Shibuya

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Shibuya

渋谷区
Shibuya City
Tokyo Shibuya Scramble Crossing 2018-10-09.jpg
Flag of Shibuya, Tokyo.svg
Flag
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Seal
Shibuya-ku in Tokyo Prefecture Ja.svg
Location of Shibuya in Tokyo
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Shibuya
 
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Shibuya
Shibuya (Tokyo)
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Shibuya
Shibuya (Kanto Area)
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Shibuya
Shibuya (Japan)
Coordinates: 35°39′34″N139°42′02″E / 35.65944°N 139.70056°E / 35.65944; 139.70056 Coordinates: 35°39′34″N139°42′02″E / 35.65944°N 139.70056°E / 35.65944; 139.70056
Country Japan
Region Kantō
Prefecture Tokyo
Government
  MayorKen Hasebe (since April 2015)
Area
  Total15.11 km2 (5.83 sq mi)
Population
 (May 1, 2016)
  Total221,801
  Density14,679.09/km2 (38,018.7/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+9 (Japan Standard Time)
Symbols 
• Tree Zelkova serrata
• Flower Iris ensata
City officeShibuya 1-18-21, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo 150-8010
Website www.city.shibuya.tokyo.jp

Shibuya ( Shibuya-ku) is a special ward in Tokyo, Japan. A major commercial and finance center, it houses the two busiest railway stations in the world, Shinjuku Station (southern half) and Shibuya Station.

Contents

As of May 1, 2016, it has an estimated population of 221,801 and a population density of 14,679.09 people per km2 (38,018.7/sq mi). The total area is 15.11 km2 (5.83 sq mi).

The name "Shibuya" is also used to refer to the shopping district which surrounds Shibuya Station. This area is known as one of the fashion centers of Japan, particularly for young people, and as a major nightlife area.

History

Heian to Edo period

Shibuya was historically the site of a castle in which the Shibuya family resided from the 11th century through the Edo period. Following the opening of the Yamanote Line in 1885, Shibuya began to emerge as a railway terminal for southwestern Tokyo and eventually as a major commercial and entertainment center.

Meiji to Showa period

The village of Shibuya was incorporated in 1889 by the merger of the villages of Kami-Shibuya, Naka-Shibuya and Shimo-Shibuya within Minami-Toshima County (Toyotama County from 1896). The village covered the territory of modern-day Shibuya Station area as well as the Hiroo, Daikanyama, Aoyama, and Ebisu areas. Shibuya became a town in 1909. The town of Shibuya merged with the neighboring towns of Sendagaya (which included the modern Sendagaya, Harajuku and Jingumae areas) and Yoyohata (which included the modern Yoyogi and Hatagaya areas) to form Shibuya-ku suburban ward upon being absorbed into Tokyo City in 1932. Shibuya became an urban special ward under the Local Autonomy Act in 1947.

The Tokyu Toyoko Line opened in 1932, making Shibuya a key terminal between Tokyo and Yokohama, and was joined by the forerunner of the Keio Inokashira Line in 1933 and the forerunner of the Tokyo Metro Ginza Line in 1938. One of the best-known stories concerning Shibuya is the story of Hachikō, a dog who waited on his late master at Shibuya Station every day from 1923 to 1935, eventually becoming a national celebrity for his loyalty. A statue of Hachikō was built adjacent to the station, and the surrounding Hachikō Square is now the most popular meeting point in the area.

Post-War Showa

Shibuya in 1959 Shibuya in 1950s.jpg
Shibuya in 1959

During the occupation of Japan, Yoyogi Park was used as a housing compound for U.S. personnel known as "Washington Heights." The U.S. military left in 1964, and much of the park was repurposed as venues for the 1964 Summer Olympics. The ward itself served as part of the athletics 50 km walk and marathon course during the 1964 games. [1]

Shibuya has achieved great popularity among young people since the early 1980s. There are several famous fashion department stores in Shibuya. Shibuya 109 is a major shopping center near Shibuya Station, particularly famous as the origin of the kogal subculture. Called "Ichi-Maru-kyū," which translates as 1–0–9 in Japanese, the name is actually a pun on that of the corporation that owns it — Tōkyū (which sounds like 10–9 in Japanese; this is numerical substitution, a form of goroawase wordplay). The contemporary fashion scene in Shibuya extends northward from Shibuya Station to Harajuku, where youth culture reigns; Omotesandō, the zelkova tree- and fashion brand-lined street; and Sendagaya, Tokyo's apparel design district.

Heisei period

During the late 1990s, Shibuya also became known as the center of the IT industry in Japan. It was often called "Bit Valley" in English,[ citation needed ] a pun on both "Bitter Valley", the literal translation of "Shibuya", as well as bit, the computer term for binary digits.

Shibuya Stream, a skyscraper and retail complex, was completed in 2018.

Reiwa period

The East Wing of a mixed-used skyscraper Shibuya Scramble Square was completed in August 2019.

2019 New Year's Day vehicle attack

During the early morning of January 1, 2019, a 21-year-old man named Kazuhiro Kusakabe drove his minicar into a crowd of pedestrians celebrating New Year's Day on Takeshita Street. The man claimed his actions were a terrorist attack, and later stated that his intention was to retaliate against the usage of the death penalty for Aum Shinrikyo doomsday cult members. The man attempted to flee but was soon apprehended by authorities in a nearby park. [2] [3]

Geography

Shibuya in 1952 1952 Shibuya.jpg
Shibuya in 1952
South of Shibuya in 2020 South of Shibuya.jpg
South of Shibuya in 2020

Shibuya includes many well-known commercial and residential districts such as Daikanyama, Ebisu, Harajuku, Hiroo, Higashi, Omotesandō, Sendagaya, and Yoyogi.

Districts

Politics and government

Shibuya is run by a city assembly of 34 elected members. The mayor is Ken Hasebe, an independent.

Elections

The same-sex partnership certificate

In 2015, as the council passed "Ordinance for Promoting Respect of Gender Equality and Diversity in the Ward", [4] Shibuya Ward became the first Japanese municipality that issues same-sex partnership certificates [5] According to this ordinance, same-sex couples who live in Shibuya are allowed "to rent apartments together, and have gained hospital visitation rights as family members". [5] Shimizu expects the ordinance to bring three benefits to same-sex couples: "(1) rental housing within the ward (co-signing of tenancy agreements for municipal/public housing), (2) medical institutions within the ward (hospital visitation and medical decision-making rights as family members), and (3) employment conditions within the ward (e.g. family benefits, congratulations and condolence leave)". [4] In order to apply for the certificate, couples must be 20-years-old or older residents of Shibuya Ward and have to state that "their relationship is based on love and mutual trust" in a notarized document. [6] Koyuki Higashi (a former member of the Takarazuka Revue) and Hiroko Masuhara (an entrepreneur), a lesbian couple, were the first to receive this certification. [6] Since the Shibuya Ward passed the ordinance, seven other municipalities in Japan have begun offering similar certificates. [7]

The BBC notes that the ordinance has little binding legal force, saying it "amounts to a moral obligation on Shibuya businesses, which will not be penalised if they do not recognise the certificate", though their names will be posted on the ward's website if they violate the ordinance. [8] Shimizu says the system "is not equivalent to marriage, as it does not accord same-sex couples the same rights as heterosexual couples when it comes to inheritance, joint filing of taxes, or social welfare". [4] As it requires at least a hundred thousand yen to apply for the certificate, it can be restrictive to some couples. [9] Shimizu argues that Shibuya Ward has been criticized for pinkwashing as "while passing this ordinance, the administration also moved to expel the homeless in Miyashita Park and other parks in the ward". [4] Pointing out that the mayor of Shibuya Ward in an interview stated that this is not a matter of human rights, but of diversity, Yuri Horie claimed that the term of diversity seems to be used to divide citizens into the good and the bad; it raises only the ones who contribute to the consumeristic society as representer of "diversity of sexuality" while excluding the useless ones. [10] Yuki Tsuchiya, a lesbian activist, also argues that LGBT individuals are used to promote the ward. [11]

Sightseeing and historic sites

Shibuya's scramble crossing from Shibuya Sky observation deck Shibuya scramble square sky view of crossing (48995414042).jpg
Shibuya's scramble crossing from Shibuya Sky observation deck

Shibuya is famous for its scramble crossing, called Shibuya Crossing. [12] It is located in front of the Shibuya Station Hachikō exit and stops vehicles in all directions to allow pedestrians to inundate the entire intersection. Shibuya Crossing is the "world’s busiest pedestrian crossing", with upwards 3,000 people at a time. [13] [14] [15] The statue of Hachikō, a dog, between the station and the intersection, is a common meeting place and almost always crowded.

On the southwest side of Shibuya station, there is another popular meeting place with a statue called "Moyai". The statue resembles a Moai statue, and it was given to Shibuya by the people of Niijima Island in 1980.

Green areas

Meiji Shrine Meiji-jingu geiheiden.jpg
Meiji Shrine
Yoyogi Park Yoyogi Park from Hyatt.jpg
Yoyogi Park

Buildings

Yoyogi National Gymnasium Kokuritsu Yoyogi Kyogijo 1.jpg
Yoyogi National Gymnasium
Omotesando Harajuku - Omotesando 01 (15555117880).jpg
Omotesandō
Love hotels concentrated in Dogenzaka Shibuya - Hotel Sunreon (love hotel) 01 (15554736517).jpg
Love hotels concentrated in Dōgenzaka
Shibuya Scramble Square 2019 Shibuya Scramble Square 1.jpg
Shibuya Scramble Square

Streets and places

Transportation

Aerial view around Shibuya Station in June 1963 Shibuya Station.1963.jpg
Aerial view around Shibuya Station in June 1963
The former Tokyu Toyoko Line station (now demolished) Shibuya Toyoko Line.jpg
The former Tokyu Toyoko Line station (now demolished)
Shuto Expressway No.3 Shibuya Route SHUTO EXPWY 3.JPG
Shuto Expressway No.3 Shibuya Route

Rail

The main station in Shibuya is Shibuya Station. The southern half of Shinjuku Station, including the New South Entrance, is located in Shibuya.

Highway

Economy

NTT Docomo Yoyogi Building NTT DoCoMo Yoyogi Building 2009 cropped.jpg
NTT Docomo Yoyogi Building

Several companies are headquartered in Shibuya.

Calpis, [17] Casio, [18] Mixi, [19] Niwango, [20] Nihon Dempa Kogyo, [21] and Tokyu Corporation have their headquarters in Shibuya. [22] East Japan Railway Company [23] have their headquarters in Yoyogi, Shibuya. 81 Produce has its headquarters in Tomigaya, Shibuya. [24] [25]

The publication The Diplomat has its headquarters in Ebisu, Shibuya. [26]

Former operations

At one time Smilesoft had its headquarters in the CT Sasazuka Building in Shibuya. [27] In May 1985 the headquarters of Bandai Visual moved to Shibuya. In March 1990 the headquarters moved to Shinjuku. [28]

A.D. Vision - Tokyo, Y.K., the Japanese subsidiary of A.D. Vision, was in Shibuya. [29] Acclaim Entertainment once had its Tokyo office in the Nomora Building. [30] The Japanese subsidiary of Titus Interactive, Titus Japan K.K., had its head office on the eighth floor of the Kotubuki Dogenzaka Building in Dōgenzaka. [31] The former animation studio; Group TAC was also located here.

Square Enix had its headquarters in Yoyogi before moving to Shinjuku ward in 2012. [32]

Companies

Education

Aoyama Gakuin Majima Memorial Hall Aoyama Gakuin Majima Memorial Hall.JPG
Aoyama Gakuin Majima Memorial Hall
United Nations University, Shibuya campus United Nations University01s3200.jpg
United Nations University, Shibuya campus

Colleges and universities

Primary and secondary schools

The Shibuya Ward (The Shibuya City) operates public elementary and junior high schools, while Tokyo Metropolitan Government Board of Education operates public senior high schools.

Public libraries

Shibuya operates several public libraries, including the Central Library, the Nishihara Library, the Shibuya Library, the Tomigaya Library, the Sasazuka Library, the Honmachi Library, and the Rinsen Library. In addition, the Yoyogi Youth Hall houses the Yoyogi Library Room. [44]

See also

Related Research Articles

Shinjuku Special ward in Kantō, Japan

Shinjuku is a special ward in Tokyo, Japan. It is a major commercial and administrative centre, housing the northern half of the busiest railway station in the world and the Tokyo Metropolitan Government Building, the administration centre for the government of Tokyo. As of 2015, the ward has an estimated population of 337,556, and a population density of 18,517 people per km2. The total area is 18.23 km2. Since the end of the Second World War, Shinjuku has been a major secondary center of Tokyo (fukutoshin), rivaling to the original city center in Marunouchi and Ginza. It literally means "New Inn Ward".

Harajuku

Harajuku is a district in Shibuya, Tokyo, Japan. Harajuku is the common name given to a geographic area spreading from Harajuku Station to Omotesando, corresponding on official maps of Shibuya ward as Jingūmae 1 chōme to 4 chōme. In popular reference, Harajuku also encompasses many smaller backstreets such as Takeshita Street and Cat Street spreading from Sendagaya in the north to Shibuya in the south.

East Japan Railway Company Japanese railway company

The East Japan Railway Company is a major passenger railway company in Japan and is the largest of the seven Japan Railways Group companies. The company name is officially abbreviated as JR-EAST or JR East in English, and as JR Higashi-Nihon in Japanese. The company's headquarters are in Yoyogi, Shibuya, Tokyo, and next to the Shinjuku Station. It is listed in the Tokyo Stock Exchange, is a constituent of the TOPIX Core30 index, and is also one of the three only Japan Railways Group constituents of the Nikkei 225 index, the other being JR Central and JR West.

Harajuku Station Railway station in Tokyo, Japan

Harajuku Station is a railway station in Shibuya, Tokyo, Japan, operated by East Japan Railway Company. The station takes its name from the area on its eastern side, Harajuku.

Minato, Tokyo Special ward in Kantō, Japan

Minato is a special ward in Tokyo, Japan. It is also called Minato City in English.

Aoyama, Tokyo

Aoyama (青山) is one of the wealthiest neighborhoods of Tokyo, located in the northwest portion of Minato Ward. The area is well known for its international fashion houses, cafes and restaurants.

Hiroo Station Metro station in Tokyo, Japan

Hiroo Station is a subway station on the Tokyo Metro Hibiya Line in Minato, Tokyo operated by the Tokyo subway operator Tokyo Metro. The station is named after the adjacent Hiroo neighborhood in Shibuya ward, though the station is entirely located in Minami-Azabu.

Tokyo Metro Fukutoshin Line Tokyo Metro line

The Tokyo Metro Fukutoshin Line, formally the No. 13 Fukutoshin Line, is a subway line operated by Tokyo Metro in west-central Tokyo and Wako, Saitama, Japan. The newest line in the Tokyo subway network, it opened in stages between 1994 and 2008. On average, the Fukutoshin line carries 362,654 passengers daily in 2017, the lowest of all Tokyo Metro lines and roughly one third of its sister Tokyo Metro Yūrakuchō Line (1,124,478).

Omotesandō

Omotesandō (表参道) is a zelkova tree-lined avenue located in Shibuya and Minato, Tokyo, stretching from the Meiji Shrine entrance to Aoyama-dōri, where Omotesandō Station can be found.

Sendagaya Area in Tokyo, Japan

Sendagaya (千駄ヶ谷) is an area within Shibuya ward, one of the 23 special wards of Tokyo.

Omotesandō Station Metro station in Tokyo, Japan

Omote-sando Station is a Tokyo Metro subway station located at the intersection of Omotesandō and Aoyama-dori in Aoyama, Minato ward, Tokyo, Japan. Part of the Chiyoda Line platforms extends into Shibuya ward.

Yoyogi

Yoyogi (代々木) is a neighbourhood in the northern part of Shibuya, Tokyo, Japan.

Meiji-jingumae Station Metro station in Tokyo, Japan

Meiji-jingumae Station is a subway station located in Shibuya, Tokyo, Japan. It is a part of the Tokyo Metro subway network, and is served by the Chiyoda Line and the Fukutoshin Line.

Higashi, Shibuya District located in Shibuya ward in Tokyo, Japan

Higashi (東) is a residential district of the Shibuya ward in Tokyo surrounded by the residential areas of Hiroo, Ebisu, Daikanyama and Aoyama. Prince Hitachi and Princess Hitachi have their official residence in a palace in large gardens off Komazawadori in Higashi.

Keio Dentetsu Bus Japanese bus company

Keio Dentetsu Bus Co., Ltd. is a core bus-operating company of the Keio Group which was established on February 1, 2002, inherited business all of the Keio Electric Railway automobile operation division and started business on August 1 of the same year. It has four subsidiaries, Keio Bus Higashi Co., Ltd., Keio Bus Chuo Co., Ltd., Keio Bus Minami Co., Ltd. and Keio Bus Koganei Co., Ltd.. The head office of these companies is located in Fuchu, Tokyo, Japan. The operating area of a general bus on a regular route is mainly the Tokyo Tama area and if the management commission route to each subsidiary company is included, the operating area is reached mostly whole region along all areas along the Keio railroad lines. Moreover, it operates around the expressway bus routes to Nagano Prefecture, Hida-Takayama, Miyagi Prefecture, etc. from Shinjuku.

Hiroo, Shibuya District located in Shibuya, Tokyo, Japan

Hiroo (広尾) is a district of Shibuya, Tokyo, Japan. Abutting Ebisu, Minami-Azabu, Nishi-Azabu and Minami-Aoyama, Hiroo is an upmarket residential and shopping neighborhood in central Tokyo.

Shibuya River

The Shibuya River is a river which flows through central Tokyo, Japan.

Ura-Harajuku

Ura-Harajuku (裏原宿) is a district in Shibuya, Tokyo, Japan.

Jingūmae District in Shibuya, Tokyo, Japan

Jingūmae (神宮前) is a district of Shibuya, Tokyo, Japan.

Jinnan, Shibuya District in Shibuya, Tokyo, Japan

Jinnan (神南) is a district of Shibuya, Tokyo, Japan.

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