Shipton-on-Cherwell

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Shipton-on-Cherwell
Shipton-on-Cherwell HolyCross.JPG
Holy Cross parish church
overlooking the Oxford Canal
Oxfordshire UK location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Shipton-on-Cherwell
Shipton-on-Cherwell shown within Oxfordshire
OS grid reference SP4816
Civil parish
District
Shire county
Region
Country England
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Post town Kidlington
Postcode district OX5
Dialling code 01865
Police Thames Valley
Fire Oxfordshire
Ambulance South Central
EU Parliament South East England
UK Parliament
List of places
UK
England
Oxfordshire
51°50′56″N1°18′18″W / 51.849°N 1.305°W / 51.849; -1.305 Coordinates: 51°50′56″N1°18′18″W / 51.849°N 1.305°W / 51.849; -1.305

Shipton-on-Cherwell is a village on the River Cherwell about 2 miles (3 km) north of Kidlington in Oxfordshire, England. The village is part of the civil parish of Shipton-on-Cherwell and Thrupp.

River Cherwell tributary of the River Thames in central England

The River Cherwell is a major tributary of the River Thames in central England. It rises near Hellidon in Northamptonshire and flows south through Oxfordshire for 40 miles (64 km) to meet the Thames at Oxford. It adds a significant discharge to the Thames—when entering Oxford, the Thames's discharge is 17.6 m³/s, but after leaving and consuming the Cherwell it has increased to 24.8 m³/s. The river gives its name to the Cherwell local government district and Cherwell, an Oxford student newspaper.

Kidlington village and civil parish in Cherwell, Oxfordshire, England

Kidlington is a large village and civil parish between the River Cherwell and the Oxford Canal, 5 miles (8 km) north of Oxford and 7 12 miles (12 km) southwest of Bicester. The 2011 Census recorded the parish's population as 13,723.

Oxfordshire County of England

Oxfordshire is a county in South East England. The ceremonial county borders Warwickshire to the north-west, Northamptonshire to the north-east, Buckinghamshire to the east, Berkshire to the south, Wiltshire to the south-west and Gloucestershire to the west.

Contents

Manor

The earliest known record of Shipton-on-Cherwell is from AD 1005, when an estate at Shipton was granted to the Benedictine Eynsham Abbey. [1] Shortly before or after the Norman conquest of England an estate of five hides at Shipton seems to have been transferred from Eynsham to another Benedictine religious house, Evesham Abbey. [1] However, after the death of Evesham's Abbot Æthelwig in 1077 or 1078 William of Normandy's half-brother Odo, Bishop of Bayeux took Shipton from Æthelwig's successor Walter. [1] By the time of the Domesday Book in 1086, Odo had only 2½ hides at Shipton and these were let to Ilbert de Lacy. [1] Hugh de Grandmesnil held the other 2½ hides and it is not clear whether the estate had been divided before or after the Conquest. [1]

Eynsham Abbey was a Benedictine monastery in Eynsham, Oxfordshire, in England between 1005 and 1538. King Æthelred allowed Æthelmær the Stout to found the abbey in 1005. There is some evidence that the abbey was built on the site of an earlier minster, probably founded in the 7th or 8th centuries.

Norman conquest of England 11th-century invasion and conquest of England by Normans

The Norman Conquest of England was the 11th-century invasion and occupation of England by an army of Norman, Breton, Flemish, and French soldiers led by Duke William II of Normandy, later styled William the Conqueror.

Shipton Manor House was built in the 16th or 17th century. [2] William Turner lived there from 1804 with his uncle, also William Turner. He was married there in 1824 and is buried in the churchyard with his wife. In 1896 a memorial chancel screen was installed in the church, with a brass plaque reading "Erected in memory of William Turner of Oxford, Water Colour Painter and architect of this church."

William Turner (artist) English painter

William Turner was an English painter who specialised in watercolour landscapes. He was a contemporary of the more famous artist J. M. W. Turner and his style was not dissimilar. He is often known as William Turner of Oxford or just Turner of Oxford to distinguish him from his better known namesake. Many of Turner's paintings depicted the countryside around Oxford. One of his best known pictures is a view of the city of Oxford from Hinksey Hill.

In the 20th century Richard Branson owned the manor house and turned it into The Manor Studio, a recording studio for Virgin Records. Albums recorded there included Tubular Bells by Mike Oldfield in 1972–73 and Born Again by Black Sabbath in 1983. In 1995 it was closed as a recording studio by EMI, by then the owner of Virgin Records. It is now the country home of the Marquess of Headfort.

Richard Branson English business magnate, investor and philanthropist

Sir Richard Charles Nicholas Branson is an English business magnate, investor, author and philanthropist. He founded the Virgin Group, which controls more than 400 companies.

The Manor Studio recording studio

The Manor Studio was a recording studio in the manor house at the village of Shipton-on-Cherwell in Oxfordshire, England, north of the city of Oxford.

Recording studio facility for sound recording

A recording studio is a specialized facility for sound recording, mixing, and audio production of instrumental or vocal musical performances, spoken words, and other sounds. They range in size from a small in-home project studio large enough to record a single singer-guitarist, to a large building with space for a full orchestra of 100 or more musicians. Ideally both the recording and monitoring spaces are specially designed by an acoustician or audio engineer to achieve optimum acoustic properties.

Parish church

Shipton had a parish church by the latter part of the 12th century, which seems to have been enlarged in the 13th century and received new windows in the 14th century. [3] It was demolished in 1831 and replaced by a new Georgian Gothic Revival Church of England parish church designed by the artist William Turner who lived at the manor house. [4] Some original materials from the original church were re-used. Crossley and Elrington state that this includes the north porch, [3] which Sherwood and Pevsner had earlier dismissed as "free and flimsy Georgian Gothick". [4] Holy Cross was restored in 1869 under the direction of the Gothic Revival architect Charles Buckeridge. [3] [5]

Parish church church which acts as the religious centre of a parish

A parish church in Christianity is the church which acts as the religious centre of a parish. In many parts of the world, especially in rural areas, the parish church may play a significant role in community activities, often allowing its premises to be used for non-religious community events. The church building reflects this status, and there is considerable variety in the size and style of parish churches. Many villages in Europe have churches that date back to the Middle Ages, but all periods of architecture are represented.

Georgian architecture set of architectural styles current between 1720 and 1840

Georgian architecture is the name given in most English-speaking countries to the set of architectural styles current between 1714 and 1830. It is eponymous for the first four British monarchs of the House of Hanover—George I, George II, George III, and George IV—who reigned in continuous succession from August 1714 to June 1830. The style was revived in the late 19th century in the United States as Colonial Revival architecture and in the early 20th century in Great Britain as Neo-Georgian architecture; in both it is also called Georgian Revival architecture. In the United States the term "Georgian" is generally used to describe all buildings from the period, regardless of style; in Britain it is generally restricted to buildings that are "architectural in intention", and have stylistic characteristics that are typical of the period, though that covers a wide range.

Gothic Revival architecture architectural movement

Gothic Revival is an architectural movement popular in the Western World that began in the late 1740s in England. Its popularity grew rapidly in the early 19th century, when increasingly serious and learned admirers of neo-Gothic styles sought to revive medieval Gothic architecture, in contrast to the neoclassical styles prevalent at the time. Gothic Revival draws features from the original Gothic style, including decorative patterns, finials, lancet windows, hood moulds and label stops.

The belltower has only two bells. [3] They were cast in the middle of the 16th century and presumably came from the original church. [3]

Bellfounding is the casting of bells in a foundry for use in churches, clocks, and public buildings. The term also usually includes the tuning of the bell.

The original dedication of the 12th-century church was to the Holy Cross. By 1786 the dedication had been changed to Saint Mary, and by 1851 it had been changed to Saint Jerome. By 1892 the church was finally restored to its original dedication of Holy Cross. The parish is now part of the Benefice of Blenheim, which also includes Begbroke, Bladon, Woodstock and Yarnton. [6]

Economic history

In 1787 the Oxford Canal was extended southwards from Northbrook Lock (north of Tackley) towards Oxford. A wharf was built at Shipton, where the canal passes between the River Cherwell and the village.

Shipton-on-Cherwell train crash, 1874 Shipton1.jpg
Shipton-on-Cherwell train crash, 1874

The Oxford and Rugby Railway between Oxford and Banbury was built past the village in 1848–49 but the nearest station provided was Bletchington, which was actually at the hamlet of Enslow 1 mile (1.6 km) north of Shipton. The Shipton-on-Cherwell train crash was a major rail accident on the Great Western Railway that occurred on 24 December 1874, killing 34 people. In 1890 the Woodstock Railway opened a branch line between Kidlington and Blenheim and Woodstock. The line was operated by the Great Western Railway, which opened Shipton-on-Cherwell Halt beside the line's bridge over the main Banbury Road. British Railways closed the branch line and halt in 1954. [7] BR also closed Bletchington and Kidlington stations in 1964. The nearest railway station now is Tackley, 2.5 miles (4 km) north of Shipton.

Shipton Cement Works in 1972 Shipton-on-Cherwell - Bletchingdon Cement Works in 1972.jpg
Shipton Cement Works in 1972

In the 1920s the Oxford and Shipton Cement Company built a cement works beside the main railway line and began quarrying limestone from the hillside between the Woodstock branch line and Bunker's Hill. The quarry was bought by Alpha Cement in 1934 which became part of Associated Portland Cement in 1938, which in turn became Blue Circle Industries in 1978. [8] Towards the end of the 20th century the quarry ceased production and was sold to the Kilbride Group, which applied unsuccessfully to redevelop it as an eco-town.

The quarry is protected as a Site of Special Scientific Interest because it is important for Jurassic fossils, particularly crocodiles. [9] Since quarrying ceased, the site has also become important for wildlife. Birds including turtle dove, little ringed plover, Cetti's warbler and peregrine falcon breed in the quarry. A lake has formed in the bottom of the quarry, attracting birds including green sandpiper, jack snipe, little grebe and common pochard to overwinter there. The site also attracts invertebrates including damselflies. [10]

Shipton cement works in 2005 Disused Blue Circle Cement Works with chimney "Smokey Joe" - geograph.org.uk - 305955.jpg
Shipton cement works in 2005

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Thrupp, Oxfordshire village in United Kingdom

Thrupp is a hamlet just north of Kidlington in Oxfordshire. It is beside the Oxford Canal and close to the River Cherwell.

Kidlington railway station

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The Blenheim and Woodstock branch line was a 4-mile (6.4 km) railway branch line that linked Kidlington and Woodstock, Oxfordshire. It ran from Kidlington railway station parallel with the Cherwell Valley Line north to Shipton-on-Cherwell, where it turned west through Shipton-on-Cherwell Halt towards Blenheim and Woodstock.

Shipton-on-Cherwell and Thrupp is a civil parish in Oxfordshire, England. It was formed in 1955 by removing the hamlet of Thrupp from the parish of Kidlington and merging it with the parish of Shipton-on-Cherwell. It covers 6.04km² and as at the 2011 census had 493 residents.

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Taynton, Oxfordshire village and civil parish in West Oxfordshire, Oxfordshire, England

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References

Sources

Commons-logo.svg Media related to Shipton-on-Cherwell at Wikimedia Commons