|S. boydii on Hektoen enteric agar|
Shigella boydii is a Gram-negative bacterium of the genus Shigella . Like other members of the genus, S. boydii is a nonmotile, nonsporeforming, rod-shaped bacterium which can cause dysentery in humans through fecal-oral contamination. [ page needed ]
Shigella is a genus of Gram-negative, facultative aerobic, nonspore-forming, nonmotile, rod-shaped bacteria genetically closely related to E. coli. The genus is named after Kiyoshi Shiga, who first discovered it in 1897.
Motility is the ability of an organism to move independently, using metabolic energy. This is in contrast to mobility, which describes the ability of an object to be moved. Motility is genetically determined, but may be affected by environmental factors. For instance, muscles give animals motility but the consumption of hydrogen cyanide would adversely affect muscle physiology, causing them to stiffen, leading to rigor mortis. In addition to animal locomotion, most animals are motile – the term applies to bacteria and other microorganisms, and to some multicellular organisms, as well as to some mechanisms of fluid flow in multicellular organs and tissue. Motile marine animals are commonly called free-swimming, and motile non-parasitic organisms are called free-living.
Dysentery is an inflammatory disease of the intestine, especially of the colon, which always results in severe diarrhea and abdominal pains. Other symptoms may include fever and a feeling of incomplete defecation. The disease is caused by several types of infectious pathogens such as bacteria, viruses and parasites.
S. boydii is the most genetically divergent species of the genus Shigella.There are 19 known serotypes of Shigella boydii. S. boydii is restricted to the Indian subcontinent.
A serotype or serovar is a distinct variation within a species of bacteria or virus or among immune cells of different individuals. These microorganisms, viruses, or cells are classified together based on their cell surface antigens, allowing the epidemiologic classification of organisms to the sub-species level. A group of serovars with common antigens is called a serogroup or sometimes serocomplex.
The Indian subcontinent is a southern region and peninsula of Asia, mostly situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas. Geologically, the Indian subcontinent is related to the land mass that rifted from Gondwana and merged with the Eurasian plate nearly 55 million years ago. Geographically, it is the peninsular region in south-central Asia delineated by the Himalayas in the north, the Hindu Kush in the west, and the Arakanese in the east. Politically, the Indian subcontinent includes Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka.
The species is named after the American bacteriologist Mark Frederick Boyd.
Mark Frederick Boyd was an American bacteriologist who discovered a shigella species known as shigella boydii.
A plasmid is a small DNA molecule within a cell that is physically separated from chromosomal DNA and can replicate independently. They are most commonly found as small circular, double-stranded DNA molecules in bacteria; however, plasmids are sometimes present in archaea and eukaryotic organisms. In nature, plasmids often carry genes that benefit the survival of the organism, such as by providing antibiotic resistance. While the chromosomes are big and contain all the essential genetic information for living under normal conditions, plasmids usually are very small and contain only additional genes that may be useful in certain situations or conditions. Artificial plasmids are widely used as vectors in molecular cloning, serving to drive the replication of recombinant DNA sequences within host organisms. In the laboratory, plasmids may be introduced into a cell via transformation.
Escherichia coli, also known as E. coli, is a Gram-negative, facultative anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms). Most E. coli strains are harmless, but some serotypes can cause serious food poisoning in their hosts, and are occasionally responsible for product recalls due to food contamination. The harmless strains are part of the normal microbiota of the gut, and can benefit their hosts by producing vitamin K2, and preventing colonization of the intestine with pathogenic bacteria, having a symbiotic relationship. E. coli is expelled into the environment within fecal matter. The bacterium grows massively in fresh fecal matter under aerobic conditions for 3 days, but its numbers decline slowly afterwards.
Salmonella is a genus of rod-shaped (bacillus) Gram-negative bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae. The two species of Salmonella are Salmonella enterica and Salmonella bongori. S. enterica is the type species and is further divided into six subspecies that include over 2,600 serotypes.
Streptococcus pyogenes is a species of Gram-positive bacterium in the genus Streptococcus. These bacteria are aerotolerant and an extracellular bacterium, made up of non-motile and non-sporing cocci. It is clinically important for humans. It is an infrequent, but usually pathogenic, part of the skin microbiota. It is the predominant species harboring the Lancefield group A antigen, and is often called group A streptococcus (GAS). However, both Streptococcus dysgalactiae and the Streptococcus anginosus group can possess group A antigen. Group A streptococci when grown on blood agar typically produces small zones of beta-hemolysis, a complete destruction of red blood cells. It is thus also called group A (beta-hemolytic) streptococcus (GABHS), and can make colonies greater than 5 mm in size.
Shigellosis is an infection of the intestines caused by Shigella bacteria. Symptoms generally start one to two days after exposure and include diarrhea, fever, abdominal pain, and feeling the need to pass stools even when the bowels are empty. The diarrhea may be bloody. Symptoms typically last five to seven days. Complications can include reactive arthritis, sepsis, seizures, and hemolytic uremic syndrome.
Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) or lateral gene transfer (LGT) is the movement of genetic material between unicellular and/or multicellular organisms other than by the ("vertical") transmission of DNA from parent to offspring (reproduction). HGT is an important factor in the evolution of many organisms.
Shigella dysenteriae is a species of the rod-shaped bacterial genus Shigella. Shigella species can cause shigellosis. Shigellae are Gram-negative, nonspore-forming, facultatively anaerobic, nonmotile bacteria.
Bacillary dysentery is a type of dysentery, and is a severe form of shigellosis.
Lysogeny, or the lysogenic cycle, is one of two cycles of viral reproduction. Lysogeny is characterized by integration of the bacteriophage nucleic acid into the host bacterium's genome or formations of a circular replicon in the bacterial cytoplasm. In this condition the bacterium continues to live and reproduce normally. The genetic material of the bacteriophage, called a prophage, can be transmitted to daughter cells at each subsequent cell division, and at later events can release it, causing proliferation of new phages via the lytic cycle. Lysogenic cycles can also occur in eukaryotes, although the method of DNA incorporation is not fully understood.
Shigella flexneri is a species of Gram-negative bacteria in the genus Shigella that can cause diarrhea in humans. Several different serogroups of Shigella are described; S. flexneri belongs to group B. S. flexneri infections can usually be treated with antibiotics, although some strains have become resistant. Less severe cases are not usually treated because they become more resistant in the future.
Pseudomonas stutzeri is a Gram-negative, rod-shaped, motile, single polar-flagellated, soil bacterium first isolated from human spinal fluid. It is a denitrifying bacterium, and strain KC of P. stutzeri may be used for bioremediation as it is able to degrade carbon tetrachloride. It is also an opportunistic pathogen in clinical settings, although infections are rare. Based on 16S rRNA analysis, P. stutzeri has been placed in the P. stutzeri group, to which it lends its name.
In bacteriology, a taxon in disguise is a species, genus or higher unit of biological classification whose evolutionary history reveals has evolved from another unit of similar or lower rank, making the parent unit paraphyletic. This happens when rapid evolution makes a new species appear radically different from the ancestral group, so that it is not (initially) recognised as belonging to the parent phylogenetic group, leaving the latter an evolutionary grade.
Escherichia coli is a Gram-negative gammaproteobacterium commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms). The descendants of two isolates, K-12 and B strain, are used routinely in molecular biology as both a tool and a model organism.
Salmonella bongori is a pathogenic bacterium belonging to the genus Salmonella, and was earlier known as Salmonella subspecies V or S. enterica subsp. bongori or S. choleraesuis subsp. bongori. It is a Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium (bacillus), which causes a gastrointestinal disease called salmonellosis, characterized by cramping and diarrhoea. It is typically considered a microbe of cold-blooded animals, unlike other members of the genus, and is most frequently associated with reptiles.
Cupriavidus taiwanensis is a Gram-negative, nitrogen-fixing bacterium of the genus Cupriavidus and family Burkholderiaceae, which forms indeterminate nodules on Mimosa pudica. The genome of C. taiwanensis is completely sequenced.
Acinetobacter nosocomialis is a Gram-negative, strictly aerobic bacterium from the genus Acinetobacter isolated from a patient at Cleveland Metro Health Systems in Cleveland, Ohio. Acinetobacter nosocomialis belongs to the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-baumannii complex.
Bat mastadenovirus A, formerly Bat adenovirus TJM, is a species of the Mastadenovirus genus of the family Adenoviridae. It is a double stranded DNA virus with no RNA sequence. The designation TJM refers to the strain as there are several species of Bat adenoviruses in three groups 1, 2, and 3.
Rhodococcus opacus is a bacterium species in the genus Rhodococcus. It is moderately chemolithotrophic. Its genome has been sequenced.
Streptomyces sulphureus is a bacterium species from the genus of Streptomyces which has been isolated from marine sediments in Dalian in China.
The Entrez Global Query Cross-Database Search System is a federated search engine, or web portal that allows users to search many discrete health sciences databases at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) website. The NCBI is a part of the National Library of Medicine (NLM), which is itself a department of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), which in turn is a part of the United States Department of Health and Human Services. The name "Entrez" was chosen to reflect the spirit of welcoming the public to search the content available from the NLM.
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