Shigella boydii

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Shigella boydii
Shigella boydii 01.jpg
S. boydii on Hektoen enteric agar
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Bacteria
Phylum: Proteobacteria
Class:Gammaproteobacteria
Order:Enterobacteriales
Family: Enterobacteriaceae
Genus: Shigella
Species:S. boydii
Binomial name
Shigella boydii
Ewing 1949

Shigella boydii is a Gram-negative bacterium of the genus Shigella . Like other members of the genus, S. boydii is a nonmotile, nonsporeforming, rod-shaped bacterium which can cause dysentery in humans through fecal-oral contamination. [1] [ page needed ]

<i>Shigella</i> genus of bacteria

Shigella is a genus of Gram-negative, facultative aerobic, nonspore-forming, nonmotile, rod-shaped bacteria genetically closely related to E. coli. The genus is named after Kiyoshi Shiga, who first discovered it in 1897.

Motility Ability to move spontaneously and actively, consuming energy in the process

Motility is the ability of an organism to move independently, using metabolic energy. This is in contrast to mobility, which describes the ability of an object to be moved. Motility is genetically determined, but may be affected by environmental factors. For instance, muscles give animals motility but the consumption of hydrogen cyanide would adversely affect muscle physiology, causing them to stiffen, leading to rigor mortis. In addition to animal locomotion, most animals are motile – the term applies to bacteria and other microorganisms, and to some multicellular organisms, as well as to some mechanisms of fluid flow in multicellular organs and tissue. Motile marine animals are commonly called free-swimming, and motile non-parasitic organisms are called free-living.

Dysentery inflammation of the intestine causing diarrhea with blood

Dysentery is an inflammatory disease of the intestine, especially of the colon, which always results in severe diarrhea and abdominal pains. Other symptoms may include fever and a feeling of incomplete defecation. The disease is caused by several types of infectious pathogens such as bacteria, viruses and parasites.

Contents

S. boydii is the most genetically divergent species of the genus Shigella. [2] There are 19 known serotypes of Shigella boydii. [3] [4] [5] S. boydii is restricted to the Indian subcontinent. [4]

Serotype infraspecific name

A serotype or serovar is a distinct variation within a species of bacteria or virus or among immune cells of different individuals. These microorganisms, viruses, or cells are classified together based on their cell surface antigens, allowing the epidemiologic classification of organisms to the sub-species level. A group of serovars with common antigens is called a serogroup or sometimes serocomplex.

Indian subcontinent Peninsular region in south-central Asia south of the Himalayas

The Indian subcontinent is a southern region and peninsula of Asia, mostly situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas. Geologically, the Indian subcontinent is related to the land mass that rifted from Gondwana and merged with the Eurasian plate nearly 55 million years ago. Geographically, it is the peninsular region in south-central Asia delineated by the Himalayas in the north, the Hindu Kush in the west, and the Arakanese in the east. Politically, the Indian subcontinent includes Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka.

The species is named after the American bacteriologist Mark Frederick Boyd. [6] [7]

Mark Frederick Boyd American bacteriologist

Mark Frederick Boyd was an American bacteriologist who discovered a shigella species known as shigella boydii.

Sequenced genomes

Plasmid small DNA molecule within a cell that is physically separated from a chromosomal DNA and can replicate independently

A plasmid is a small DNA molecule within a cell that is physically separated from chromosomal DNA and can replicate independently. They are most commonly found as small circular, double-stranded DNA molecules in bacteria; however, plasmids are sometimes present in archaea and eukaryotic organisms. In nature, plasmids often carry genes that benefit the survival of the organism, such as by providing antibiotic resistance. While the chromosomes are big and contain all the essential genetic information for living under normal conditions, plasmids usually are very small and contain only additional genes that may be useful in certain situations or conditions. Artificial plasmids are widely used as vectors in molecular cloning, serving to drive the replication of recombinant DNA sequences within host organisms. In the laboratory, plasmids may be introduced into a cell via transformation.

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<i>Escherichia coli</i> Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium

Escherichia coli, also known as E. coli, is a Gram-negative, facultative anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms). Most E. coli strains are harmless, but some serotypes can cause serious food poisoning in their hosts, and are occasionally responsible for product recalls due to food contamination. The harmless strains are part of the normal microbiota of the gut, and can benefit their hosts by producing vitamin K2, and preventing colonization of the intestine with pathogenic bacteria, having a symbiotic relationship. E. coli is expelled into the environment within fecal matter. The bacterium grows massively in fresh fecal matter under aerobic conditions for 3 days, but its numbers decline slowly afterwards.

<i>Salmonella</i> Genus of prokaryotes

Salmonella is a genus of rod-shaped (bacillus) Gram-negative bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae. The two species of Salmonella are Salmonella enterica and Salmonella bongori. S. enterica is the type species and is further divided into six subspecies that include over 2,600 serotypes.

<i>Streptococcus pyogenes</i> species of bacterium

Streptococcus pyogenes is a species of Gram-positive bacterium in the genus Streptococcus. These bacteria are aerotolerant and an extracellular bacterium, made up of non-motile and non-sporing cocci. It is clinically important for humans. It is an infrequent, but usually pathogenic, part of the skin microbiota. It is the predominant species harboring the Lancefield group A antigen, and is often called group A streptococcus (GAS). However, both Streptococcus dysgalactiae and the Streptococcus anginosus group can possess group A antigen. Group A streptococci when grown on blood agar typically produces small zones of beta-hemolysis, a complete destruction of red blood cells. It is thus also called group A (beta-hemolytic) streptococcus (GABHS), and can make colonies greater than 5 mm in size.

Shigellosis Human disease

Shigellosis is an infection of the intestines caused by Shigella bacteria. Symptoms generally start one to two days after exposure and include diarrhea, fever, abdominal pain, and feeling the need to pass stools even when the bowels are empty. The diarrhea may be bloody. Symptoms typically last five to seven days. Complications can include reactive arthritis, sepsis, seizures, and hemolytic uremic syndrome.

Horizontal gene transfer A type of nonhereditary genetic change involving swapping of DNA or RNA

Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) or lateral gene transfer (LGT) is the movement of genetic material between unicellular and/or multicellular organisms other than by the ("vertical") transmission of DNA from parent to offspring (reproduction). HGT is an important factor in the evolution of many organisms.

Shigella dysenteriae is a species of the rod-shaped bacterial genus Shigella. Shigella species can cause shigellosis. Shigellae are Gram-negative, nonspore-forming, facultatively anaerobic, nonmotile bacteria.

Bacillary dysentery is a type of dysentery, and is a severe form of shigellosis.

Lysogenic cycle

Lysogeny, or the lysogenic cycle, is one of two cycles of viral reproduction. Lysogeny is characterized by integration of the bacteriophage nucleic acid into the host bacterium's genome or formations of a circular replicon in the bacterial cytoplasm. In this condition the bacterium continues to live and reproduce normally. The genetic material of the bacteriophage, called a prophage, can be transmitted to daughter cells at each subsequent cell division, and at later events can release it, causing proliferation of new phages via the lytic cycle. Lysogenic cycles can also occur in eukaryotes, although the method of DNA incorporation is not fully understood.

<i>Shigella flexneri</i> species of bacterium

Shigella flexneri is a species of Gram-negative bacteria in the genus Shigella that can cause diarrhea in humans. Several different serogroups of Shigella are described; S. flexneri belongs to group B. S. flexneri infections can usually be treated with antibiotics, although some strains have become resistant. Less severe cases are not usually treated because they become more resistant in the future.

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In bacteriology, a taxon in disguise is a species, genus or higher unit of biological classification whose evolutionary history reveals has evolved from another unit of similar or lower rank, making the parent unit paraphyletic. This happens when rapid evolution makes a new species appear radically different from the ancestral group, so that it is not (initially) recognised as belonging to the parent phylogenetic group, leaving the latter an evolutionary grade.

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Rhodococcus opacus is a bacterium species in the genus Rhodococcus. It is moderately chemolithotrophic. Its genome has been sequenced.

Streptomyces sulphureus is a bacterium species from the genus of Streptomyces which has been isolated from marine sediments in Dalian in China.

References

  1. Ryan, Kenneth James; Ray, C. George, eds. (2004). Sherris medical microbiology: an introduction to infectious diseases (4 ed.). McGraw-Hill Professional Med/Tech. ISBN   978-0-8385-8529-0.
  2. Feng L; Senchenkova SN; Yang J; Shashkov AS; Tao J; Guo H; Zhao G; Knirel YA; Reeves P; Wang L (2004). "Structural and Genetic Characterization of the Shigella boydii Type 13 O Antigen". Journal of Bacteriology. 186 (2): 383–392. doi:10.1128/JB.186.2.383-392.2004. PMC   305744 Lock-green.svg. PMID   14702307.
  3. Yang Z., Hu C., Chen J., Chen G., Liu Z. (1990). A new serotype of Shigella boydii. Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao.; 30(4): 284-95
  4. 1 2 Yang F, Yang J, Zhang X, et al. (2005). "Genome dynamics and diversity of Shigella species, the etiologic agents of bacillary dysentery". Nucleic Acids Research. 33 (19): 6445–6458. doi:10.1093/nar/gki954. PMC   1278947 Lock-green.svg. PMID   16275786.
  5. Pupo GM; Lan R; Reeves PR (September 2000). "Multiple independent origins of Shigella clones of Escherichia coli and convergent evolution of many of their characteristics". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97 (19): 10567–72. doi:10.1073/pnas.180094797. PMC   27065 Lock-green.svg. PMID   10954745.
  6. Shigella boydii at Who Named It?
  7. Mark Frederick Boyd at Who Named It?
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