Shibuya

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Shibuya
渋谷区
Shibuya City
Tokyo Shibuya Scramble Crossing 2018-10-09.jpg
Takeshita Street in December 2018.jpg
NTT DoCoMo Yoyogi Building 2009 cropped.jpg
Fountain Yoyogipark.JPG
Clockwise from top:
Flag of Shibuya, Tokyo.svg
Emblem of Shibuya, Tokyo.svg
Shibuya-ku in Tokyo Prefecture Ja.svg
Location of Shibuya in Tokyo
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Shibuya
 
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Shibuya
Shibuya (Tokyo)
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Shibuya
Shibuya (Kanto Area)
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Shibuya
Shibuya (Japan)
Coordinates: 35°39′34″N139°42′02″E / 35.65944°N 139.70056°E / 35.65944; 139.70056
Country Japan
Region Kantō
Prefecture Tokyo
Government
  Mayor Ken Hasebe  [ ja ] (since April 2015)
Area
  Total15.11 km2 (5.83 sq mi)
Population
 (October 1, 2020 [1] )
  Total243,883
  Density16,140/km2 (41,800/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+9 (Japan Standard Time)
Symbols 
• Tree Zelkova serrata
• Flower Iris ensata
City officeShibuya 1-18-21, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo 150-8010
Website www.city.shibuya.tokyo.jp

Shibuya ( 渋谷 , Shibuya-ku, IPA: [ɕibɯja] ) is a special ward in the Tokyo Metropolis, Japan. A major commercial and finance center, Shibuya houses two of the busiest railway stations in the world, Shibuya Station and Shinjuku Station. As of January 1, 2024, Shibuya Ward has an estimated population of 230,609 in 142,443 households [2] and a population density of 15,262.01 people per km2 (39,555.6/sq mi). The total area is 15.11 km2 (5.83 sq mi). Notable neighborhoods and districts of Shibuya include Harajuku, Ebisu, Omotesandō, Yoyogi and Sendagaya. "Shibuya" is also commonly used to refer to the area surrounding Shibuya Station, an area known as a major center for Japanese fashion and youth culture, and one of Tokyo's most popular nightlife areas.

Contents

History

Shibuya was historically the site of a castle in which the Shibuya family resided from the 11th century through the Edo period. Following the opening of the Yamanote Line in 1885, Shibuya began to emerge as a railway terminal for southwestern Tokyo, and eventually as a major commercial and entertainment center.

The village of Shibuya was incorporated in 1889 by the merger of the villages of Kami-Shibuya, Naka-Shibuya and Shimo-Shibuya within Minami-Toshima County (Toyotama County from 1896). The village covered the territory of modern-day Shibuya Station area as well as the Hiroo, Daikanyama, Aoyama, and Ebisu areas. Shibuya became a town in 1909. The town of Shibuya merged with the neighboring towns of Sendagaya (which included the modern Senda, Harajuku and Jingumae areas) and Yoyohata (which included the modern Yoyogi and Hata areas) to form Shibuya-ku suburban ward upon being absorbed into Tokyo City in 1932. Shibuya became an urban special ward under the Local Autonomy Act in 1947.

The Tokyu Toyoko Line opened in 1932, making Shibuya a key terminal between Tokyo and Yokohama, and was joined by the forerunner of the Keio Inokashira Line in 1933 and the forerunner of the Tokyo Metro Ginza Line in 1938. The story of Hachikō, a dog who waited for his deceased master at Shibuya Station every day from 1923 to 1935, created a national sensation due to his unwavering loyalty. A statue of Hachikō was built adjacent to the station, and the surrounding Hachikō Square is now one of the most popular meeting points in the area.

Shibuya in 1959 Shibuya in 1950s.jpg
Shibuya in 1959

During the occupation of Japan, Yoyogi Park was used as a housing compound for U.S. personnel known as "Washington Heights". The U.S. military left in 1964, and much of the park was repurposed as venues for the 1964 Summer Olympics. The ward itself served as part of the athletics 50 km walk and marathon course during the 1964 games. [3]

In the mid 1990s, Shibuya-kei, a microgenre of pop music, became mainstream in Japan. Distinguished by a "cut-and-paste" approach, it peaked in the late 1990s and declined after its principal players began moving onto other music styles.

Shibuya Stream, a skyscraper and retail complex, was completed in 2018. The East Wing of a mixed-used skyscraper, Shibuya Scramble Square, was completed in August 2019. A shopping mall, Shibuya Fukuras, was completed in October 2019.

During the early morning of January 1, 2019, a 21-year-old man named Kazuhiro Kusakabe drove his minicar into a crowd of pedestrians celebrating New Year's Day on Takeshita Street. The man claimed his actions were a terrorist attack, and later stated that his intention was to retaliate against the usage of the death penalty on Aum Shinrikyo doomsday cult members. The man attempted to flee but was soon apprehended by authorities in a nearby park. [4] [5]

Miyashita Park closed in 2017 and reopened in July 2020 as a shopping complex with a rooftop park.

Geography

Shibuya in 1952 1952 Shibuya.jpg
Shibuya in 1952
South of Shibuya in 2020 South of Shibuya.jpg
South of Shibuya in 2020

Shibuya includes many well-known commercial and residential districts such as Daikanyama, Ebisu, Harajuku, Hiroo, Higashi, Omotesandō, Sendagaya, and Yoyogi.

Districts

Shibuya seen from Roppongi Hills Mori Tower Shibuya seen from Roppongi Hills Mori Tower on a clear winter day 2.jpg
Shibuya seen from Roppongi Hills Mori Tower

Politics and government

Shibuya is run by a city assembly of 34 elected members. The mayor is Ken Hasebe, an independent.

Elections

Same-sex partnership certificate

In 2015, as the council passed "Ordinance for Promoting Respect of Gender Equality and Diversity in the Ward", [6] Shibuya Ward became the first Japanese municipality that issues same-sex partnership certificates. [7] According to this ordinance, same-sex couples who live in Shibuya are allowed "to rent apartments together, and have gained hospital visitation rights as family members". [7] The ordinance was intended to bring three benefits to same-sex couples: "(1) rental housing within the ward (co-signing of tenancy agreements for municipal/public housing), (2) medical institutions within the ward (hospital visitation and medical decision-making rights as family members), and (3) employment conditions within the ward (e.g. family benefits, congratulations and condolence leave)". [6] In order to apply for the certificate, couples must be 20-years-old or older residents of Shibuya Ward and have to state that "their relationship is based on love and mutual trust" in a notarized document. [8] Koyuki Higashi (a former member of the Takarazuka Revue) and Hiroko Masuhara (an entrepreneur), a lesbian couple, were the first to receive this certification. [8] Since the Shibuya Ward passed the ordinance, seven other municipalities in Japan have begun offering similar certificates. [9]

The BBC notes that in practice, the ordinance is not binding, though their names will be posted on the ward's website if they violate the ordinance. [10] Shimizu says the system "is not equivalent to marriage, as it does not accord same-sex couples the same rights as heterosexual couples when it comes to inheritance, joint filing of taxes, or social welfare". [6] As it requires at least a hundred thousand yen to apply for the certificate, it can be restrictive to some couples. [11] Shimizu argues that Shibuya Ward has been criticized for pinkwashing as "while passing this ordinance, the administration also moved to expel the homeless in Miyashita Park and other parks in the ward". [6] Pointing out that the mayor of Shibuya Ward in an interview stated that this is not a matter of human rights, but of diversity, Yuri Horie claimed that the term of diversity seems to be used to divide citizens into the good and the bad; it raises only the ones who contribute to the consumeristic society as representer of "diversity of sexuality" while excluding the useless ones. [12] Yuki Tsuchiya, a lesbian activist, also argues that LGBT individuals are used to promote the ward. [13]

Sightseeing and local landmarks

Shibuya's scramble crossing from Shibuya Sky observation deck Shibuya scramble square sky view of crossing (48995414042).jpg
Shibuya's scramble crossing from Shibuya Sky observation deck

Shibuya is famous for its scramble crossing, called Shibuya Crossing. [14] It is located in front of the Shibuya Station Hachikō exit and stops vehicles in all directions to allow pedestrians to inundate the entire intersection. Shibuya Crossing is the "world's busiest pedestrian crossing", with upwards of 3,000 people at a time. [15] [16] [17] A statue of the dog Hachikō, remembered for his unwavering loyalty to his deceased owner, is installed outside Shibuya Station. The statue and its surrounding Hachikō Square are a common meeting place and are almost always crowded. On the southwest side of Shibuya Station, there is a Moyai statue, given to Shibuya by the people of Niijima Island in 1980.

Green areas

Yoyogi Park Yoyogi Park from Hyatt.jpg
Yoyogi Park

Commercial complexes

Shibuya Scramble Square
and Shibuya Hikarie (left) 2019 Shibuya Scramble Square 1.jpg
Shibuya Scramble Square
and Shibuya Hikarie (left)

Cultural institutions

Religious institutions

Meiji Shrine Meiji-jingu geiheiden.jpg
Meiji Shrine

Streets

Omotesando Harajuku - Omotesando 01 (15555117880).jpg
Omotesandō
Love hotels concentrated in Dogenzaka Shibuya - Hotel Sunreon (love hotel) 01 (15554736517).jpg
Love hotels concentrated in Dōgenzaka

Others

Yoyogi National Gymnasium Kokuritsu Yoyogi Kyogijo 1.jpg
Yoyogi National Gymnasium

Transportation

Aerial view around Shibuya Station in June 1963 Shibuya Station.1963.jpg
Aerial view around Shibuya Station in June 1963
The former Tokyu Toyoko Line station (now demolished) Shibuya Toyoko Line.jpg
The former Tokyu Toyoko Line station (now demolished)
Shuto Expressway No.3 Shibuya Route SHUTO EXPWY 3.JPG
Shuto Expressway No.3 Shibuya Route

Rail

The main station in Shibuya is Shibuya Station. The southern half of Shinjuku Station, including the New South Entrance, is located in Shibuya.

Highway

Economy

NTT Docomo Yoyogi Building NTT DoCoMo Yoyogi Building 2009 cropped.jpg
NTT Docomo Yoyogi Building

Several companies are headquartered in Shibuya.

Calpis, [19] Casio, [20] Mixi, [21] Niwango, [22] Nihon Dempa Kogyo, [23] and Tokyu Corporation have their headquarters in Shibuya. [24] East Japan Railway Company [25] have their headquarters in Yoyogi, Shibuya. 81 Produce has its headquarters in Tomigaya, Shibuya. [26] [27]

Former operations

At one time Smilesoft had its headquarters in the CT Sasazuka Building in Shibuya. [28] In May 1985 the headquarters of Bandai Visual moved to Shibuya. In March 1990 the headquarters moved to Shinjuku. [29]

A.D. Vision - Tokyo, Y.K., the Japanese subsidiary of A.D. Vision, was in Shibuya. [30] Acclaim Entertainment once had its Tokyo office in the Nomora Building. [31] The Japanese subsidiary of Titus Interactive, Titus Japan K.K., had its head office on the eighth floor of the Kotubuki Dogenzaka Building in Dōgenzaka. [32] The former animation studio; Group TAC was also located here.

Square Enix headquarters were located in Yoyogi before moving to Shinjuku in 2012. [33]

Companies

Education

Aoyama Gakuin Majima Memorial Hall Aoyama Gakuin Majima Memorial Hall.JPG
Aoyama Gakuin Majima Memorial Hall

Colleges and universities

Primary and secondary schools

The Shibuya City Board of Education  [ ja ] operates public elementary and junior high schools, while Tokyo Metropolitan Government Board of Education operates public senior high schools.

Public combined elementary and junior high schools [45] [46]

Junior high schools: [45]

Elementary schools: [46]

Public libraries

Shibuya operates several public libraries, including the Central Library, the Nishihara Library, the Shibuya Library, the Tomigaya Library, the Sasazuka Library, the Honmachi Library, and the Rinsen Library. In addition, the Yoyogi Youth Hall houses the Yoyogi Library Room. [47]

Shibuya has appeared in the manga Alice in Borderland , Jujutsu Kaisen with its 'Shibuya Incident' arc, Super GALS! Kotobuki Ran , Tokyo Revengers and Ya Boy Kongming! .

It has featured in the television series Jellyfish Can't Swim in the Night .

It has also appeared in the videogames Chaos;Head , Ghostwire: Tokyo , Hatsune Miku: Colorful Stage! , Persona 5 , The World Ends With You , Neo: The World Ends with You and Tokyo Mirage Sessions ♯FE .

International relations

Friendship city

International organization offices in Shibuya

United Nations University Headquarters Building United Nations University01s3200.jpg
United Nations University Headquarters Building

There are following offices at the United Nations University Headquarters Building in Jingūmae, Shibuya. [49]

Diplomatic missions in Shibuya

Embassy of Croatia in Hiroo, Shibuya kuroachiaDa Shi Guan Quan Jing .jpg
Embassy of Croatia in Hiroo, Shibuya

Following countries operate their embassies in Shibuya. [50]

See also

Similar venues with electronic billboards, jumbotrons and media towers.

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Harajuku</span> District in Shibuya, Tokyo, Japan

Harajuku is a district in Shibuya, Tokyo. Harajuku is the common name given to a geographic area spreading from Harajuku Station to Omotesando, corresponding on official maps of Shibuya ward as Jingūmae 1 chōme to 4 chōme. In popular reference, Harajuku also encompasses many smaller backstreets such as Takeshita Street and Cat Street spreading from Sendagaya in the north to Shibuya in the south.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Nakano, Tokyo</span> Special ward in Kantō, Japan

Nakano is a special ward in the Tokyo Metropolis in Japan. The English translation of its Japanese self-designation is Nakano City.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Setagaya</span> Special ward in Tokyo, Japan

Setagaya is a special ward in the Tokyo Metropolis in Japan. It is also the name of a neighborhood and administrative district within the ward. Its official bird is the azure-winged magpie, its flower is the fringed orchid, and its tree is the Zelkova serrata.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Minato, Tokyo</span> Special ward in Kantō, Japan

Minato is a special ward of Tokyo, Japan. It is also called Minato City in English.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ebisu, Shibuya</span> Major district of Special ward in Kantō, Japan

Ebisu (恵比寿) is the southernmost part of Shibuya ward in Tokyo, Japan, and a major district of the ward. It was developed on the site of a former brewery and is home to Yebisu Garden Place. It has a high concentration of bars and restaurants.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Sendagaya</span> Area in Tokyo, Japan

Sendagaya (千駄ヶ谷) is an area within Shibuya ward, one of the 23 special wards of Tokyo.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Yoyogi</span> Neighborhood in Shibuya-ku, Tokyo

Yoyogi (代々木) is a neighbourhood in the northern part of Shibuya, Tokyo, Japan.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Sasazuka</span> District located in Shibuya-ku, Tokyo

Sasazuka (笹塚) is a district of Shibuya, Tokyo, Japan.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Higashi, Shibuya</span> District located in Shibuya ward in Tokyo, Japan

Higashi (東) is a residential district of the Shibuya ward in Tokyo surrounded by the residential areas of Hiroo, Ebisu, Daikanyama and Aoyama. Prince Hitachi and Princess Hitachi have their official residence in a palace in large gardens off Komazawadori in Higashi.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Daikanyamachō, Shibuya</span> District in Shibuya, Tokyo, Japan

Daikanyamachō, or simply Daikanyama (代官山), is a neighborhood in Shibuya, Tokyo, Japan. The neighborhood is known for its small boutique shops, giving it the nickname "the Brooklyn of Tokyo." It is served by Daikan-yama Station on the Tokyu Toyoko Line.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hiroo, Shibuya</span> District located in Shibuya, Tokyo, Japan

Hiroo (広尾) is a district of Shibuya, Tokyo, Japan. Abutting Ebisu, Minami-Azabu, Nishi-Azabu and Minami-Aoyama, Hiroo is an upmarket residential and shopping neighborhood in central Tokyo.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ebisuminami, Shibuya</span> District in Shibuya, Tokyo, Japan

Ebisuminami is a small district of Shibuya, Tokyo, located to the southeast of Ebisu Station. The district is often perceived as a portion of the broad-sense Ebisu area. Ebisuminami borders Ebisu district in the narrow sense on the northwest across Ebisu Station, the mailing address for which is Ebisuminami, rather than Ebisu, Shibuya.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hatagaya, Shibuya</span> District in Shibuya, Tokyo, Japan

Hatagaya (幡ヶ谷) is an area within Shibuya, Tokyo, Japan.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Kamiyamachō, Shibuya</span> District located in Shibuya-ku, Tokyo

Kamiyama-chō (神山町) is a residential district of southwestern Shibuya, Tokyo, Japan. As of 1 October 2020, it has a population of 2,872 people. Its postal code is 150-0047.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hatsudai</span> District in Shibuya, Tokyo, Japan

Hatsudai (初台) is a district of Shibuya, Tokyo, Japan.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Honmachi, Shibuya</span> District located in Shibuya-ku, Tokyo

Honmachi (本町) is a residential district of Shibuya, Tokyo, Japan.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Yoyogikamizonochō</span> District in Shibuya, Tokyo, Japan

Yoyogikamizonochō (代々木神園町) is a district of Shibuya, Tokyo, Japan.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Nishihara, Shibuya</span> District located in Shibuya-ku, Tokyo

Nishihara (西原) is a district of Shibuya, Tokyo, Japan.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Jingūmae</span> District in Shibuya, Tokyo, Japan

Jingūmae (神宮前) is a district of Shibuya, Tokyo, Japan.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Jinnan, Shibuya</span> District in Shibuya, Tokyo, Japan

Jinnan (神南) is a district of Shibuya, Tokyo, Japan. As of October 2020, the population of this district is 634. The postal code for Jinnan is 150–0041.

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