Shot put

Last updated
Athletics
Shot put
Tomasz Majewski - 2. Memorial Kamili Skolimowskiej - Warszawa, 2011-09-20.jpg
Polish double Olympic champion Tomasz Majewski
World records
Men Flag of the United States.svg Ryan Crouser 23.37 m (76 ft 8 in) (2021)
Women Flag of the Soviet Union.svg Natalya Lisovskaya 22.63 m (74 ft 2+34 in) (1987)
Olympic records
Men Flag of the United States.svg Ryan Crouser 22.52 m (73 ft 10+12 in) (2016)
Women Flag of East Germany.svg Ilona Slupianek 22.41 m (73 ft 6+14 in) (1980)

The shot put is a track and field event involving "putting" (pushing rather than throwing) [1] a heavy spherical ball—the shot—as far as possible. The shot put competition for men has been a part of the modern Olympics since their revival in 1896, and women's competition began in 1948.

Contents

History

Czechoslovak shot putter Plihal at the 1957 East German Indoor Athletics Championships Bundesarchiv Bild 183-44941-0006, Plihan.jpg
Czechoslovak shot putter Plíhal at the 1957 East German Indoor Athletics Championships
Shot putter at the University of Nebraska, 1942, showing the circle and stopboard Shotput.jpg
Shot putter at the University of Nebraska, 1942, showing the circle and stopboard

Homer mentions competitions of rock throwing by soldiers during the Siege of Troy but there is no record of any dead weights being thrown in Greek competitions. The first evidence for stone- or weight-throwing events were in the Scottish Highlands, and date back to approximately the first century. [2] In the 16th century King Henry VIII was noted for his prowess in court competitions of weight and hammer throwing. [3]

The first events resembling the modern shot put likely occurred in the Middle Ages when soldiers held competitions in which they hurled cannonballs. Shot put competitions were first recorded in early 19th century Scotland, and were a part of the British Amateur Championships beginning in 1866. [4]

Competitors take their throw from inside a marked circle 2.135 m (7 ft) in diameter, with what’s known as a “toe board” about 10 centimetres (3.9 in) high at the front of the circle. The distance thrown is measured from the inside of the circumference of the circle to the nearest mark made on the ground by the falling shot, with distances rounded down to the nearest centimetre under IAAF and WMA rules.

Czechoslovak shot putter Jiri Skobla showing the correct technique for keeping the shot near the neck Bundesarchiv Bild 183-44941-0005, Jiri Skobla.jpg
Czechoslovak shot putter Jiří Skobla showing the correct technique for keeping the shot near the neck

The following rules (indoor and outdoor) must be adhered to for a legal throw:

Foul throws occur when an athlete:

At any time if the shot loses contact with the neck then it is technically an illegal put.

Regulation misconceptions

The following are either obsolete or non-existent, but commonly believed rules within professional competition:

Competition

Shot put area Shot put area.JPG
Shot put area

Shot put competitions have been held at the modern Summer Olympic Games since their inception in 1896, and it is also included as an event in the World Athletics Championships.

Each of these competitions in the modern era have a set number of rounds of throws. Typically there are three qualification rounds to determine qualification for the final. There are then three preliminary rounds in the final with the top eight competitors receiving a further three throws. Each competitor in the final is credited with their longest throw, regardless of whether it was achieved in the preliminary or final three rounds. The competitor with the longest legal put is declared the winner.

Weight

In open competitions the men's shot weighs 7.26 kilograms (16.0 lb), and the women's shot weighs 4 kilograms (8.8 lb). Junior, school, and masters competitions often use different weights of shots, typically below the weights of those used in open competitions; the individual rules for each competition should be consulted in order to determine the correct weights to be used.

Putting styles

Two putting styles are in current general use by shot put competitors: the glide and the spin. With all putting styles, the goal is to release the shot with maximum forward velocity at an angle of approximately forty-five degrees.

Glide

The origin of this technique glide dates to 1951, when Parry O'Brien from the United States invented a technique that involved the putter facing backwards, rotating 180 degrees across the circle, and then tossing the shot. Unlike spin this technique is a linear movement. [5]

With this technique, a right-hand thrower would begin facing the rear of the circle. They would typically adopt a specific type of crouch, involving their bent right leg, in order to begin the throw from a more beneficial posture whilst also isometrically preloading their muscles. The positioning of their bodyweight over their bent leg, which pushes upwards with equal force, generates a preparatory isometric press. The force generated by this press will be channelled into the subsequent throw making it more powerful. To initiate the throw they kick to the front with the left leg, while pushing off forcefully with the right. As the thrower crosses the circle, the hips twist toward the front, the left arm is swung out then pulled back tight, followed by the shoulders, and they then strike in a putting motion with their right arm. The key is to move quickly across the circle with as little air under the feet as possible, hence the name 'glide'.

Spin

Also known as rotational technique. [6] It was first practiced in Europe in the 1950s but did not receive much attention until the 1970s. [7] In 1972 Aleksandr Baryshnikov set his first USSR record using a new putting style, the spin ("круговой мах" in Russian), invented by his coach Viktor Alexeyev. [8] [9] The spin involves rotating like a discus thrower and using rotational momentum for power. In 1976 Baryshnikov went on to set a world record of 22.00 m (72.18 ft) with his spin style, and was the first shot putter to cross the 22-meter mark. [10]

With this technique, a right-hand thrower faces the rear, and begins to spin on the ball of the left foot. The thrower comes around and faces the front of the circle and drives the right foot into the center of the circle. Finally, the thrower reaches for the front of the circle with the left foot, twisting the hips and shoulders like in the glide, and puts the shot.

When the athlete executes the spin, the upper body is twisted hard to the right, so the imaginary lines created by the shoulders and hips are no longer parallel. This action builds up torque, and stretches the muscles, creating an involuntary elasticity in the muscles, providing extra power and momentum. When the athlete prepares to release, the left foot is firmly planted, causing the momentum and energy generated to be conserved, pushing the shot in an upward and outward direction.

Another purpose of the spin is to build up a high rotational speed, by swinging the right leg initially, then to bring all the limbs in tightly, similar to a figure skater bringing in their arms while spinning to increase their speed. Once this fast speed is achieved the shot is released, transferring the energy into the shot put.

Until 2016, a woman has never made an Olympic final (top 8) using the spin technique. The first woman to enter a final and win a medal at the Olympics was Anita Márton. [11] [7]

Usage

Currently, most top male shot putters use the spin. However the glide remains popular since the technique leads to greater consistency compared to the rotational technique. Almost all throwers start by using the glide. Tomasz Majewski notes that although most athletes use the spin, [12] he and some other top shot putters achieved success using this classic method (for example he became first to defend the Olympic title in 56 years).

The world record and the second-best all-time male results were completed with the spin technique, while the third-best all-time put of 23.06 m (75 ft 7+34 in) by Ulf Timmermann was completed with the glide technique.

The decision to glide or spin may need to be decided on an individual basis, determined by the thrower's size and power. Short throwers may benefit from the spin and taller throwers may benefit from the glide, but many throwers do not follow this guideline.

Types of shots

The shot is made of different kinds of materials depending on its intended use. Materials used include sand, iron, cast iron, solid steel, stainless steel, brass, and synthetic materials like polyvinyl. Some metals are more dense than others making the size of the shot vary. For example, different materials are used to make indoor and outdoor shot - because damage to surroundings must be taken into account - so the latter are smaller. There are various size and weight standards for the implement that depend on the age and gender of the competitors as well as the national customs of the governing body.

World records

The current world record holders are: [13]

TypeAthleteMarkDatePlace
Men
Outdoor Ryan Crouser 23.37 m (76 ft 8 in)18 June 2021 Eugene, Oregon, USA
Indoor Ryan Crouser 22.82 m (74 ft 10+14 in)24 January 2021 Fayetteville, Arkansas, USA
Women
Outdoor Natalya Lisovskaya 22.63 m (74 ft 2+34 in)7 June 1987 Moscow, USSR
Indoor Helena Fibingerová 22.50 m (73 ft 9+34 in)19 February 1977 Jablonec, CZE

Continental records

The current records held on each continent are: [14] [15]

AreaMen'sWomen's
MarkAthleteNationMarkAthleteNation
Africa 21.97 m (72 ft 34 in) Janus Robberts Flag of South Africa.svg  South Africa 18.43 m (60 ft 5+12 in) Vivian Chukwuemeka Flag of Nigeria.svg  Nigeria
Asia 21.13 m (69 ft 3+34 in) Sultan Abdulmajeed Al-Hebshi Flag of Saudi Arabia.svg  Saudi Arabia 21.76 m (71 ft 4+12 in) Meisu Li Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China
Europe 23.06 m (75 ft 7+34 in) Ulf Timmermann Flag of East Germany.svg  East Germany 22.63 m (74 ft 2+34 in) WR Natalya Lisovskaya Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union
North and Central
America, and Caribbean
23.37 m (76 ft 8 in) WR Ryan Crouser Flag of the United States.svg  United States 20.96 m (68 ft 9 in) A Belsy Laza Flag of Cuba.svg  Cuba
Oceania 22.90 m (75 ft 1+12 in) Tomas Walsh Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand 21.24 m (69 ft 8 in) Valerie Adams Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand
South America 22.61 m (74 ft 2 in) Darlan Romani Flag of Brazil.svg  Brazil 19.30 m (63 ft 3+34 in) A Elisângela Adriano Flag of Brazil.svg  Brazil

All-time top 25

Men (absolute)

RankMarkTechniqueAthleteNationalityDatePlaceRef
123.37 m (76 ft 8 in)spin Ryan Crouser Flag of the United States.svg  United States 18 June 2021 Eugene [18]
223.12 m (75 ft 10 in)spin Randy Barnes Flag of the United States.svg  United States 20 May 1990 Westwood
323.06 m (75 ft 7+34 in)glide Ulf Timmermann Flag of East Germany.svg  East Germany 22 May 1988 Khania
422.91 m (75 ft 1+34 in)glide Alessandro Andrei Flag of Italy.svg  Italy 12 August 1987 Viareggio
spin Joe Kovacs Flag of the United States.svg  United States 5 October 2019 Doha [19]
622.90 m (75 ft 1+12 in)spin Tomas Walsh Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand 5 October 2019 Doha [19]
722.86 m (75 ft 0 in) A spin Brian Oldfield Flag of the United States.svg  United States 10 May 1975 El Paso
822.75 m (74 ft 7+12 in)glide Werner Günthör Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland 23 August 1988 Bern
922.67 m (74 ft 4+12 in)spin Kevin Toth Flag of the United States.svg  United States 19 April 2003 Lawrence
1022.64 m (74 ft 3+14 in)glide Udo Beyer Flag of East Germany.svg  East Germany 20 August 1986 Berlin
1122.61 m (74 ft 2 in)spin Darlan Romani Flag of Brazil.svg  Brazil 30 June 2019 Stanford [20]
1222.54 m (73 ft 11+14 in)spin Christian Cantwell Flag of the United States.svg  United States 5 June 2004 Gresham
1322.52 m (73 ft 10+12 in)glide John Brenner Flag of the United States.svg  United States 26 April 1987 Walnut
1422.51 m (73 ft 10 in)spin Adam Nelson Flag of the United States.svg  United States 18 May 2002 Gresham
1522.44 m (73 ft 7+14 in)spin Darrell Hill Flag of the United States.svg  United States 31 August 2017 Brussels [21]
1622.43 m (73 ft 7 in)spin Reese Hoffa Flag of the United States.svg  United States 3 August 2007 London
1722.32 m (73 ft 2+12 in)spin Michał Haratyk Flag of Poland.svg  Poland 28 July 2019 Warsaw [22]
3 August 2019 Władysławowo [23]
1822.28 m (73 ft 1 in)spin Ryan Whiting Flag of the United States.svg  United States 10 May 2013 Doha
1922.25 m (72 ft 11+34 in)spin Konrad Bukowiecki Flag of Poland.svg  Poland 14 September 2019 Chorzów [24]
2022.24 m (72 ft 11+12 in)glide Sergey Smirnov Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union 21 June 1986 Tallinn
2122.22 m (72 ft 10+34 in)spin Bob Bertemes Flag of Luxembourg.svg  Luxembourg 4 August 2019 Luxembourg City [25]
2222.21 m (72 ft 10+14 in) A spin Dylan Armstrong Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada 25 June 2011 Calgary
2322.20 m (72 ft 10 in)glide David Storl Flag of Germany.svg  Germany 9 July 2015 Lausanne [26]
spin John Godina Flag of the United States.svg  United States 22 May 2005 Carson
2522.17 m (72 ft 8+34 in) i spin Tomáš Staněk Flag of the Czech Republic.svg  Czech Republic 6 February 2018 Düsseldorf [27]

Notes

Below is a list of all other performances (excluding ancillary throws) equal or superior to 22.40 m:

  • Randy Barnes also threw 23.10 (1990), 22.66 (1989i) and 22.42 (1988).
  • Ryan Crouser also threw 23.01 (2021), 22.91 (2020), 22.90 (2019), 22.82 (2021i), 22.74 (2019 & 2020), 22.72 (2020), 22.70 (2020), 22.69 (2021), 22.67 (2019), 22.66 (2021i), 22.65 (2017 & 2021i), 22.62 (2019), 22.60 (2020i & 2021), 22.59 (2020), 22.58 (2020i), 22.56 (2020), 22.53 (2018), 22.52 (2016), 22.47 (2017), 22.44 (2019), 22.43 (2017 & 2020) and 22.42 (2020).
  • Joe Kovacs also threw 22.72 (2021), 22.57 (2017) and 22.56 (2015).
  • Tom Walsh also threw 22.67 (2018), 22.60 (2018), 22.45 (2018) and 22.44 (2019).
  • Ulf Timmermann also threw 22.62 (1985), 22.61 (1988), 22.60 (1986), 22.56 (1988), 22.55 (1989i), 22.51 (1986) and 22.47 (1986 & 1988).
  • Darlan Romani also threw 22.55 (2019).
  • Werner Günthör also threw 22.47 and 22.43 (both 1987).
  • Brian Oldfield also threw 22.45 (1976 A).
  • Christian Cantwell also threw 22.45 (2006) and 22.41 (2010).
  • Adam Nelson also threw 22.40 (2008i)
  • Darrell Hill also threw 22.40 (2018).

Women (absolute)

RankMarkTechniqueAthleteNationalityDatePlace
122.63 m (74 ft 2+34 in)glide Natalya Lisovskaya Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union 7 June 1987 Moscow
222.50 m (73 ft 9+34 in) i glide Helena Fibingerová Flag of the Czech Republic.svg  Czechoslovakia 19 February 1977 Jablonec nad Nisou
322.45 m (73 ft 7+34 in)glide Ilona Slupianek Flag of East Germany.svg  East Germany 11 May 1980 Potsdam
422.19 m (72 ft 9+12 in)glide Claudia Losch Flag of Germany.svg  West Germany 23 August 1987 Hainfeld
521.89 m (71 ft 9+34 in)glide Ivanka Khristova Flag of Bulgaria (1971 - 1990).svg  Bulgaria 4 July 1976 Belmeken
621.86 m (71 ft 8+12 in)glide Marianne Adam Flag of East Germany.svg  East Germany 23 June 1979 Leipzig
721.76 m (71 ft 4+12 in)glide Li Meisu Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China 23 April 1988 Shijiazhuang
821.73 m (71 ft 3+12 in)glide Natalya Akhrimenko Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union 21 May 1988 Leselidze
921.69 m (71 ft 1+34 in)glide Vita Pavlysh Flag of Ukraine.svg  Ukraine 15 August 1998 Budapest
1021.66 m (71 ft 34 in)glide Sui Xinmei Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China 9 June 1990 Beijing
1121.62 m (70 ft 11 in)glide Verzhinia Veselinova Flag of Bulgaria.svg  Bulgaria 21 August 1982 Sofia
1221.60 m (70 ft 10+14 in) i glide Valentina Fedyushina Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union 28 December 1991 Simferopol
1321.58 m (70 ft 9+12 in)glide Margitta Pufe Flag of East Germany.svg  East Germany 28 May 1978 Erfurt
1421.57 m (70 ft 9 in)glide Ines Müller Flag of East Germany.svg  East Germany 16 May 1988 Athens
1521.53 m (70 ft 7+12 in)glide Nunu Abashidze Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union 20 June 1984 Kyiv
1621.52 m (70 ft 7 in)glide Huang Zhihong Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China 27 June 1990 Beijing
1721.46 m (70 ft 4+34 in)glide Larisa Peleshenko Flag of Russia.svg  Russia 26 August 2000 Budapest
1821.45 m (70 ft 4+14 in)glide Nadezhda Chizhova Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union 29 September 1973 Varna
1921.43 m (70 ft 3+12 in)glide Eva Wilms Flag of Germany.svg  West Germany 27 June 1977 Munich
2021.42 m (70 ft 3+14 in)glide Svetlana Krachevskaya Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union 24 July 1980 Moscow
2121.31 m (69 ft 10+34 in)glide Heike Hartwig Flag of East Germany.svg  East Germany 16 May 1988 Athens
2221.27 m (69 ft 9+14 in)glide Liane Schmuhl Flag of East Germany.svg  East Germany 26 June 1982 Cottbus
2321.24 m (69 ft 8 in)glide Valerie Adams Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand 29 August 2011 Daegu
2421.22 m (69 ft 7+14 in)glide Astrid Kumbernuss Flag of Germany.svg  Germany 5 August 1995 Gothenburg
2521.21 m (69 ft 7 in)glide Kathrin Neimke Flag of East Germany.svg  East Germany 5 September 1987 Rome

Notes

Best women's throw using a spin technique is 19.87 by Anita Márton and Jillian Camarena-Williams.

Below is a list of all other performances (excluding ancillary throws) equal or superior to 22.00 m:

  • Natalya Lisovskaya also threw 22.55 (1988), 22.53 (1984 & 1988), 22.24 (1988), 22.14 (1987i) and 22.06 (1988).
  • Helena Fibingerová also threw 22.32 (1977).
  • Ilona Slupianek also threw 22.41 (1980), 22.40 (1983), 22.38 (1980), 22.36 (1980), 22.34 (twice in 1980), 22.22 (1980), 22.13 (1980), 22.05 (twice in 1980) and 22.04 (twice in 1979).

Annulled

The following athletes had their performance (over 21.48 m) annulled due to doping offenses:

Olympic medalists

Men

GamesGoldSilverBronze
1896 Athens
details
Robert Garrett
US flag 44 stars.svg  United States
Miltiadis Gouskos
Flag of Greece (1828-1978).svg  Greece
Georgios Papasideris
Flag of Greece (1828-1978).svg  Greece
1900 Paris
details
Richard Sheldon
US flag 45 stars.svg  United States
Josiah McCracken
US flag 45 stars.svg  United States
Robert Garrett
US flag 45 stars.svg  United States
1904 St. Louis
details
Ralph Rose
US flag 45 stars.svg  United States
Wesley Coe
US flag 45 stars.svg  United States
Lawrence Feuerbach
US flag 45 stars.svg  United States
1908 London
details
Ralph Rose
US flag 45 stars.svg  United States
Denis Horgan
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  Great Britain
John Garrels
US flag 45 stars.svg  United States
1912 Stockholm
details
Pat McDonald
US flag 48 stars.svg  United States
Ralph Rose
US flag 48 stars.svg  United States
Lawrence Whitney
US flag 48 stars.svg  United States
1920 Antwerp
details
Ville Pörhölä
Flag of Finland.svg  Finland
Elmer Niklander
Flag of Finland.svg  Finland
Harry Liversedge
US flag 48 stars.svg  United States
1924 Paris
details
Bud Houser
US flag 48 stars.svg  United States
Glenn Hartranft
US flag 48 stars.svg  United States
Ralph Hills
US flag 48 stars.svg  United States
1928 Amsterdam
details
John Kuck
US flag 48 stars.svg  United States
Herman Brix
US flag 48 stars.svg  United States
Emil Hirschfeld
Flag of Germany (3-2 aspect ratio).svg  Germany
1932 Los Angeles
details
Leo Sexton
US flag 48 stars.svg  United States
Harlow Rothert
US flag 48 stars.svg  United States
František Douda
Flag of Czechoslovakia.svg  Czechoslovakia
1936 Berlin
details
Hans Woellke
Flag of the German Reich (1935-1945).svg  Germany
Sulo Bärlund
Flag of Finland.svg  Finland
Gerhard Stöck
Flag of the German Reich (1935-1945).svg  Germany
1948 London
details
Wilbur Thompson
US flag 48 stars.svg  United States
Jim Delaney
US flag 48 stars.svg  United States
Jim Fuchs
US flag 48 stars.svg  United States
1952 Helsinki
details
Parry O'Brien
US flag 48 stars.svg  United States
Darrow Hooper
US flag 48 stars.svg  United States
Jim Fuchs
US flag 48 stars.svg  United States
1956 Melbourne
details
Parry O'Brien
US flag 48 stars.svg  United States
Bill Nieder
US flag 48 stars.svg  United States
Jiří Skobla
Flag of Czechoslovakia.svg  Czechoslovakia
1960 Rome
details
Bill Nieder
Flag of the United States.svg  United States
Parry O'Brien
Flag of the United States.svg  United States
Dallas Long
Flag of the United States.svg  United States
1964 Tokyo
details
Dallas Long
Flag of the United States.svg  United States
Randy Matson
Flag of the United States.svg  United States
Vilmos Varjú
Flag of Hungary.svg  Hungary
1968 Mexico City
details
Randy Matson
Flag of the United States.svg  United States
George Woods
Flag of the United States.svg  United States
Eduard Gushchin
Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union
1972 Munich
details
Władysław Komar
Flag of Poland (1928-1980).svg  Poland
George Woods
Flag of the United States.svg  United States
Hartmut Briesenick
Flag of East Germany.svg  East Germany
1976 Montreal
details
Udo Beyer
Flag of East Germany.svg  East Germany
Yevgeniy Mironov
Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union
Aleksandr Baryshnikov
Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union
1980 Moscow
details
Vladimir Kiselyov
Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union
Aleksandr Baryshnikov
Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union
Udo Beyer
Flag of East Germany.svg  East Germany
1984 Los Angeles
details
Alessandro Andrei
Flag of Italy.svg  Italy
Mike Carter
Flag of the United States.svg  United States
Dave Laut
Flag of the United States.svg  United States
1988 Seoul
details
Ulf Timmermann
Flag of East Germany.svg  East Germany
Randy Barnes
Flag of the United States.svg  United States
Werner Günthör
Flag of Switzerland.svg  Switzerland
1992 Barcelona
details
Mike Stulce
Flag of the United States.svg  United States
Jim Doehring
Flag of the United States.svg  United States
Vyacheslav Lykho
Olympic flag.svg  Unified Team
1996 Atlanta
details
Randy Barnes
Flag of the United States.svg  United States
John Godina
Flag of the United States.svg  United States
Oleksandr Bagach
Flag of Ukraine.svg  Ukraine
2000 Sydney
details
Arsi Harju
Flag of Finland.svg  Finland
Adam Nelson
Flag of the United States.svg  United States
John Godina
Flag of the United States.svg  United States
2004 Athens
details
Adam Nelson
Flag of the United States.svg  United States
Joachim Olsen
Flag of Denmark.svg  Denmark
Manuel Martínez
Flag of Spain.svg  Spain
2008 Beijing
details
Tomasz Majewski
Flag of Poland.svg  Poland
Christian Cantwell
Flag of the United States.svg  United States
Dylan Armstrong
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada
2012 London
details
Tomasz Majewski
Flag of Poland.svg  Poland
David Storl
Flag of Germany.svg  Germany
Reese Hoffa
Flag of the United States.svg  United States
2016 Rio de Janeiro
details
Ryan Crouser
Flag of the United States.svg  United States
Joe Kovacs
Flag of the United States.svg  United States
Tomas Walsh
Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand

Women

GamesGoldSilverBronze
1948 London
details
Micheline Ostermeyer
Flag of France.svg  France
Amelia Piccinini
Flag of Italy.svg  Italy
Ina Schäffer
Flag of Austria.svg  Austria
1952 Helsinki
details
Galina Zybina
Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg  Soviet Union
Marianne Werner
Flag of Germany.svg  Germany
Klavdiya Tochenova
Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg  Soviet Union
1956 Melbourne
details
Tamara Tyshkevich
Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union
Galina Zybina
Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union
Marianne Werner
Flag of Germany.svg  United Team of Germany
1960 Rome
details
Tamara Press
Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union
Johanna Lüttge
Flag of the German Olympic Team (1960-1968).svg  United Team of Germany
Earlene Brown
Flag of the United States.svg  United States
1964 Tokyo
details
Tamara Press
Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union
Renate Culmberger
Flag of the German Olympic Team (1960-1968).svg  United Team of Germany
Galina Zybina
Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union
1968 Mexico City
details
Margitta Gummel
Flag of the German Olympic Team (1960-1968).svg  East Germany
Marita Lange
Flag of the German Olympic Team (1960-1968).svg  East Germany
Nadezhda Chizhova
Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union
1972 Munich
details
Nadezhda Chizhova
Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union
Margitta Gummel
Flag of East Germany.svg  East Germany
Ivanka Khristova
Flag of Bulgaria (1971-1990).svg  Bulgaria
1976 Montreal
details
Ivanka Khristova
Flag of Bulgaria (1971-1990).svg  Bulgaria
Nadezhda Chizhova
Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union
Helena Fibingerová
Flag of Czechoslovakia.svg  Czechoslovakia
1980 Moscow
details
Ilona Slupianek
Flag of East Germany.svg  East Germany
Svetlana Krachevskaya
Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union
Margitta Pufe
Flag of East Germany.svg  East Germany
1984 Los Angeles
details
Claudia Losch
Flag of Germany.svg  West Germany
Mihaela Loghin
Flag of Romania (1965-1989).svg  Romania
Gael Martin
Flag of Australia.svg  Australia
1988 Seoul
details
Natalya Lisovskaya
Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union
Kathrin Neimke
Flag of East Germany.svg  East Germany
Li Meisu
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China
1992 Barcelona
details
Svetlana Krivelyova
Olympic flag.svg  Unified Team
Huang Zhihong
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China
Kathrin Neimke
Flag of Germany.svg  Germany
1996 Atlanta
details
Astrid Kumbernuss
Flag of Germany.svg  Germany
Sui Xinmei
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China
Irina Khudoroshkina
Flag of Russia.svg  Russia
2000 Sydney
details
Yanina Karolchik
Flag of Belarus (1995-2012).svg  Belarus
Larisa Peleshenko
Flag of Russia.svg  Russia
Astrid Kumbernuss
Flag of Germany.svg  Germany
2004 Athens
details
Yumileidi Cumbá
Flag of Cuba.svg  Cuba
Nadine Kleinert
Flag of Germany.svg  Germany
Not awarded [30]
2008 Beijing
details
Valerie Vili
Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand
Misleydis González
Flag of Cuba.svg  Cuba
Gong Lijiao
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China
2012 London
details
Valerie Adams
Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand
Gong Lijiao
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China
Li Ling
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China
2016 Rio de Janeiro
details
Michelle Carter
Flag of the United States.svg  United States
Valerie Adams
Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand
Anita Márton
Flag of Hungary.svg  Hungary

World Championship medalists

Men

ChampionshipsGoldSilverBronze
1983 Helsinki
details
Flag of Poland.svg  Edward Sarul  (POL)Flag of East Germany.svg  Ulf Timmermann  (GDR)Flag of the Czech Republic.svg  Remigius Machura  (TCH)
1987 Rome
details
Flag of Switzerland.svg  Werner Günthör  (SUI)Flag of Italy.svg  Alessandro Andrei  (ITA)Flag of the United States.svg  John Brenner  (USA)
1991 Tokyo
details
Flag of Switzerland.svg  Werner Günthör  (SUI)Flag of Norway.svg  Lars Arvid Nilsen  (NOR)Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Aleksandr Klimenko  (URS)
1993 Stuttgart
details
Flag of Switzerland.svg  Werner Günthör  (SUI)Flag of the United States.svg  Randy Barnes  (USA)Flag of Ukraine.svg  Oleksandr Bagach  (UKR)
1995 Gothenburg
details
Flag of the United States.svg  John Godina  (USA)Flag of Finland.svg  Mika Halvari  (FIN)Flag of the United States.svg  Randy Barnes  (USA)
1997 Athens
details
Flag of the United States.svg  John Godina  (USA)Flag of Germany.svg  Oliver-Sven Buder  (GER)Flag of the United States.svg  C. J. Hunter  (USA)
1999 Seville
details
Flag of the United States.svg  C. J. Hunter  (USA)Flag of Germany.svg  Oliver-Sven Buder  (GER)Flag of Ukraine.svg  Oleksandr Bagach  (UKR)
2001 Edmonton
details
Flag of the United States.svg  John Godina  (USA)Flag of the United States.svg  Adam Nelson  (USA)Flag of Finland.svg  Arsi Harju  (FIN)
2003 Saint-Denis
details
Flag of Belarus.svg  Andrei Mikhnevich  (BLR)Flag of the United States.svg  Adam Nelson  (USA)Flag of Ukraine.svg  Yuriy Bilonoh  (UKR)
2005 Helsinki
details
Flag of the United States.svg  Adam Nelson  (USA)Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Rutger Smith  (NED)Flag of Germany.svg  Ralf Bartels  (GER)
2007 Osaka
details
Flag of the United States.svg  Reese Hoffa  (USA)Flag of the United States.svg  Adam Nelson  (USA)Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Rutger Smith  (NED)
2009 Berlin
details
Flag of the United States.svg  Christian Cantwell  (USA)Flag of Poland.svg  Tomasz Majewski  (POL)Flag of Germany.svg  Ralf Bartels  (GER)
2011 Daegu
details
Flag of Germany.svg  David Storl  (GER)Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Dylan Armstrong  (CAN)Flag of the United States.svg  Christian Cantwell  (USA)
2013 Moscow
details
Flag of Germany.svg  David Storl  (GER)Flag of the United States.svg  Ryan Whiting  (USA)Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Dylan Armstrong  (CAN)
2015 Beijing
details
Flag of the United States.svg  Joe Kovacs  (USA)Flag of Germany.svg  David Storl  (GER)Flag of Jamaica.svg  O'Dayne Richards  (JAM)
2017 London
details
Flag of New Zealand.svg  Tom Walsh  (NZL)Flag of the United States.svg  Joe Kovacs  (USA)Flag of Croatia.svg  Stipe Žunić  (CRO)
2019 Doha
details
Flag of the United States.svg  Joe Kovacs  (USA)Flag of the United States.svg  Ryan Crouser  (USA)Flag of New Zealand.svg  Tom Walsh  (NZL)

Women

ChampionshipsGoldSilverBronze
1983 Helsinki
details
Flag of the Czech Republic.svg  Helena Fibingerová  (TCH)Flag of East Germany.svg  Helma Knorscheidt  (GDR)Flag of East Germany.svg  Ilona Schoknecht-Slupianek  (GDR)
1987 Rome
details
Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Natalya Lisovskaya  (URS)Flag of East Germany.svg  Kathrin Neimke  (GDR)Flag of East Germany.svg  Ines Müller  (GDR)
1991 Tokyo
details
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  Huang Zhihong  (CHN)Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Natalya Lisovskaya  (URS)Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Svetlana Krivelyova  (URS)
1993 Stuttgart
details
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  Huang Zhihong  (CHN)Flag of Russia (1991-1993).svg  Svetlana Krivelyova  (RUS)Flag of Germany.svg  Kathrin Neimke  (GER)
1995 Gothenburg
details
Flag of Germany.svg  Astrid Kumbernuss  (GER)Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  Huang Zhihong  (CHN)Flag of Bulgaria.svg  Svetla Mitkova  (BUL)
1997 Athens
details
Flag of Germany.svg  Astrid Kumbernuss  (GER)Flag of Ukraine.svg  Vita Pavlysh  (UKR)Flag of Germany.svg  Stephanie Storp  (GER)
1999 Seville
details
Flag of Germany.svg  Astrid Kumbernuss  (GER)Flag of Germany.svg  Nadine Kleinert  (GER)Flag of Russia.svg  Svetlana Krivelyova  (RUS)
2001 Edmonton
details
Flag of Belarus.svg  Yanina Karolchik  (BLR)Flag of Germany.svg  Nadine Kleinert  (GER)Flag of Ukraine.svg  Vita Pavlysh  (UKR)
2003 Saint-Denis
details
Flag of Russia.svg  Svetlana Krivelyova  (RUS)Flag of Belarus.svg  Nadzeya Ostapchuk  (BLR)Flag of Ukraine.svg  Vita Pavlysh  (UKR)
2005 Helsinki [31]
details
Flag of Russia.svg  Olga Ryabinkina  (RUS)Flag of New Zealand.svg  Valerie Vili  (NZL)Flag of Germany.svg  Nadine Kleinert  (GER)
2007 Osaka
details
Flag of New Zealand.svg  Valerie Vili  (NZL)Flag of Belarus.svg  Nadzeya Ostapchuk  (BLR)Flag of Germany.svg  Nadine Kleinert  (GER)
2009 Berlin
details
Flag of New Zealand.svg  Valerie Vili  (NZL)Flag of Germany.svg  Nadine Kleinert  (GER)Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  Gong Lijiao  (CHN)
2011 Daegu
details
Flag of New Zealand.svg  Valerie Adams  (NZL)Flag of Belarus.svg  Nadzeya Ostapchuk  (BLR)Flag of the United States.svg  Jillian Camarena-Williams  (USA)
2013 Moscow
details
Flag of New Zealand.svg  Valerie Adams  (NZL)Flag of Germany.svg  Christina Schwanitz  (GER)Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  Gong Lijiao  (CHN)
2015 Beijing
details
Flag of Germany.svg  Christina Schwanitz  (GER)Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  Gong Lijiao  (CHN)Flag of the United States.svg  Michelle Carter  (USA)
2017 London
details
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  Gong Lijiao  (CHN)Flag of Hungary.svg  Anita Márton  (HUN)Flag of the United States.svg  Michelle Carter  (USA)
2019 Doha
details
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  Gong Lijiao  (CHN)Flag of Jamaica.svg  Danniel Thomas-Dodd  (JAM)Flag of Germany.svg  Christina Schwanitz  (GER)

World Indoor Championships medalists

Men

GamesGoldSilverBronze
1985 Paris [A] Flag of the Czech Republic.svg  Remigius Machura  (TCH)Flag of East Germany.svg  Udo Beyer  (GDR)Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Jānis Bojārs  (URS)
1987 Indianapolis
details
Flag of East Germany.svg  Ulf Timmermann  (GDR)Flag of Switzerland.svg  Werner Günthör  (SUI)Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Sergey Smirnov  (URS)
1989 Budapest
details
Flag of East Germany.svg  Ulf Timmermann  (GDR)Flag of the United States.svg  Randy Barnes  (USA)Flag of Norway.svg  Georg Andersen  (NOR)
1991 Seville
details
Flag of Switzerland.svg  Werner Günthör  (SUI)Flag of Austria.svg  Klaus Bodenmüller  (AUT)Flag of the United States.svg  Ron Backes  (USA)
1993 Toronto
details
Flag of the United States.svg  Mike Stulce  (USA)Flag of the United States.svg  Jim Doehring  (USA)Flag of Ukraine.svg  Oleksandr Bagach  (UKR)
1995 Barcelona
details
Flag of Finland.svg  Mika Halvari  (FIN)Flag of the United States.svg  C. J. Hunter  (USA)Flag of Serbia and Montenegro (1992-2006).svg  Dragan Perić  (FRY)
1997 Paris
details
Flag of Ukraine.svg  Yuriy Bilonoh  (UKR)Flag of Ukraine.svg  Oleksandr Bagach  (UKR)Flag of the United States.svg  John Godina  (USA)
1999 Maebashi
details
Flag of Ukraine.svg  Oleksandr Bagach  (UKR)Flag of the United States.svg  John Godina  (USA)Flag of Ukraine.svg  Yuriy Bilonoh  (UKR)
2001 Lisbon
details
Flag of the United States.svg  John Godina  (USA)Flag of the United States.svg  Adam Nelson  (USA)Flag of Spain.svg  Manuel Martínez  (ESP)
2003 Birmingham
details
Flag of Spain.svg  Manuel Martínez  (ESP)Flag of the United States.svg  John Godina  (USA)Flag of Ukraine.svg  Yuriy Bilonoh  (UKR)
2004 Budapest
details
Flag of the United States.svg  Christian Cantwell  (USA)Flag of the United States.svg  Reese Hoffa  (USA)Flag of Denmark.svg  Joachim Olsen  (DEN)
2006 Moscow
details
Flag of the United States.svg  Reese Hoffa  (USA)Flag of Denmark.svg  Joachim Olsen  (DEN)Flag of Russia.svg  Pavel Sofin  (RUS)
2008 Valencia
details
Flag of the United States.svg  Christian Cantwell  (USA)Flag of the United States.svg  Reese Hoffa  (USA)Flag of Poland.svg  Tomasz Majewski  (POL)
2010 Doha
details
Flag of the United States.svg  Christian Cantwell  (USA)Flag of Germany.svg  Ralf Bartels  (GER)Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Dylan Armstrong  (CAN)
2012 Istanbul
details
Flag of the United States.svg  Ryan Whiting  (USA)Flag of Germany.svg  David Storl  (GER)Flag of Poland.svg  Tomasz Majewski  (POL)
2014 Sopot
details
Flag of the United States.svg  Ryan Whiting  (USA)Flag of Germany.svg  David Storl  (GER)Flag of New Zealand.svg  Tomas Walsh  (NZL)
2016 Portland
details
Flag of New Zealand.svg  Tomas Walsh  (NZL)Flag of Romania.svg  Andrei Gag  (ROU)Flag of Croatia.svg  Filip Mihaljević  (CRO)
2018 Birmingham
details
Flag of New Zealand.svg  Tomas Walsh  (NZL)Flag of Germany.svg  David Storl  (GER)Flag of the Czech Republic.svg  Tomáš Staněk  (CZE)

Women

GamesGoldSilverBronze
1985 Paris [A] Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Natalya Lisovskaya  (URS)Flag of East Germany.svg  Ines Müller  (GDR)Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Nunu Abashidze  (URS)
1987 Indianapolis
details
Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Natalya Lisovskaya  (URS)Flag of East Germany.svg  Ilona Briesenick  (GDR)Flag of Germany.svg  Claudia Losch  (FRG)
1989 Budapest
details
Flag of Germany.svg  Claudia Losch  (FRG)Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  Huang Zhihong  (CHN)Flag of East Germany.svg  Christa Wiese  (GDR)
1991 Seville
details
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  Sui Xinmei  (CHN)Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  Huang Zhihong  (CHN)Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Natalya Lisovskaya  (URS)
1993 Toronto
details
Flag of Russia (1991-1993).svg  Svetlana Krivelyova  (RUS)Flag of Germany.svg  Stephanie Storp  (GER)Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  Zhang Liuhong  (CHN)
1995 Barcelona
details
Flag of Germany.svg  Kathrin Neimke  (GER)Flag of the United States.svg  Connie Price-Smith  (USA)Flag of Germany.svg  Grit Hammer  (GER)
1997 Paris
details
Flag of Ukraine.svg  Vita Pavlysh  (UKR)Flag of Germany.svg  Astrid Kumbernuss  (GER)Flag of Russia.svg  Irina Korzhanenko  (RUS)
1999 Maebashi
details
Flag of Russia.svg  Svetlana Krivelyova  (RUS)Flag of Poland.svg  Krystyna Danilczyk-Zabawska  (POL)Flag of the United States.svg  Teri Steer-Tunks  (USA)
2001 Lisbon
details
Flag of Russia.svg  Larisa Peleshenko  (RUS)Flag of Belarus.svg  Nadzeya Ostapchuk  (BLR)Flag of Russia.svg  Svetlana Krivelyova  (RUS)
2003 Birmingham
details
Flag of Russia.svg  Irina Korzhanenko  (RUS)Flag of Belarus.svg  Nadzeya Ostapchuk  (BLR)Flag of Germany.svg  Astrid Kumbernuss  (GER)
2004 Budapest
details
Flag of Russia.svg  Svetlana Krivelyova  (RUS)Flag of Cuba.svg  Yumileidi Cumbá  (CUB)Flag of Germany.svg  Nadine Kleinert  (GER)
2006 Moscow
details
Flag of Belarus.svg  Natallia Mikhnevich  (BLR)Flag of Germany.svg  Nadine Kleinert  (GER)Flag of Russia.svg  Olga Ryabinkina  (RUS)
2008 Valencia
details
Flag of New Zealand.svg  Valerie Vili  (NZL)Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  Li Meiju  (CHN)Flag of Cuba.svg  Misleydis González  (CUB)
2010 Doha
details
Flag of New Zealand.svg  Valerie Adams  (NZL)Flag of Russia.svg  Anna Avdeyeva  (RUS)Flag of Germany.svg  Nadine Kleinert  (GER)
2012 Istanbul
details
Flag of New Zealand.svg  Valerie Adams  (NZL)Flag of the United States.svg  Michelle Carter  (USA)Flag of the United States.svg  Jillian Camarena-Williams  (USA)
2014 Sopot
details
Flag of New Zealand.svg  Valerie Adams  (NZL)Flag of Germany.svg  Christina Schwanitz  (GER)Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  Gong Lijiao  (CHN)
2016 Portland
details
Flag of the United States.svg  Michelle Carter  (USA)Flag of Hungary.svg  Anita Márton  (HUN)Flag of New Zealand.svg  Valerie Adams  (NZL)
2018 Birmingham
details
Flag of Hungary.svg  Anita Márton  (HUN)Flag of Jamaica.svg  Danniel Thomas-Dodd  (JAM)Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  Gong Lijiao  (CHN)

Season's bests

See also

Notes and references

  1. "Dictionary of the Scots Language:: SND :: Putt v n1".
  2. Colin White (31 December 2009). Projectile Dynamics in Sport: Principles and Applications. Taylor & Francis. pp. 131–. ISBN   978-0-415-47331-6 . Retrieved 6 July 2011.
  3. "Hammer Throw". IAAF. Retrieved 12 September 2015.
  4. Shot Put - Introduction. IAAF. Retrieved on 2010-02-28.
  5. "Follow These Directions for the Glide Technique in Shot Put".
  6. http://track.coachesdirectory.com/article/rotational-vs-glide-revisited--comparing-shot-techniques-article.html
  7. 1 2 "Shot Put Spin and Glide Technique Comparison". 2013-09-17.
  8. Aleksandr Baryshnikov biography on sportsdaily.ru (in Russian) reference tested at 11 May 2009
  9. Aleksandr Baryshnikov, Athlete from Russia (in Russian) Archived 2010-09-17 at the Wayback Machine reference tested at 11 May 2009
  10. Григорий РУДЕРМАН (Израиль), заслуженный тренер России «Метания в хх веке : тенденции развития.» reference tested at 11 May 2009
  11. http://www.ltfca.com/assets/glide-vs-spin.pdf"
  12. Playboy Poland 8/2012, page 44,45
  13. "Ryan Crouser breaks world indoor shot put record with 2 best throws in history". 24 January 2021.
  14. "Men's Outdoor Shot Put | Records". worldathletics.org. World Athletics . Retrieved 20 May 2021.
  15. "Women's Outdoor Shot Put | Records". worldathletics.org. World Athletics . Retrieved 20 May 2021.
  16. "Shot Put Men Senior Outdoor". IAAF. 6 October 2019. Retrieved 6 October 2019.
  17. "All-time men's best Shot Put". alltime-athletics.com. 6 October 2019. Retrieved 6 October 2019.
  18. "Crouser smashes world shot put record with 23.37m in Eugene | REPORT | World Athletics". www.worldathletics.org. Retrieved 2021-06-19.
  19. 1 2 "Shot Put Results" (PDF). IAAF. 5 October 2019. Retrieved 6 October 2019.
  20. Brian Russell (1 July 2019). "Romani takes surprise shot put win in Stanford – IAAF Diamond League". IAAF. Retrieved 18 July 2019.
  21. Mike Rowbottom (31 August 2017). "Hill hits the shot put jackpot in Brussels' Place de la Monnaie – IAAF Diamond League". IAAF. Retrieved 2 September 2017.
  22. "Haratyk smashes Polish shot put record with 22.32m in Warsaw". European Athletics. 28 July 2019. Retrieved 6 August 2019.
  23. "Haratyk equals Polish shot put record with 22.32m in Cetniewo". European Athletics. 4 August 2019. Retrieved 6 August 2019.
  24. Bob Ramsak (14 September 2019). "Bukowiecki improves to 22.25m in Chorzow". IAAF. Retrieved 1 October 2019.
  25. "Cessange -Luxembourg- (Luxembourg), 3-4.8.2019 -Mémorial J.-P. Kops & J.-M. Reuter-". trackinsun.blogspot.com. 4 August 2019. Retrieved 1 October 2019.
  26. "Shot Put Results" (PDF). sportresult.com. 9 July 2015. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 10 July 2015.
  27. "Shot Put Results" (PDF). sportresult.com. 6 February 2018. Retrieved 8 February 2018.
  28. "Shot Put Women Senior Outdoor". IAAF. 6 October 2019. Retrieved 6 October 2019.
  29. "All-time women's best Shot Put". alltime-athletics.com. 30 August 2019. Retrieved 6 October 2019.
  30. Athens 2004 Athletics Medalists. Olympic.org. Retrieved on 2014-04-19.
  31. Revision of results following sanctions of Tsikhan and Ostapchuk

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