو رونه. It lies in Timergara tehsil, east of the road from Timergara to Dir. The inhabitants of this area belong to the Mandal, clan of Utman Khel. The Utmankheil is one of karlanri pashtun or Afghan tribes, who appeared in concert with other tribes like Yousafzee and Tarkalani. They settled initially in the area of Bajawar, Jandool and Malakand by following the division of lands. These people were mostly connected with trade because the lands were not suited for agriculture.
The Akakhel, pronounced Akaa Khel or Akakhail, are a Pashtun sub-tribe of the Ghilji/Ghilzais confederation. Their mother language is Pashto. In the early 20th century, the tribe was generally pastoral. The Akakhel are one of the largest Ghilji Pashtun subtribes. A reasonable majority of those who were living on the Durand Line migrated since 1900 into Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Balochistan and Punjab provinces of Pakistan to Sikander Abad Charsadda,Peshawar, Abbottabad, Nowshera, Mardan, Attock, Rawalpindi, Islamabad, Gujranwala, Gojra, Faisalabad, Lahore, Multan, Hyderabad, Karachi and Quetta. The exact population number of this clan is not known; however, it is estimated to be around 2 million all around the world The population of this tribe primarily lives in Pakistan and Afghanistan. 85 % live in Pakistan and about 1% or 2% live in Afghanistan and remaining 13% lives in England, Germany, United Arab Emirates, China, Malaysia, Canada and United States of America.