Shīnḍanḍ District (شینډنډ, formerly known as Sabzwār, سبزوار) is one of the 16 districts of Herat Province, in western Afghanistan, and is situated in the southern part of that province. It borders Adraskan District to the north, Ghor Province to the east and Farah Province to the south and west. The population was 173,800 (as of 2012). The district center is the town of Shindand, which boasts a very active market area. Shindand Air Base is located near the town. The main Herat-Kandahar road passes through the district. The Zerkoh Valley is in the district.
Its ancient name was Esfezaras still an Iranian small city, more a village, close to the border of Afghanistan on the Iranian side. Notable historical sites in Shindand include Qala-Dokhtar and Qala Rustam-Zal.
Shindand District is divided into five bigger districts, namely: Zawol, Zerkoh, Poshteh-Koh, Kooh-Zoor and Qasaba. Shindand District is one of the most diverse and wide districts in Afghanistan, representing thirty different Afghan tribes which include both Tajik and Pashtun groups and sub-groups. Ismail Khan, the current Minister of Energy and Water is still ruling in this district and have major support, specially among his Tajik fellows. Ismail Khan hails from Shindand province.
In terms of tribal and ethnic groups, Shindand is one of the most diverse districts in Herat Province. Around 60 percent of the population is Pashtun and around 40% percent consists of Tajik and Aimaq Hazara (Timuris and other sub-tribes) and some Balochi people. However, sixty percent of Tajiks live within the city of Shindand, which includes Qasaba and surrounding districts. The main languages spoken in the district are Pashto and Dari Persian.
Shindand is sunny and windy all year long. Though the winds pick up during the months of May through September, called Badayeh-Sado-Bist Roozeh (120 Day Winds). The rainy season is from November/December to March/April, though the rains are scattered.
Herāt is the third-largest city of Afghanistan. It has a population of about 436,300, and serves as the capital of Herat Province, situated in the fertile valley of the Hari River in the western part of the country. It is linked with Kandahar, Kabul, and Mazar-i-Sharif via Highway 1 or the ring road. It is further linked to the city of Mashhad in neighboring Iran through the border town of Islam Qala, and to Mary in Turkmenistan to the north through the border town of Torghundi.
Mohammad Ismail Khan is a politician in Afghanistan, who served as Minister of Energy and Water from 2005 to 2013. He was previously the Governor of Herat Province. He is widely known as a warlord because of his rise to power during the Soviet–Afghan War when he controlled a large sized mujahideen force, mainly his fellow Tajiks from western Afghanistan. He is a key member of the political party Jamiat-e Islami and was a member of the now defunct United National Front party.
Pashtūnistān is the geographic historical region inhabited by the indigenous Pashtun people of modern-day Afghanistan and Pakistan, wherein Pashtun culture, language, and national identity have been based. Alternative names historically used for the region include "Pashtūnkhwā" (پښتونخوا) and "Afghānistān" (افغانستان), since at least the 3rd century CE onward. Pashtunistan borders Iran to the west, Persian and Turkic-speaking areas of Turkestan region to the north, Kashmir to the northeast, Punjab to the east, and Balochistan to the south.
Herat is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan, located in the western part of the country. Together with Badghis, Farah, and Ghor provinces, it makes up the north-western region of Afghanistan. Its primary city and administrative capital is Herat City. The province of Herat is divided into about 17 districts and contains over 1,000 villages. It has a population of about 1,780,000, making it the second most populated province in Afghanistan behind Kabul Province. The population is multi-ethnic but largely Persian-speaking.
Farah (Pashto/Dari: is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan, located in the western part of the country next to Iran. It is a spacious and sparsely populated province, divided into eleven districts and contains hundreds of villages. It has a population of about 925,016, which is multi-ethnic and mostly a rural tribal society. The Farah Airport is located near the city of Farah, which serves as the capital of the province. Farah is linked with Iran via the Iranian border town of Mahirud.
The Kakar is a Gharghashti Pashtun tribe, based mostly in the Balochistan Province of Pakistan, and Loy Kandahar in Afghanistan.
Fārsīwān is a designation for Persian speakers in Afghanistan, with diaspora in Iran and elsewhere abroad. More specifically, it is used to refer to a distinct group of farmers in Afghanistan and urban dwellers. They are often mistakenly referred to as Tajiks. The term excludes the Hazāra and Aymāq tribes who also speak dialects of Persian. In Afghanistan, the Farsiwan are found predominantly in Herat and Farah provinces. They are roughly the same as the Persians of Eastern Iran. Although the term was originally coined with Persian language's lexical root (Pārsībān), the suffix has been transformed into a Pashto form (-wān) and is usually utilized by the Pashtuns to designate both, the Tajiks and the Farsiwans.
Farah is the capital of Farah Province in western Afghanistan. It is located on the Farah River, close to the border with Iran. It is one of the largest cities of western Afghanistan in terms of population. The Farah Airport is located in the area.
Afghanistan is a multiethnic and mostly-tribal society. The population of the country is divided into the following ethnolinguistic groups: Pashtun, Tajik, Hazara, Uzbek, Aymāq, Turkmen, Baloch, Pashai, Nuristani, Gujjar, Arab, Brahui, Pamiri, Kyrgyz and few others. The Afghan National Anthem and the Afghan Constitution mention a total of 14 ethnic groups.
Adraskan is a district in the central part of Herat Province in Afghanistan. It is bordered to the west by Iran, to the north by Ghoryan District, Zinda Jan District, Guzara District, Pashtun Zarghun District and Obe District, to the east by Farsi District and to the south by Shindand District.
Injil is a district of Herat Province in northwestern Afghanistan. It surrounds Herat City and borders Kushk District to the north, Karukh District to the east, Guzara District to the South, and Zinda Jan District to the west. There is no any official census from this district, therefor all the numbers are based on approximately the population of different localities in the district. The population of Injil District is around 237,800, which includes the following ethnic groups: Around 40% Tajik, around 30% Pashtun. Almost all inhabitants of Jebrael locality are Hazara. Jebrael has a population of around 60-80 thousand people. This makes the population of Hazara in Injil district around 30% and 1% Turkmen.
Kohsan is a district of Herat province in northwestern Afghanistan. It borders the nation of Iran to the west, Gulran District to the north, and Ghurian District to the south and east. The population of Kosan District is 52,900, which includes the following ethnic groups: 59.4% Pashtun, 35.3% Tajik, 5.1% Balouch, and 0.2% Turkmen.
Kushki Kuhna is a district of Herat province in northwestern Afghanistan. It is situated in the northern part of the province. It borders Kushk District to the west, the nation of Turkmenistan to the north, Badghis Province to the east, and Karukh District to the south. The population Kushki Kuhna is 44,400, which includes the following ethnic groups: 55% Tajik, 40% Pashtun and 5% Hazara.
Shīnḍanḍ is a town and the center of the Shindand District, Herat Province, Afghanistan. It is located atat 1,066 m altitude. The Shindand Air Base is located about 15 miles northeast of the town.
Mohammad Agha District is a district of Logar Province, Afghanistan. It lies just south of Kabul Province. The district capital is Mohammad Agha.
Amanullah Khan was a citizen of Afghanistan and a tribal leader from Afghanistan's Pashtun ethnic group. He was from Ghurian district in Herat Province.
Bādghīs is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan, located in the northwest of the country, on the border with Turkmenistan. It is considered to be one of the country's most underdeveloped provinces. The capital is Qala i Naw, while the most populous city and district is Bala Murghab. The ruins of the medieval city of Marw al-Rudh, the historical capital of the medieval region of Gharjistan, are located in the province near the modern city of Bala Murghab.
Islām Qala, known historically as Kafir Qala, is a border town in the western Herat province of Afghanistan, near the border with Iran. It is the official entry by land from neighboring Taybad, Iran.
The 1979 Herat uprising was an insurrection that took place in and around the city of Herat, Afghanistan in March 1979. It included both a popular uprising and a mutiny of Afghan Army troops against the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan (DRA). The communist regime at first appealed to its Soviet allies for help, but the Soviet leadership declined to intervene. After the insurgents seized and held the city for about a week, the regime was able to retake it with its own forces, and the subsequent aerial bombardment and recapture of Herat left up to 25,000 of its inhabitants dead.
The 207th 'Zabar' (Victory) Corps is a corps of the Afghan National Army. It is headquartered at Camp Zafar, Herat, in Herat Province in the west of Afghanistan.