Sholgara (Dari : شولگره, šol(a)-gara, lit. "rice paddy field", old name Boyena Qara, Dari : بوینهقره) is a district (pop: 110,600) in the southern part of Balkh Province, Afghanistan. Sholgara, just south of Mazari Sharif (Mazar), is strategically located at the crossroads between several districts: Sangcharak, Kishindih, Dar-I-Suf. Dar-I-Suf and Sangcharak are known for their resistance to the Taliban insurgency. It is commonly said that "who holds Sholgara, holds Mazar".
The demography is not clear as no census has taken place yet.
The economy is almost entirely agricultural. The Sholgar River irrigates some 40,000 jeribs (8,000 hectares) of land, and another two or three thousand are irrigated from springs. Although rainfall is low (120 mm to 200 mm a year), 150,000 jeribs (30,000 hectares) are in dry farming, mostly wheat and some barley. Only 5% of the agriculture is in orchards.
Nonetheless, Sholgara District, along with Balkh District, are the sole producers of industrial products in Balkh Province.In addition karakul skins are processed in Sholgara District.
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Mazār-i-Sharīf, also called Mazār-e Sharīf, or just Mazar, is the fourth-largest city of Afghanistan, with a 2015 UN–Habitat population estimate 427,600. It is the capital of Balkh province and is linked by highways with Kunduz in the east, Kabul in the southeast, Herat in the southwest and Termez in Uzbekistan in the north. It is about 55 km (34 mi) from the Uzbek border. The city also serves as one of the many tourist attractions because of its famous shrines as well as the Islamic and Hellenistic archeological sites. The ancient city of Balkh is also nearby.
Kunduz is a city in northern Afghanistan, which serves as the capital of Kunduz Province. The city has a population of about 268,893, making it about the 6th-largest city of Afghanistan, and the largest city in the northeastern section of the country. Kunduz is located in the historical Tokharistan region of Bactria, near the confluence of the Kunduz River with the Khanabad River. Kunduz is linked by highways with Kabul to the south, Mazar-i-Sharif to the west, and Badakhshan to the east. Kunduz is also linked with Dushanbe in Tajikistan to the north, via the Afghan dry port of Sherkhan Bandar.
Balkh is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan, located in the north of the country. It is divided into 15 districts and has a population of about 1,245,100, which is multi-ethnic and mostly a Persian-speaking society. The city of Mazar-i-Sharif serves as the capital of the province. The Mazar-e Sharif International Airport and Camp Marmal sit on the eastern edge of Mazar-i-Sharif.
Faryab is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan, which is located in the north of the country bordering neighboring Turkmenistan. It has a population of about 948,000, which is multi-ethnic and mostly a tribal society. The province encompasses 15 districts and over 1,000 villages. The capital of Faryab province is Maymana. It also borders Jowzjan Province, Sar-e Pol Province, Ghor Province and Badghis Province.
Jowzjan, sometimes spelled as Jawzjan or Jozjan, is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan, located in the north of the country bordering neighboring Turkmenistan. The province is divided into 11 districts and contains hundreds of villages. It has a population of about 512,100, which is multi-ethnic and mostly agriculturalists. Sheberghan is the capital of Jozjan province.
Samangan is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan, located north of the Hindu Kush mountains in the central part of the country. The province covers 11,218 square kilometres (4,331 sq mi) and is surrounded by Sar-e Pol Province in the west, Balkh in the north, Baghlan in the east, and Bamyan in the south.
Sar-e Pol, also spelled Sari Pul, is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan, located in the north of the country. It borders Jowzjan and Balkh to the west and north, Ghor Province to the south, and Samangan to the east. The province is divided into 7 districts and contains 896 villages. It has a population of about 532,000, which is multi-ethnic and mostly a tribal society. The province was created in 1988, with the support of northern Afghan politician Sayed Nasim Mihanparast. The city of Sar-e Pol serves as the provincial capital.
Atta Muhammad Nur (also spelled Ata Mohammed Noor,, served as the Governor of Balkh Province in Afghanistan from 2004 to January 25, 2018. An ethnic Tajik, he worked to educate the Mujahideen after the 1979 Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, gaining the nickname "The Teacher." He then became a mujahideen resistance commander for the Jamiat-e Islami against the Soviets.
Sheberghān or Shaburghān, also spelled Shebirghan and Shibarghan, is the capital city of the Jowzjan Province in northern Afghanistan.
This is a list of districts of Afghanistan, known as wuleswali. These are secondary level administrative units, one level below the provinces. The Afghan government issued its first district map in 1973. It recognized 325 districts, counting wuleswalis (districts), alaqadaries (sub-districts), and markaz-e-wulaiyat. In the ensuing years additional districts have been added through splits, and a few eliminated through mergers. In June 2005, the Afghan government issued a map of 398 districts. It was widely adopted as by many information management systems, though usually with the addition of Sharak-e-Hayratan for a 399 district total. Here is a link to a clean rendering of the 399 district set as a spreadsheet from an official Afghan source. It remains the de facto standard, as of late 2018, despite a string of government announcements of the creation of new districts.
Zari is a district in Balkh Province, Afghanistan. It was created in 2005 from part of Kishindih District.
Gurziwan is a district in Faryab Province, Afghanistan. It was created in 2005 from part of Bilchiragh District.
Chārbōlak district is located in the western part of Balkh Province. Its capital is the village of Charbolak, 40 km northwest of Mazari Sharif. The majority of the population is Pashtun.
Shortepa also Shor Tappeh is one of the 15 districts of Balkh province. Shortepa, a small district in Balkh Province, Afghanistan. It is situated along the Amu Darya river, across the border with Termez, Uzbekistan, and to the east Kaldar. The main village is Shor Tappeh, A at 274 m altitude.
The fall of Mazar-i-Sharif in November 2001 resulted from the first major offensive of the Afghanistan War after American intervention. A push into the city of Mazar-i-Sharif in Balkh Province by the United Islamic Front for the Salvation of Afghanistan, combined with U.S. Army Special Forces aerial bombardment, resulted in the withdrawal of Taliban forces who had held the city since 1998. After the fall of outlying villages, and an intensive bombardment, the Taliban and al-Qaeda forces withdrew from the city. Several hundred pro-Taliban fighters were killed. Approximately 500 were captured, and approximately 1,000 reportedly defected. The capture of Mazar-i-Sharif was the first major defeat for the Taliban.
The history of Arabs in Afghanistan spans over one millennium, from the 11th century Islamic conquest when Arabs arrived with their Islamic mission until recently when others from the Arab world arrived to defend fellow Muslims from the Soviet Union followed by NATO forces. Most of the early Arabs gradually lost their Arabic hegemony and ultimately mixed with the local population, though they are still considered a cognizably distinct ethnic group according to the Constitution of Afghanistan and the Afghan National Anthem. Afghans who carry Sayed or Quraishi in their names usually claim Arab ancestry.
Sancharak District or Sangcharak is a district of Sar-e Pol Province, Afghanistan. Its center is the city of Tukzar or Tokzar. Sancharak district borders Balkh Province in the east. Sancharak District's area is 1089 square kilometres.
Bādghīs is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan, located in the northwest of the country, on the border with Turkmenistan. It is considered to be one of the country's most underdeveloped provinces. The capital is Qala i Naw, while the most populous city and district is Bala Murghab. The ruins of the medieval city of Marw al-Rudh, the historical capital of the medieval region of Gharjistan, are located in the province near the modern city of Bala Murghab.
The Khulm River is a river of Northern-Central Afghanistan. In its upper course, it passes through Khulm and Haybak, today in Balkh Province. The Khulm is a tributary to the Oxus basin. Its source is located to the north of the city of Khulm. Further downstream, it passes through the city of Samangan and Samangan Province. The Khulm River forms the western border of Kunduz Province.
Darah Sof is a district of Samangan Province in Afghanistan. It is located about 130 kilometres (81 mi) from the city of Samangan and 200 kilometres (120 mi) from the city of Mazar-i-Sharif, in Balkh Province.