Holy Cross parish church
overlooking the Oxford Canal
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Shipton-on-Cherwell is a village on the River Cherwell about 2 miles (3 km) north of Kidlington in Oxfordshire, England. The village is part of the civil parish of Shipton-on-Cherwell and Thrupp.
The River Cherwell is a major tributary of the River Thames in central England. It rises near Hellidon in Northamptonshire and flows south through Oxfordshire for 40 miles (64 km) to meet the Thames at Oxford. It adds a significant discharge to the Thames—when entering Oxford, the Thames's discharge is 17.6 m³/s, but after leaving and consuming the Cherwell it has increased to 24.8 m³/s. The river gives its name to the Cherwell local government district and Cherwell, an Oxford student newspaper.
Kidlington is a large village and civil parish between the River Cherwell and the Oxford Canal, 5 miles (8 km) north of Oxford and 7 1⁄2 miles (12 km) southwest of Bicester. The 2011 Census recorded the parish's population as 13,723.
Oxfordshire is a county in South East England. The ceremonial county borders Warwickshire to the north-west, Northamptonshire to the north-east, Buckinghamshire to the east, Berkshire to the south, Wiltshire to the south-west and Gloucestershire to the west.
The earliest known record of Shipton-on-Cherwell is from AD 1005, when an estate at Shipton was granted to the Benedictine Eynsham Abbey.Shortly before or after the Norman conquest of England an estate of five hides at Shipton seems to have been transferred from Eynsham to another Benedictine religious house, Evesham Abbey. However, after the death of Evesham's Abbot Æthelwig in 1077 or 1078 William of Normandy's half-brother Odo, Bishop of Bayeux took Shipton from Æthelwig's successor Walter. By the time of the Domesday Book in 1086, Odo had only 2½ hides at Shipton and these were let to Ilbert de Lacy. Hugh de Grandmesnil held the other 2½ hides and it is not clear whether the estate had been divided before or after the Conquest.
Eynsham Abbey was a Benedictine monastery in Eynsham, Oxfordshire, in England between 1005 and 1538. King Æthelred allowed Æthelmær the Stout to found the abbey in 1005. There is some evidence that the abbey was built on the site of an earlier minster, probably founded in the 7th or 8th centuries.
The Norman Conquest of England was the 11th-century invasion and occupation of England by an army of Norman, Breton, Flemish, and French soldiers led by Duke William II of Normandy, later styled William the Conqueror.
Shipton Manor House was built in the 16th or 17th century.William Turner lived there from 1804 with his uncle, also William Turner. He was married there in 1824 and is buried in the churchyard with his wife. In 1896 a memorial chancel screen was installed in the church, with a brass plaque reading "Erected in memory of William Turner of Oxford, Water Colour Painter and architect of this church."
William Turner was an English painter who specialised in watercolour landscapes. He was a contemporary of the more famous artist J. M. W. Turner and his style was not dissimilar. He is often known as William Turner of Oxford or just Turner of Oxford to distinguish him from his better known namesake. Many of Turner's paintings depicted the countryside around Oxford. One of his best known pictures is a view of the city of Oxford from Hinksey Hill.
In the 20th century Richard Branson owned the manor house and turned it into The Manor Studio, a recording studio for Virgin Records. Albums recorded there included Tubular Bells by Mike Oldfield in 1972–73 and Born Again by Black Sabbath in 1983. In 1995 it was closed as a recording studio by EMI, by then the owner of Virgin Records. It is now the country home of the Marquess of Headfort.
Sir Richard Charles Nicholas Branson is an English business magnate, investor, author and philanthropist. He founded the Virgin Group, which controls more than 400 companies.
The Manor Studio was a recording studio in the manor house at the village of Shipton-on-Cherwell in Oxfordshire, England, north of the city of Oxford.
A recording studio is a specialized facility for sound recording, mixing, and audio production of instrumental or vocal musical performances, spoken words, and other sounds. They range in size from a small in-home project studio large enough to record a single singer-guitarist, to a large building with space for a full orchestra of 100 or more musicians. Ideally both the recording and monitoring spaces are specially designed by an acoustician or audio engineer to achieve optimum acoustic properties.
Shipton had a parish church by the latter part of the 12th century, which seems to have been enlarged in the 13th century and received new windows in the 14th century.It was demolished in 1831 and replaced by a new Georgian Gothic Revival Church of England parish church designed by the artist William Turner who lived at the manor house. Some original materials from the original church were re-used. Crossley and Elrington state that this includes the north porch, which Sherwood and Pevsner had earlier dismissed as "free and flimsy Georgian Gothick". Holy Cross was restored in 1869 under the direction of the Gothic Revival architect Charles Buckeridge.
A parish church in Christianity is the church which acts as the religious centre of a parish. In many parts of the world, especially in rural areas, the parish church may play a significant role in community activities, often allowing its premises to be used for non-religious community events. The church building reflects this status, and there is considerable variety in the size and style of parish churches. Many villages in Europe have churches that date back to the Middle Ages, but all periods of architecture are represented.
Georgian architecture is the name given in most English-speaking countries to the set of architectural styles current between 1714 and 1830. It is eponymous for the first four British monarchs of the House of Hanover—George I, George II, George III, and George IV—who reigned in continuous succession from August 1714 to June 1830. The style was revived in the late 19th century in the United States as Colonial Revival architecture and in the early 20th century in Great Britain as Neo-Georgian architecture; in both it is also called Georgian Revival architecture. In the United States the term "Georgian" is generally used to describe all buildings from the period, regardless of style; in Britain it is generally restricted to buildings that are "architectural in intention", and have stylistic characteristics that are typical of the period, though that covers a wide range.
Gothic Revival is an architectural movement popular in the Western World that began in the late 1740s in England. Its popularity grew rapidly in the early 19th century, when increasingly serious and learned admirers of neo-Gothic styles sought to revive medieval Gothic architecture, in contrast to the neoclassical styles prevalent at the time. Gothic Revival draws features from the original Gothic style, including decorative patterns, finials, lancet windows, hood moulds and label stops.
The belltower has only two bells.They were cast in the middle of the 16th century and presumably came from the original church.
Bellfounding is the casting of bells in a foundry for use in churches, clocks, and public buildings. The term also usually includes the tuning of the bell.
The original dedication of the 12th-century church was to the Holy Cross. By 1786 the dedication had been changed to Saint Mary, and by 1851 it had been changed to Saint Jerome. By 1892 the church was finally restored to its original dedication of Holy Cross. The parish is now part of the Benefice of Blenheim, which also includes Begbroke, Bladon, Woodstock and Yarnton.
In 1787 the Oxford Canal was extended southwards from Northbrook Lock (north of Tackley) towards Oxford. A wharf was built at Shipton, where the canal passes between the River Cherwell and the village.
The Oxford and Rugby Railway between Oxford and Banbury was built past the village in 1848–49 but the nearest station provided was Bletchington, which was actually at the hamlet of Enslow 1 mile (1.6 km) north of Shipton. The Shipton-on-Cherwell train crash was a major rail accident on the Great Western Railway that occurred on 24 December 1874, killing 34 people. In 1890 the Woodstock Railway opened a branch line between Kidlington and Blenheim and Woodstock. The line was operated by the Great Western Railway, which opened Shipton-on-Cherwell Halt beside the line's bridge over the main Banbury Road. British Railways closed the branch line and halt in 1954. BR also closed Bletchington and Kidlington stations in 1964. The nearest railway station now is Tackley, 2.5 miles (4 km) north of Shipton.
In the 1920s the Oxford and Shipton Cement Company built a cement works beside the main railway line and began quarrying limestone from the hillside between the Woodstock branch line and Bunker's Hill. The quarry was bought by Alpha Cement in 1934 which became part of Associated Portland Cement in 1938, which in turn became Blue Circle Industries in 1978.Towards the end of the 20th century the quarry ceased production and was sold to the Kilbride Group, which applied unsuccessfully to redevelop it as an eco-town.
The quarry is protected as a Site of Special Scientific Interest because it is important for Jurassic fossils, particularly crocodiles.Since quarrying ceased, the site has also become important for wildlife. Birds including turtle dove, little ringed plover, Cetti's warbler and peregrine falcon breed in the quarry. A lake has formed in the bottom of the quarry, attracting birds including green sandpiper, jack snipe, little grebe and common pochard to overwinter there. The site also attracts invertebrates including damselflies.
Woodstock is a market town and civil parish 8 miles (13 km) northwest of Oxford in Oxfordshire, England. The 2011 Census recorded the parish population as 3,100.
Tackley is a village and civil parish beside the River Cherwell in Oxfordshire, England. It is about 6 miles (10 km) west of Bicester and 4 1⁄2 miles (7 km) north of Kidlington. The village consists of two neighbourhoods: Tackley itself, and Nethercott. The 2011 Census recorded the parish's population as 998.
Begbroke is a village and civil parish in Oxfordshire about one mile (1.6 km) west of Kidlington and five miles (8 km) northwest of Oxford. The 2011 Census recorded the parish's population as 783.
Bladon is a village and civil parish on the River Glyme about 6 1⁄2 miles (10.5 km) northwest of Oxford, Oxfordshire, England, notable as the burial place of Sir Winston Churchill. The 2011 Census recorded the parish's population as 898.
Bletchingdon is a village and civil parish 2 miles (3 km) north of Kidlington and 6 miles (10 km) southwest of Bicester in Oxfordshire, England. Bletchingdon parish includes the hamlet of Enslow just over 1 mile (1.6 km) west of the village. The 2011 Census recorded the parish's population as 910.
Shipton-under-Wychwood is a village and civil parish in the Evenlode valley about 4 miles (6.4 km) north of Burford, Oxfordshire. The village is one of three named after the ancient forest of Wychwood. The others are Milton-under-Wychwood immediately to the west of the village and Ascott-under-Wychwood about 1.5 miles (2.4 km) to the east. The 2011 Census recorded Shipton-under-Wychwood's parish population as 1,244.
Yarnton is a village and civil parish in Oxfordshire about 1 mile (1.6 km) southwest of Kidlington and 4 miles (6.4 km) northwest of Oxford. The 2011 Census recorded the parish's population as 2,545.
Water Eaton is a hamlet in the civil parish of Gosford and Water Eaton, between Oxford and Kidlington in Oxfordshire.
North Leigh is a village and civil parish about 3 miles (5 km) northeast of Witney in Oxfordshire. The parish includes the hamlet of East End, and since 1932 has also included the hamlet of Wilcote. The 2011 Census recorded the parish's population as 1,929.
Gosford is a village immediately southeast of Kidlington, Oxfordshire, England. It is in the civil parish of Gosford and Water Eaton. The 2011 Census recorded Gosford and Water Eaton's parish population as 1,323.
Rousham is a village and civil parish beside the River Cherwell in Oxfordshire. The village is about 6 1⁄2 miles (10.5 km) west of Bicester and about 6 miles (10 km) north of Kidlington. The parish is bounded by the River Cherwell in the east, the A4260 main road between Oxford and Banbury in the west, partly by the B4030 in the north, and by field boundaries with Tackley parish in the south. The 2001 Census recorded the parish's population as 80.
Thrupp is a hamlet just north of Kidlington in Oxfordshire. It is beside the Oxford Canal and close to the River Cherwell.
Kidlington railway station opened in 1852 on the Oxford and Rugby Railway to serve the adjacent Oxfordshire village of Kidlington, and act as a railhead for the town of Woodstock, 2.5 miles (4.0 km) away. It became a junction station in 1890 upon the opening of the Blenheim and Woodstock Branch Line, and served the area for over 100 years before falling victim to the programme of closures initiated by the Beeching Report in 1964. Following many proposals for its reopening, a new station to serve Kidlington opened in October 2015 at Oxford Parkway on the Oxford to Bicester Line.
The Blenheim and Woodstock branch line was a 4-mile (6.4 km) railway branch line that linked Kidlington and Woodstock, Oxfordshire. It ran from Kidlington railway station parallel with the Cherwell Valley Line north to Shipton-on-Cherwell, where it turned west through Shipton-on-Cherwell Halt towards Blenheim and Woodstock.
Shipton-on-Cherwell and Thrupp is a civil parish in Oxfordshire, England. It was formed in 1955 by removing the hamlet of Thrupp from the parish of Kidlington and merging it with the parish of Shipton-on-Cherwell. It covers 6.04km² and as at the 2011 census had 493 residents.
Hampton Gay is a village in the Cherwell Valley about 1.5 miles (2.4 km) north of Kidlington, Oxfordshire.
Taynton is a village and civil parish about 1 1⁄2 miles (2.4 km) northwest of Burford in West Oxfordshire. The village is on Coombe Brook, a tributary of the River Windrush. The parish is bounded in the south by the River Windrush, in the north partly by Coombe Brook and its tributary Hazelden Brook, in the west by the county boundary with Gloucestershire and in the east by field boundaries. The 2001 Census recorded the parish's population as 108.