Shlomi Dolev

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Shlomi Dolev
Dolev Shlomi Profile.jpg
Scientific career
Fields Computer Science
Institutions Ben-Gurion University of the Negev
Academic advisors Shlomo Moran, Amos Israeli

Shlomi Dolev (Hebrew : שלומי דולב, born December 5, 1958) is a Rita Altura Trust Chair Professor in Computer Science at Ben-Gurion University of the Negev (BGU) and the head of the BGU Negev Hi-Tech Faculty Startup Accelerator.


Biography and academic career

Dolev received B.Sc. in Civil Engineering and B.A. in Computer Science in 1984 and 1985, and his M.Sc. and D.Sc. in computer science in 1990 and 1992 from the Technion Israel Institute of Technology. From 1992 to 1995 he was at Texas A&M University as a visiting research specialist. In 1995 he joined the Department of Mathematics and Computer Science at BGU. Shlomi is the founder and the first department head of the Computer Science Department at BGU, established in 2000. After just 15 years, the department has been ranked among the first 150 best departments in the world. [1] He is the author of a book entitled Self-Stabilization published by MIT Press in 2000. [2] From 2011 to 2014, Prof. Dolev served as the Dean of the Natural Sciences Faculty at Ben-Gurion University of the Negev. From 2010 he has served for six years, as the Head of the Inter University Computation Center of Israel. [3] He is a co-founder, board member and CSO of Secret Double Octopus Ltd. [4] He is also a co-founder of Secret Sky (SecretSkyDB) Ltd. [5] In 2015 Shlomi was appointed as the steering committee head of the computer science discipline of the Ministry of Education of Israel.

Dolev together with Yuval Elovici and Ehud Gudes established the Telekom Innovation Laboratories at Ben-Gurion University. Dolev was also instrumental in establishing the IBM Cyber Security Center of Excellence (CCoE) in Collaboration with Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, and JVP Cyber Labs. [6] Several agencies and companies support his research including ISF, NSF, IBM (faculty awards), Verisign, [7] EMC, Intel, Orange France, Deutsche Telekom, US Airforce and the European Union in the sum of several millions of dollars.

During his stay at Ben-Gurion University Shlomi had visiting positions in several institutions including MIT, [8] Paris 11, Paris 6 and DIMACS. [9] He served in more than a hundred program committees, chairing several including the two leading conferences in distributed computing, DISC 2006, [10] and PODC 2014. [11] Recently Prof. Dolev established and chaired the International Symposium on Cyber Security Cryptography and Machine Learning. [12]

Shlomi served and serves as an Associate Editor in several international journals including the IEEE Transactions on Computers and PeerJ. His research students more than ten Post-Doc s, over fifteen PhD students [13] and twenty MSc students, are positioned in Hi-Tech companies, including IBM, Microsoft, Google and Academia. Prof. Dolev became a fellow of the European Alliance for Innovation in 2019, (EAI), [14] and in 2020 became IEEE fellow.

Research work

Dolev initiated a transfer of single event workshop on self-stabilization (Austin,1989) to a series of events on the subject. [15] [16]

Dolev's Master thesis, under the supervision of Shlomo Moran and Amos Israeli, resulted in the most cited paper on self-stabilization, [17] following the pioneering paper of Dijkstra [18] on the subject, is introducing the concept of fair composition of self-stabilizing systems. Dolev's contribution to the investigation of self-stabilization spans several decades of research and publications, including research on randomized self-stabilizing algorithms, [19] Super Stabilizing algorithms that react gracefully to dynamic changes while preserving the automatic recovery property offered by self-stabilizing systems. Convergence in spite of Byzantine malicious activity of a portion of the participants. [20] Dolev also introduced with co-authors, the concepts of, Silent Stabilization, [21] Local stabilization, [22] Practically Stabilizing, [23] [24] [25] [26] Self-stabilizing and Self-organizing, [27] Transient Failure Detectors and yielding Labeling Schemes. [28] He also presented the first silent self-stabilizing depth first search distributed algorithm.

Another prominent body of research in Dolev's research is related to mobile ad-hoc networks, including the use of messages random walks, GeoQuarum and virtual infrastructure, where mobile devices currently populating a geographic region implement virtual automata for the region, yielding a fixed infrastructure. [29]

Dolev's research in cryptography and cyber security research contributions include the introduction of the xor-trees [30] and buses, [31] secret sharing communication [32] and the accumulating automata [33] and secret shared random-access machine, [34] which evolved to patents and establishment of start-ups.

The research on optical computing and complexity complements Dolev's cryptographic research, searching for the use of computation gaps, [35] and provable hard on average instances. [36] Dolev initiated a series of four optical supercomputing workshops [37] and several journal special issues (e.g., Optical High-Performance Computing—JOSA A and Applied Optics [38] and Optical SuperComputing [39] ). Published several papers including a commentary in the Nature photonics journal, [40] a nature communication contribution [41] on reversible computing and a patent. [42]

Dolev also contributed to other research field samples include: Complex Networks, [43] Hash Function Data Structures, [44] Brain Science, [45] Real-time Computation, [46] Compression, [47] Game Theory, [48] Erasure Correcting, [49] Transactional Memory, [50] Error Correcting Computations, [51] Verification, [52] Machine Learning [53] and Nanotechnology. [54]

Shlomi frequently collaborates with many other researchers in computer science including Jeffrey Ullman, Nancy Lynch, Adi Shamir, Moti Yung and   Noga Alon.

Related Research Articles

Distributed computing is a field of computer science that studies distributed systems. A distributed system is a system whose components are located on different networked computers, which communicate and coordinate their actions by passing messages to one another. The components interact with one another in order to achieve a common goal. Three significant characteristics of distributed systems are: concurrency of components, lack of a global clock, and independent failure of components. Examples of distributed systems vary from SOA-based systems to massively multiplayer online games to peer-to-peer applications.

Edsger W. Dijkstra Dutch computer scientist

Edsger Wybe Dijkstra was a Dutch systems scientist, programmer, software engineer, science essayist, and pioneer in computing science. A theoretical physicist by training, he worked as a programmer at the Mathematisch Centrum (Amsterdam) from 1952 to 1962. A university professor for much of his life, Dijkstra held the Schlumberger Centennial Chair in Computer Sciences at the University of Texas at Austin from 1984 until his retirement in 1999. He was a professor of mathematics at the Eindhoven University of Technology (1962–1984) and a research fellow at the Burroughs Corporation (1973–1984).

Leslie Lamport American computer scientist

Leslie B. Lamport is an American computer scientist. Lamport is best known for his seminal work in distributed systems, and as the initial developer of the document preparation system LaTeX and the author of its first manual. Leslie Lamport was the winner of the 2013 Turing Award for imposing clear, well-defined coherence on the seemingly chaotic behavior of distributed computing systems, in which several autonomous computers communicate with each other by passing messages. He devised important algorithms and developed formal modeling and verification protocols that improve the quality of real distributed systems. These contributions have resulted in improved correctness, performance, and reliability of computer systems.

The Gödel Prize is an annual prize for outstanding papers in the area of theoretical computer science, given jointly by European Association for Theoretical Computer Science (EATCS) and the Association for Computing Machinery Special Interest Group on Algorithms and Computational Theory. The award is named in honor of Kurt Gödel. Gödel's connection to theoretical computer science is that he was the first to mention the "P versus NP" question, in a 1956 letter to John von Neumann in which Gödel asked whether a certain NP-complete problem could be solved in quadratic or linear time.

Self-stabilization is a concept of fault-tolerance in distributed computing. A distributed system that is self-stabilizing will end up in a correct state no matter what state it is initialized with. That correct state is reached after a finite number of execution steps.

Superstabilization is a concept of fault-tolerance in distributed computing. Superstabilizing distributed algorithms combine the features of self-stabilizing algorithms and dynamic algorithms. A superstabilizing algorithm – just like any other self-stabilizing algorithm – can be started in an arbitrary state, and it will eventually converge to a legitimate state. Additionally, a superstabilizing algorithm will recover rapidly from a single change in the network topology.

ACM SIGACT or SIGACT is the Association for Computing Machinery Special Interest Group on Algorithms and Computation Theory, whose purpose is support of research in theoretical computer science. It was founded in 1968 by Patrick C. Fischer.

The Edsger W. Dijkstra Paper Prize in Distributed Computing is given for outstanding papers on the principles of distributed computing, whose significance and impact on the theory and/or practice of distributed computing has been evident for at least a decade. The paper prize has been presented annually since 2000.

Kurt Mehlhorn German compupter scientist

Kurt Mehlhorn is a German theoretical computer scientist. He has been a vice president of the Max Planck Society and is director of the Max Planck Institute for Computer Science.

Larry Joseph Stockmeyer was an American computer scientist. He was one of the pioneers in the field of computational complexity theory, and he also worked in the field of distributed computing. He died of pancreatic cancer.

The Annual ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing (STOC) is an academic conference in the field of theoretical computer science. STOC has been organized annually since 1969, typically in May or June; the conference is sponsored by the Association for Computing Machinery special interest group SIGACT. Acceptance rate of STOC, averaged from 1970 to 2012, is 31%, with the rate of 29% in 2012.

Cynthia Dwork American computer scientist

Cynthia Dwork is an American computer scientist at Harvard University, where she is Gordon McKay Professor of Computer Science, Radcliffe Alumnae Professor at the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study, and Affiliated Professor, Harvard Law School. She is a distinguished scientist at Microsoft Research.

Michael John Fischer is a computer scientist who works in the fields of distributed computing, parallel computing, cryptography, algorithms and data structures, and computational complexity.

The Brooks–Iyengar algorithm or Brooks–Iyengar hybrid algorithm is a distributed algorithm that improves both the precision and accuracy of the interval measurements taken by a distributed sensor network, even in the presence of faulty sensors. The sensor network does this by exchanging the measured value and accuracy value at every node with every other node, and computes the accuracy range and a measured value for the whole network from all of the values collected. Even if some of the data from some of the sensors is faulty, the sensor network will not malfunction. The algorithm is fault-tolerant and distributed. It could also be used as a sensor fusion method. The precision and accuracy bound of this algorithm have been proved in 2016.

Daniel (Danny) Dolev is an Israeli computer scientist known for his research in cryptography and distributed computing. He holds the Berthold Badler Chair in Computer Science at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem and is a member of the scientific council of the European Research Council.

Hagit Attiya is an Israeli computer scientist who holds the Harry W. Labov and Charlotte Ullman Labov Academic Chair of Computer Science at the Technion – Israel Institute of Technology in Haifa, Israel. Her research is in the area of distributed computing.

Michel Raynal, is a French informatics scientist, professor at IRISA, University of Rennes, France. He is known for his contributions in the fields of algorithms, computability, and fault-tolerance in the context of concurrent and distributed systems. Michel Raynal is also Distinguished Chair professor at the Hong Kong Polytechnic University and editor of the “Synthesis Lectures on Distributed Computing Theory” published by Morgan & Claypool. He is a senior member of Institut Universitaire de France and a member of Academia Europaea.

Dahlia Malkhi is an Israeli-American computer scientist who works on distributed systems as a founding principal researcher at VMware Research.

Yuval Elovici computer scientist

Yuval Elovici is a computer scientist. He is a professor in the Department of Software and Information Systems Engineering at Ben-Gurion University of the Negev (BGU), where he is the incumbent of the Davide and Irene Sala Chair in Homeland Security Research. He is the director of the Cyber Security Research Center at BGU and the founder and director of the Telekom Innovation Laboratories at Ben-Gurion University. In addition to his roles at BGU, he also serves as the lab director of Singapore University of Technology and Design’s (SUTD) ST Electronics-SUTD Cyber Security Laboratory, as well as the research director of iTrust. In 2014 he co-founded Morphisec, a start-up company, that develops cyber security mechanisms related to moving target defense.

Rachid Guerraoui is a Moroccan-Swiss computer scientist and a professor at the School of Computer and Communication Sciences at Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), known for his contributions in the fields of concurrent and distributed computing. He is an ACM Fellow and the Chair in Informatics and Computational Science for the year 2018–2019 at Collège de France for distributed computing.


  1. "Academic Ranking of World Universities in Computer Science - 2015 | 2015 Top 200 Universities in Computer Science | ARWU-SUBJECT 2015". Retrieved 2017-12-30.
  2. Dolev, Shlomi (2000). Self-stabilization. MIT Press. ISBN   9780262041782.
  3. "Leadership & Staff - IUCC- Inter-University Computation Center, ISRAEL". IUCC- Inter-University Computation Center, ISRAEL. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
  4. "Secret Double Octopus - Password-free keyless security". Retrieved 2017-12-30.
  5. "Secret Sky". Retrieved 2017-12-30.
  6. Strom, David. "Why Israel could be the next cybersecurity world power". ITworld. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
  7. "Verisign "Building a Better Internet" Symposium to Highlight Internet Leaders and Visionaries (NASDAQ:VRSN)". Retrieved 2017-12-30.
  8. "Virtual Infrastructure - Theory of Distributed Systems Group - Massachusetts Institute of Technology". Retrieved 2017-12-30.
  9. "Past Visitors At DIMACS". Retrieved 2017-12-30.
  10. "DISC 2006". Retrieved 2017-12-30.
  11. "ACM PODC 2014". Retrieved 2017-12-30.
  12. "CSCML 2017". Retrieved 2017-12-30.
  13. "Shlomi Dolev - The Mathematics Genealogy Project". Retrieved 2017-12-30.
  14. "We are proud to announce the first EAI Fellows | EAI Blog" . Retrieved 2020-01-19.
  15. "Self-Stabilization Home Page". Retrieved 2017-12-30.
  16. "WSS 95 Call For Papers". Retrieved 2017-12-30.
  17. Dalev, Shlomo; Israeli, Amos; Moran, Shlomo (1990). Self-stabilization of Dynamic Systems Assuming Only Read/Write Atomicity. Proceedings of the Ninth Annual ACM Symposium on Principles of Distributed Computing. PODC '90. New York, NY, USA: ACM. pp. 103–117. doi:10.1145/93385.93407. ISBN   978-0897914048.
  18. Dijkstra, Edsger W. (1982). "Self-Stabilization in Spite of Distributed Control". Selected Writings on Computing: A personal Perspective. Texts and Monographs in Computer Science. Springer, New York, NY. pp. 41–46. doi:10.1007/978-1-4612-5695-3_7. ISBN   9781461256977.
  19. Dolev, S.; Israeli, A.; Moran, S. (April 1997). "Uniform dynamic self-stabilizing leader election". IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems. 8 (4): 424–440. doi:10.1109/71.588622. ISSN   1045-9219.
  20. Dolev, Shlomi; Welch, Jennifer L. (September 2004). "Self-stabilizing Clock Synchronization in the Presence of Byzantine Faults". Journal of the ACM. 51 (5): 780–799. CiteSeerX . doi:10.1145/1017460.1017463. ISSN   0004-5411.
  21. Dolev, Shlomi; Gouda, Mohamed G.; Schneider, Marco (1999-10-01). "Memory requirements for silent stabilization". Acta Informatica. 36 (6): 447–462. doi:10.1007/s002360050180. ISSN   0001-5903.
  22. Afek, Y.; Dolev, S. (June 1997). Local stabilizer. Proceedings of the Fifth Israeli Symposium on Theory of Computing and Systems. pp. 74–84. doi:10.1109/ISTCS.1997.595159. ISBN   978-0-8186-8037-3.
  23. Dolev, Shlomi; Kat, Ronen I.; Schiller, Elad M. (2010-12-01). "When consensus meets self-stabilization". Journal of Computer and System Sciences. 76 (8): 884–900. doi:10.1016/j.jcss.2010.05.005. ISSN   0022-0000.
  24. Alon, Noga; Attiya, Hagit; Dolev, Shlomi; Dubois, Swan; Potop-Butucaru, Maria; Tixeuil, Sébastien (2015-06-01). "Practically stabilizing SWMR atomic memory in message-passing systems". Journal of Computer and System Sciences. 81 (4): 692–701. doi:10.1016/j.jcss.2014.11.014. ISSN   0022-0000.
  25. Blanchard, Peva; Dolev, Shlomi; Beauquier, Joffroy; Delaët, Sylvie (2014). Networked Systems (PDF). Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Cham. pp. 99–121. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-09581-3_8. ISBN   9783319095806.
  26. Dolev, Shlomi; Georgiou, Chryssis; Marcoullis, Ioannis; Schiller, Elad M. (2017-05-17). Self-stabilizing Reconfiguration. Networked Systems. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Cham. pp. 51–68. arXiv: 1606.00195 . doi:10.1007/978-3-319-59647-1_5. ISBN   9783319596464.
  27. Dolev, Shlomi; Tzachar, Nir (2009-02-28). "Empire of colonies: Self-stabilizing and self-organizing distributed algorithm". Theoretical Computer Science. 410 (6–7): 514–532. doi:10.1016/j.tcs.2008.10.006. ISSN   0304-3975.
  28. Beauquier, Joffroy; DelaËt, Sylvie; Dolev, Shlomi; Tixeuil, Sébastien (1998-09-24). Transient fault detectors . Distributed Computing. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. pp.  62–74. doi:10.1007/BFb0056474. ISBN   9783540650669.
  29. "Virtual Infrastructure - Theory of Distributed Systems Group - Massachusetts Institute of Technology". Retrieved 2017-12-30.
  30. Dolev, Shlomi; Ostrobsky, Rafail (May 2000). "Xor-trees for Efficient Anonymous Multicast and Reception". ACM Transactions on Information and System Security. 3 (2): 63–84. CiteSeerX . doi:10.1145/354876.354877. ISSN   1094-9224.
  31. Beimel; Dolev (2003-01-01). "Buses for Anonymous Message Delivery". Journal of Cryptology. 16 (1): 25–39. CiteSeerX . doi:10.1007/s00145-002-0128-6. ISSN   0933-2790.
  32. Dolev, Shlomi; Lahiani, Limor; Yung, Moti (2012-09-01). "Secret swarm unit: Reactive k-secret sharing". Ad Hoc Networks. 10 (7): 1291–1305. doi:10.1016/j.adhoc.2012.03.011. ISSN   1570-8705.
  33. Dolev, Shlomi; Gilboa, Niv; Li, Ximing (2015). Accumulating Automata and Cascaded Equations Automata for Communicationless Information Theoretically Secure Multi-Party Computation: Extended Abstract. Proceedings of the 3rd International Workshop on Security in Cloud Computing. SCC '15. New York, NY, USA: ACM. pp. 21–29. doi:10.1145/2732516.2732526. ISBN   9781450334471.
  34. Dolev, Shlomi; Li, Yin (2016). Algorithmic Aspects of Cloud Computing. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Cham. pp. 19–34. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-29919-8_2. ISBN   9783319299181.
  35. Dolev, Shlomi; Korach, Ephraim; Li, Ximing; Li, Yin; Uzan, Galit (2016-07-11). "Magnifying computing gaps: Establishing encrypted communication over unidirectional channels". Theoretical Computer Science. 636: 17–26. doi:10.1016/j.tcs.2016.04.032. ISSN   0304-3975.
  36. Dolev, Shlomi; Fandina, Nova; Gutfreund, Dan (2013-05-22). Succinct Permanent Is NEXP-Hard with Many Hard Instances. Algorithms and Complexity. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. pp. 183–196. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-38233-8_16. ISBN   9783642382321.
  37. Dolev, Shlomi; Oltean, Mihai (2013). Optical Supercomputing | SpringerLink. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. 7715. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-38250-5. ISBN   978-3-642-38249-9.
  38. Caulfield, H. John; Dolev, Shlomi; Green, William M. J. (2009-08-01). "Optical High-Performance Computing—JOSA A and Applied Optics: Introduction". JOSA A. 26 (8): OHPC1–OHPC2. Bibcode:2009JOSAA..26C...1C. doi:10.1364/JOSAA.26.0OHPC1. ISSN   1520-8532. PMID   19649109.
  39. Dolev, Shlomi; Oltean, Mihai (2015-09-01). "Optical SuperComputing: Preface to special issue". Natural Computing. 14 (3): 431–432. doi:10.1007/s11047-015-9510-9. ISSN   1567-7818.
  40. Caulfield, H. John; Dolev, Shlomi (2010-05-01). "Why future supercomputing requires optics". Nature Photonics. 4 (5): 261–263. doi:10.1038/nphoton.2010.94.
  41. Cohen, Eyal; Dolev, Shlomi; Rosenblit, Michael (2016-04-26). "All-optical design for inherently energy-conserving reversible gates and circuits". Nature Communications. 7: 11424. Bibcode:2016NatCo...711424C. doi:10.1038/ncomms11424. PMC   4853429 . PMID   27113510.
  42. ,Dolev, Shlomo&Yuval Nir,"Optical implementation of bounded non-deterministic turing machines"
  43. Dolev, Shlomi; Elovici, Yuval; Puzis, Rami (May 2010). "Routing Betweenness Centrality". Journal of the ACM. 57 (4): 25:1–25:27. doi:10.1145/1734213.1734219. ISSN   0004-5411.
  44. Dolev, Shlomi; Lahiani, Limor; Haviv, Yinnon (2013-03-04). "Unique permutation hashing". Theoretical Computer Science. 475: 59–65. doi:10.1016/j.tcs.2012.12.047. ISSN   0304-3975.
  45. Berend, Daniel; Dolev, Shlomi; Hanemann, Ariel (2014-11-07). "Graph Degree Sequence Solely Determines the Expected Hopfield Network Pattern Stability". Neural Computation. 27 (1): 202–210. doi:10.1162/NECO_a_00685. ISSN   0899-7667. PMID   25380334.
  46. Dolev, Shlomi; Keizelman, Alexander (1999-07-01). "Non-Preemptive Real-Time Scheduling of Multimedia Tasks". Real-Time Systems. 17 (1): 23–39. doi:10.1023/A:1008033411290. ISSN   0922-6443.
  47. Dolev, S.; Frenkel, S.; Kopeetsky, M. (August 2014). Entropy Adaptive On-Line Compression. 2014 IEEE 13th International Symposium on Network Computing and Applications. pp. 162–166. doi:10.1109/NCA.2014.31. ISBN   978-1-4799-5393-6.
  48. Dolev, Shlomi (2015). "The Reality Game Theory Imposes (Short Summary)". Algorithms, Probability, Networks, and Games. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. 9295. Springer, Cham. pp. 25–26. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-24024-4_2. ISBN   9783319240237.
  49. Beimel, A.; Dolev, S.; Singer, N. (December 2007). "RT Oblivious Erasure Correcting". IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking. 15 (6): 1321–1332. CiteSeerX . doi:10.1109/TNET.2007.896540. ISSN   1063-6692.
  50. Dolev, Shlomi; Hendler, Danny; Suissa, Adi (2008). CAR-STM: Scheduling-based Collision Avoidance and Resolution for Software Transactional Memory. Proceedings of the Twenty-seventh ACM Symposium on Principles of Distributed Computing. PODC '08. New York, NY, USA: ACM. pp. 125–134. doi:10.1145/1400751.1400769. ISBN   9781595939890.
  51. Dolev, Shlomi; Frenkel, Sergey; Tamir, Dan E.; Sinelnikov, Vladimir (2013-12-01). "Preserving Hamming Distance in Arithmetic and Logical Operations". Journal of Electronic Testing. 29 (6): 903–907. doi:10.1007/s10836-013-5421-9. ISSN   0923-8174.
  52. Brukman, Olga; Dolev, Shlomi (2011-08-01). "Recovery oriented programming: runtime monitoring of safety and liveness". International Journal on Software Tools for Technology Transfer. 13 (4): 377–395. doi:10.1007/s10009-011-0200-3. ISSN   1433-2779.
  53. Dolev, Shlomi; Leshem, Guy; Yagel, Reuven (2010). Purifying Data by Machine Learning with Certainty Levels. Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on Reliability, Availability, and Security. WRAS '10. New York, NY, USA: ACM. pp. 5:1–5:6. doi:10.1145/1953563.1953567. ISBN   9781450306423.
  54. Cohen, Eyal; Dolev, Shlomi; Rosenblit, Michael (2012-07-19). A Nano-Optics Vector Matrix Multiplier for Implementing State Machines. Optical Supercomputing. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. pp. 78–91. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-38250-5_9. ISBN   9783642382499.