Shiv Sena

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Shiv Sena
President Uddhav Thackeray
(Chief Minister of Maharashtra)
Lok Sabha leader Vinayak Raut
Rajya Sabha leader Sanjay Raut
Founder Bal Thackeray
Founded19 June 1966(56 years ago) (1966-06-19)
HeadquartersShivsena Bhavan, Dadar, Mumbai, Maharashtra
Newspaper Saamana
Student wing Bharatiya Vidyarthi Sena (BVS)
Youth wing Yuva Sena
Women's wing Shiv Sena Mahila Aghadi
Ideology Conservatism [1]
Social conservatism [2]
Hindutva [3]
Hindu nationalism [4]
Economic nationalism [5]
Ultranationalism [6]
Right-wing populism [7]
Political position Right-wing [8] to far-right [9]
ECI StatusState Party
Alliance NDA (1988–2019)
MVA (2019–present) (Maharashtra)
Seats in  Lok Sabha
19 / 545
Seats in  Rajya Sabha
3 / 245
Seats in  Maharashtra Legislative Assembly
56 / 288
Seats in  Maharashtra Legislative Council
14 / 78
Election symbol
Indian Election Symbol Bow And Arrow.png
Party flag
Shiv Sena-1575560401.jpg
Website
shivsena.in

Shiv Sena (IAST: Śiva Sēnā) (lit.'Army of Shivaji ') is a right-wing Marathi regionalist and Hindu ultranationalist political party in India founded in 1966 by cartoonist Bal Thackeray. [10] Originally emerging from nativist movements in Bombay (present-day Mumbai), the party agitates for preferential treatment for the Marathi people over migrants from other parts of India.[ citation needed ] Its election symbol for Maharashtra is Bow and Arrow. [11] Uddhav Thackeray, Bal Thackeray's son, is party leader and serves as the current Chief Minister of Maharashtra.

Contents

Although the party's primary base is still in Maharashtra, it has tried to expand to a pan-Indian base. In the 1970s, it gradually moved from advocating a pro-Marathi ideology to one supporting a broader Hindu nationalist agenda, [12] and aligned itself with the Bharatiya Janata Party. The party started taking part in Mumbai (BMC) Municipal elections since its inception. In 1989, it entered into an alliance with the BJP for Lok Sabha as well as Maharashtra assembly elections, the latter of which was temporarily broken in October 2014 Assembly elections. The alliance was quickly reformed and Shiv Sena became part of the BJP government in Maharashtra in December 2014. It was a coalition partner in the National Democratic Alliance during 1998–2019, including the Vajpayee Government during 1998–2004 and the Narendra Modi Government during 2014–2019. After the Maharashtra elections in October 2019, Shiv Sena claimed that promises were not kept by their alliance partner BJP and broke ties. The party later joined hands with the Indian National Congress and the Nationalist Congress Party in a bid to form the government in Maharashtra.

The party has a powerful hold over the Bollywood film industry. [13] It has been referred to as an "extremist", [14] [15] "chauvinist", [16] [17] as well as a "fascist party". [18] [19] Shiv Sena has been blamed for the 1970 communal violence in Bhiwandi, the 1984 Bhiwandi riot, and violence in the 1992–1993 Bombay riots. [20] [21]

The party draws its strength from the support of the Maratha and Kunbi communities of Maharashtra which the Sena drew away from the Congress party. [22]

History

Origins

After the Independence of India in 1947, regional administrative divisions from the colonial era were gradually changed and states following linguistic borders were created. Within the Bombay Presidency, a massive popular struggle was launched for the creation of a state for the Marathi-speaking people. In 1960, the presidency was divided into two linguistic states - Gujarat and Maharashtra. Moreover, Marathi-speaking areas of the erstwhile Hyderabad state were joined with Maharashtra. Bombay, in many ways the economic capital of India, became the state capital of Maharashtra. On one hand, people belonging to the Gujarati community owned the majority of the industry and trade enterprises in the city. [23] On the other hand, there was a steady flow of South Indian migrants to the city who came to take many white-collar jobs.

In 1960 Bal Thackeray, a Bombay-based cartoonist, began publishing the satirical cartoon weekly Marmik . Through this publication, he started disseminating anti-migrant sentiments. On 19 June 1966, Thackeray founded the Shiv Sena as a political organisation.

The Shiv Sena attracted many unemployed Marathi youth, who were attracted by Thackeray's charged anti-migrant oratory. Shiv Sena cadres became involved in various attacks against the South Indian communities, vandalizing South Indian restaurants and pressuring employers to hire Marathis. [12]

Alliance with the Bharatiya Janata Party

The Sena started placing more weight on the Hindutva ideology in the 1970s as the 'sons of the soil' cause was weakening. [12]

The party began a coalition with the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) for seats in the Lok Sabha and the Maharashtra Assembly from 1989. The two formed a government in Maharashtra between 1995-1999. [24] The Sena was the opposition party in the state along with the BJP from 1999 to 2014. However, the 25 year alliance with the BJP was threatened in 2014 Maharashtra Assembly elections over seat sharing and both contested the election independently. [24] With the BJP becoming the largest party following the 2014 election, Sena declared opposition. However, after negotiations, Sena agreed to join the government in Maharashtra. [25] The Shiv Sena-BJP combine governs the Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation. Traditionally the main strongholds of Shiv Sena have been Mumbai and the Konkan coastal areas. However, in the 2004 Lok Sabha elections the result was reversed. The Shiv Sena made inroads in the interior parts of the state, while suffering losses in Mumbai.[ citation needed ]

In January 2018, Shiv Sena officially cut ties with the BJP and their NDA coalition ahead of the 2019 Indian general election after nearly 30 years of campaigning alongside the BJP. [26] But in February 2019, BJP and Shiv Sena again announced alliance for the general elections as well as the 2019 Maharashtra Legislative Assembly election. [27] The election saw Shiv Sena lose votes and subsequently declined to support the BJP in forming a government over the BJP's refusal to engage in power-sharing. Shiv Sena withdrew from National Democratic Alliance, precipitating a political crisis in late October-early November 2019, which ultimately led to party leader Uddhav Thackeray becoming Chief Minister through support from the Indian National Congress, and the Nationalist Congress Party. [28]

Later in March 2020, BJP admitted deceiving Shiv Sena by not keeping its pre-poll promise of equal power sharing including CM's post. The Former Finance Minister and senior BJP leader Sudhir Mungantiwar while speaking in a debate in the state assembly stated, "We did deceive the Shiv Sena". [29]

In 2019, Shiv Sena broke away with NDA and joined UPA. [30] [31] It formed a sub alliance called Maha Vikas Aghadi to form the government in Maharashtra with Uddhav Thackeray of Shiv Sena leading the ministry. [32]

In 2022, during a party meeting, Uddhav Thackeray explained his move to pull out of NDA to join UPA. "We supported the BJP wholeheartedly to enable them to fulfill their national ambitions. The understanding was they will go national while we will lead in Maharashtra. But we were betrayed and attempts were made to destroy us in our home. So we had to hit back". Thackeray accused BJP of dumping its allies according to its political convenience. He said, "BJP doesn't mean Hindutva. I stand by my comment that Shiv Sena had wasted 25 years in alliance with BJP" [32]

Formation of Maharashtra Navnirman Sena

In July 2005, Former Maharashtra Chief Minister and Sena leader Narayan Rane was expelled from the party, which sparked internal conflict in the party. In December the same year Raj Thackeray, Bal Thackeray's nephew, left the party. [33] Raj Thackeray later founded a new party, Maharashtra Navnirman Sena (MNS). After the split, clashes have occurred between followers of the two Senas.[ citation needed ]

Although the MNS is a break-away group from the Shiv Sena, the party is still based in Bhumiputra ideology. When unveiling the party in an assembly at Shivaji Park he said, everyone is anxious to see what will happen to Hindutva and, "I shall elaborate on the party's stance on issues like Hindutva, its agenda for development of Maharashtra and the significance of the party flag colours at the 19 March public meeting." [34]

Leadership change

Bal Thackeray's son Uddhav Thackeray became the party's leader in 2004, although Bal Thackeray continued to be an important figurehead. After the death of Bal Thackeray on 17 November 2012, Uddhav became the leader of the party but refused to take the title "Shiv Sena Pramukh" (Shiv Sena Supremo). [35]

Party structure and caste composition

Structure

The ShivsenaPramukh (Chief) of the party is the post equivalent to the president of an organisation. This post is an hereditary post.The current ShivsenaPramukh is Uddhav Thackeray while his son Aditya Thackeray being the crowned ShivsenaPramukh.As the Pramukh (Chief) of the party, Bal Thackeray took all major decisions while the activists and members of the Shiv Sena Shiv Sainiks carried out most of the party's grassroots work. During his last days, the day-to-day activities of the party were handled by his youngest son Uddhav Thackeray. Aditya Thackeray, son of Uddhav Thackeray, became the leader of the Yuva Sena, the Youth Wing of the party. After Bal Thackerey's death in 2012, the party was de facto led by Uddhav Thackeray.[ citation needed ]

The Sena Bhavan located in the Dadar locality in Mumbai has served as the Headquarters of the Sena since 1976. [36] The Sena's shakhas (Branches) spread throughout the state of Maharashtra as well as in selected locations in other states, which decide on most of the local issues in their localities. [12]

The Sthaniya Lokadhikar Samiti [ clarification needed ] is affiliated with the Shiv Sena. It advocates the preservation of rights of employment for Maharashtrians in Maharashtra. [37]

Caste composition

People of various Maharashtrian castes worked together in the Sena. The party's leaders mostly came from the so-called "high castes" i.e. Brahmins, CKPs and Pathare Prabhus - Thackerey, Manohar Joshi, Sudhir Joshi, Balwant Mantri, Dr Hemchandra Gupte, Shyam Deshmukh, Madhav Deshpande, Datta Pradhan, Vijay Parvatkar, Madhukar Sarpotdar and Pramod Navalkar. [38] One of the above-mentioned leaders, Dr.Hemchandra Gupte, Mayor of Bombay in the early 70s and the former family physician and confidante of Thackeray, quit Shivsena in "disgust" citing importance given to money, violence committed by the Shivsainiks and Thackeray's support for Mrs.Gandhi during the 1975 emergency. [39]

There were also leaders from other castes such as Dattaji Salvi, Dattaji Nalawade and Wamanrao Mahadik, and those from the so-called lower castes such as Chaggan Bhujbal, Leeladhar Dake, Bhai Shingre and Vijay Gaonkar. [38]

Over the years, other than the Sena Chief, there have been twelve senior leaders in the party, called 'Netas'. Out of these, eight have been upper caste (four Brahmins, two CKPs and two Pathare Prabhus). Others have been either Maratha (Dattaji Salvi), Shimpi (Wamanrao Mahadik), Agri (Leeladhar Dake) or Mali (Chaggan Bhujbal). In fact, Bhujbal quit the party accusing the Sena of upper-caste bias in the leadership. [38]

The number of dalits were also not insignificant. And even after the Sena opposed the reservations proposed by the Mandal commission, there was no dent in the percentage of OBCs in the Sena. In this way, the Sena was successful in uniting all Maharashtrians irrespective of caste under the common "Marathi umbrella". The agenda of preferential treatment for the "sons of the soil" i.e. Maharashtrians brought them all together. [38]

Voter base

Shiv Sena's strength in the late 1980s and early '90s mainly came from the support of the Maratha caste - which it drew away from the Congress. [22] Citing the large percentage of MLAs elected from Shiv Sena belonging to the Maratha caste, Vora from the University of Pune concludes that the Shiv Sena has been emerging as a "Maratha Party". [40]

Office

Shivsena Bhavan is a building which houses the central office of the Shiv Sena in Mumbai, India. [41] It is located on Ram Ganesh Gadkari Chowk and Shivaji Park in Dadar. It was inaugurated on 19 June 1977. The refurbished Sena Bhavan was inaugurated on 27 July 2006. It has a Copper Statue of Shivaji Maharaj and a Large Poster of Balasaheb Thackeray.

In the 1993 Bombay bombings, a group of terrorists attacked the building as well as a number of other major buildings in the city. [42]

List of Chief Ministers

Following is the list of the Chief Ministers of Maharashtra from Shiv Sena

Chief MinistersPortraitTerm in OfficeAssemblyConstituencyOther posts held
StartEndTenure
1 Manohar Joshi
Manohar Joshi cropped.jpg
14 March 199531 January 19993 years, 323 days9th Assembly Dadar Speaker of the Lok Sabha
2 Narayan Rane
Narayan Rane.jpg
1 February 199917 October 1999258 days Malvan Minister for Revenue of Maharashtra
3 Uddhav Thackeray
Uddhav Thackeray.png
28 November 2019Incumbent2 years, 209 days14th Assembly MLC President of Shiv Sena
Editor-in-chief of Saamana

Shiv Sena ministers in central Government

Electoral performance

Lok Sabha Election:

Lok Sabha ElectionSeats ContestedSeats Won+\-VotesVotes polledSources
1971 Lok Sabha 500227,468 [43]
1980 Lok Sabha 201
1 / 543(0.2%)
129,351Increase2.svg1 [44]
1989 Lok Sabha 300339,426 [45]
1991 Lok Sabha 2204
4 / 543(0.7%)
2,208,712Decrease2.svg4 [46]
1996 Lok Sabha 13215
15 / 543(3%)
4,989,994Increase2.svg11 [47]
1998 Lok Sabha 7906
6 / 543(1%)
6,528,566Decrease2.svg9 [48]
1999 Lok Sabha 6315
15 / 543(3%)
5,672,412Increase2.svg9 [49]
2004 Lok Sabha 5612
12 / 543(2%)
7,056,255Decrease2.svg3 [50]
2009 Lok Sabha 2211
11 / 543(2%)
6,828,382Decrease2.svg1 [51]
2014 Lok Sabha 2018
18 / 543(3%)
10,262,981Increase2.svg7 [50]
2019 Lok Sabha 2318
18 / 543(3%)
9,049,789 (16.41)
2021 Dadra and Nagar Haveli Lok Sabha By Election
1 / 1(100%)
11
19 / 543(3%)
1,18,035Increase2.svg1

Maharashtra Vidhan Sabha Election:

Vidhan Sabha ElectionSeats ContestedSeats Won+/-VotesVotes polledSources
1990 Maharashtra Assembly 18352
52 / 288(18%)
47,33,834(16.39%)Increase2.svg52
1995 Maharashtra Assembly 16973
73 / 288(25%)
63,15,493(16.39%)Increase2.svg21
1999 Maharashtra Assembly 16969
69 / 288(24%)
(17.33%)Decrease2.svg4
2004 Maharashtra Assembly 16362
62 / 288(22%)
83,51,654 (19,97%)Decrease2.svg7
2009 Maharashtra Assembly 16045
45 / 288(16%)
Decrease2.svg17
2014 Maharashtra Assembly 28663
63 / 288(22%)
10,235,972Increase2.svg18
2019 Maharashtra Assembly 12456
56 / 288(19%)
9,049,789 (16.41)Decrease2.svg7 [52]
1989 Goa Assembly604,960 [53]
1999 Goa Assembly1405,987 [54]
2002 Goa Assembly150
2017 Goa Assembly 30792 [55] [56]
1991 Uttar Pradesh Assembly141
1 / 425(0.2%)
45,426Increase2.svg1 [57]
1993 Madhya Pradesh Assembly88075,783 [58]
1996 Haryana Assembly1706,700 [59]
1997 Punjab Assembly30719 [60]
1998 Delhi Assembly329,395 [61]
1998 Himachal Pradesh Assembly602,827 [62]
2000 Odisha Assembly1618,794 [63]
2001 Kerala Assembly1279 [64]
2015 Bihar Assembly 802,11,131 [65] [66]
ElectionCandidatesElectedVotesSource
1971 Lok Sabha 5227,468 [43]
1980 Lok Sabha 2129,351 [44]
1989 Lok Sabha 31339,426 [45]
1989 Goa Assembly6 4,960 [53]
1991 Uttar Pradesh Assembly14145,426 [57]
1991 Lok Sabha 2242,208,712 [46]
1993 Madhya Pradesh Assembly8875,783 [58]
1996 Lok Sabha 132154,989,994 [47]
1996 Haryana Assembly176,700 [59]
1997 Punjab Assembly3719 [60]
1998 Lok Sabha 7966,528,566 [48]
1998 Delhi Assembly329,395 [61]
1998 Himachal Pradesh Assembly62,827 [62]
1999 Lok Sabha 63155,672,412 [49]
1999 Goa Assembly14 5,987 [54]
2000 Odisha Assembly16 18,794 [63]
2001 Kerala Assembly1 279 [64]
2002 Goa Assembly15 
2004 Lok Sabha 56127,056,255 [50]
2009 Lok Sabha 22116,828,382 [51]
2014 Lok Sabha 201810,262,981 [50]
1990 Maharashtra Assembly 1835247,33,834(16.39%)
1995 Maharashtra Assembly 169736315493(16.39%)
1999 Maharashtra Assembly 16969(17.33%)
2004 Maharashtra Assembly 163628351654 (19,97%)
2009 Maharashtra Assembly 16045
2014 Maharashtra Assembly 2866310,235,972
2015 Bihar Assembly 8002,11,131 [65] [66]
2017 Goa Assembly 30792 [55] [56]
2019 Lok Sabha 231812,589,064
2019 Maharashtra Assembly 124569,049,789 (16.41) [52]

Activities and criticism

The Sena says it has played a central role in the emancipation of 500,000 slum dwellers in the Dharavi area of Mumbai, the largest slum in Asia. However, the policy of giving free houses to slum dwellers has been controversial since it was introduced by the then Shiv Sena-BJP government. [67] [68] [69] [ further explanation needed ]

In the 1970s, Shiv Sena was opposed to the Namantar Andolan, a Dalit-led movement to change the name of Marathwada University in Aurangabad to "Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar University", and supported views of conservative Marathas. [70]

In 1996, Shiv Sena organised the first and only live concert of American pop icon Michael Jackson in India to raise the funds for its business wing and to help create over two-hundred seventy thousand jobs for people of Maharashtra. [71] [72]

In December 2003, Shiv Sena activists damaged the cricket pitch of the Agra Sport Stadium which was supposed to host the cricket match between Pakistan and India. [73] In April 2005, Bharatiya Vidyarthi Sena, the student wing of Shiv Sena, attempted to prevent the India-Pakistan One-day international match being held in New Delhi. The protester's spokesman demanded:

India should not play cricket with Pakistan till it hands over to India 20 terrorists, including Dawood Ibrahim, and closes down militant training camps running there. [74]

The Sena acted as a "moral police" and opposed Valentine's Day celebrations. [45] On 14 February 2006, Bal Thackeray condemned and apologised for the violent attacks by its Shiv Sainiks on a private celebration in Mumbai. "It is said that women were beaten up in the Nallasopara incident. If that really happened, then it is a symbol of cowardice. I have always instructed Shiv Sainiks that in any situation women should not be humiliated and harassed." [75] Thackeray and the Shiv Sena remained opposed to it, although they indicated support for an "Indian alternative". [76] [77]

On 20 November 2009, Shiv Sena activists attacked and vandalised the offices of Hindi and Marathi TV news channels IBN7 and IBN-Lokmat, located in Mumbai and Pune respectively. The Shivsainik slapped IBN7's senior editor Ravindra Ambekar and then attacked IBN-Lokmat's editor Nikhil Wagle. Shiv Sena attributed the attacks to the criticisms of Bal Thackeray by the news channel over his remarks on Sachin Tendulkar. Shiv Sena's Rajya Sabha MP Sanjay Raut described the attacks as "spontaneous". Shiv Sena spokespersons tried to justify the attacks and refused to apologize for their acts of violence. [78] [79] [80]

Shiv Sena got an entry in Guinness Book of World Records in 2010 for "collecting maximum blood in a day". Shiv Sena organized a blood donation camp which collected over 24,000 bottles of blood in a single day. [81] [82] Later this world record was broken by a blood donation camp of HDFC Bank in 2014. [83]

On 2 November 2014, during the Kiss of Love protest against moral policing, members of Shiv Sena, Bajrang Dal, Vishwa Hindu Parishad and many other right wing groups opposed and attacked protestors and threatened to strip protestors for kissing on the streets. These opposing groups claimed that public display of affection is against both Indian culture and the law of the land (under section 294 of the Indian Penal Code), though according to the Supreme Court and the Delhi High Court, kissing in public is not a criminal offence. [84] [85] Police took many of the Kiss of Love protestors into custody to save their lives, but were blamed for giving a free hand to counter protestors of the right wing groups. [86]

In October 2015, Shiv Sena issued threats which enforced a ban on a scheduled concert by Pakistani classic singer Ghulam Ali. The move was adopted to appease anti-Pakistan constituents to vote for Sena in coming elections. [87] However, in 2015 Pakistan urged the international community to take note of the activities of Shiv Sena, [88] while Shiv Sena claimed that criticism of Shiv Sena by Pakistan vindicates "our patriotism". [89]

On 19 October 2015, Shiv Sena activists attacked and vandalised the office of BCCI to stop a meeting between PCB and BCCI officials. The activists shouted anti-Pakistan slogans and held posters that read 'Shahryar Khan go back', determined to stop Manohar from meeting his Pakistani counterpart. Shiv Sena has also threatened to stop Pakistan's Aleem Dar from officiating in the fifth and final ODI between India and South Africa. [90]

In 2015 Shiv Sena announced 10,000 rupees help to each drought-affected farmer of Marathwada region, [91] while they also announced 2 lakh rupees "reward" to Hindus family who had 5 children between 2010 and 2015 in Uttar Pradesh. As per Shiv Sena, the reason behind the "reward" was "decline in growth rate of Hindu population compared to Muslim population as per recent census". [92] [93]

In January 2016, the Shiv Sena demanded that the words “secular” and “socialist” be “permanently removed” from the Constitution's Preamble which were added in the 42nd amendment during the emergency. [94] In April 2019, party member Sanjay Raut called for the burka to be banned. [95] [96]

During the 2018 Maharashtra Council election and the 2014 Lok Sabha elections, many candidates fielded by Shiv Sena had criminal records or had criminal charges pending against them. [97] [98]

In November 2020, Devendra Fadnavis stated that the view of the Shiv Sena is advocacy for Indian reunification in the form of an Akhand Bharat. He declared that soon "Karachi will be part of India." [99]

See also

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The Members of 14th Legislative Assembly of Maharashtra were elected in the 2019 Maharashtra Legislative Assembly election, with results announced on 21 October 2019.

References

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    "No chance for young blood? Shiv Sena has bet on ageing war horses, say analysts". The Times of India . 24 March 2019. Retrieved 16 February 2020. Renominations for leaders like Chandrakant Khaire, Bhavna Gawli, Anandrao Adsul and Union minister Anant Gite for the Lok Sabha elections reflect the Shiv Sena's conservative mindset, they added.
    "The Slumdog Millionaire Architect". The New York Times . 19 June 2014. Retrieved 16 February 2020. In 1995, when the conservative Shiv Sena Party took power in elections in Maharashtra state (Mumbai is its capital)...
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    Malladi Rama Rao (4 January 2020). "Indian Citizenship Row Did Modi, Shah lose the plot?". BBC . Archived from the original on 3 January 2020. Retrieved 4 January 2020. “Rather than uniting Hindus against Muslims, what the duo have succeeded in doing is to alienate their own hard-core allies, namely the right-wing Shiv Sena and those erring Hindutva fans that had elected the Bharatiya Janata Party government in Assam.
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Further reading