Sibiu

Last updated

Sibiu
Hermannstadt
Härmeschtat
Cibinium
SibiuCollage2020 (3).png
From top, left to right:
Council Tower (city symbol) • Lutheran CathedralEyes of SibiuMedieval fortificationsBridge of Lies • City hall and Jesuit ChurchBrukenthal PalaceNeo-Baroque palace • modern high-rise buildings
Nickname: 
The City with Eyes [1] [ better source needed ]
Sibiu jud Sibiu.svg
Location in Sibiu County
Relief Map of Romania.png
Red pog.svg
Sibiu
Location within Romania
Coordinates: 45°47′34″N24°09′07″E / 45.79278°N 24.15194°E / 45.79278; 24.15194 Coordinates: 45°47′34″N24°09′07″E / 45.79278°N 24.15194°E / 45.79278; 24.15194
CountryFlag of Romania.svg  Romania
County Sibiu
Status County seat
Settled1st century BC
Resettled c. 1147
First off. record1191 (as Cibinium)
Government
  Mayor (2020–2024) Astrid Fodor [2] (FDGR/DFDR)
Area
   City 121 km2 (47 sq mi)
Elevation
415 m (1,362 ft)
Population
 (2011)
   City 147,245
  Estimate 
(2019)
169,056
  Density1,200/km2 (3,200/sq mi)
   Metro
a
267,170
Demonym(s) sibian, sibiancă (ro)
Time zone UTC+2 (EET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+3 (EEST)
Area code +40 269/369
Car plates SB
Website turism.sibiu.ro/en
aSibiu metropolitan area is a proposed project

Sibiu ( /sˈbj/ see-BEW, [3] Romanian:  [siˈbiw] , German: Hermannstadt [ˈhɛʁmanʃtat] , Latin : Cibinium, Transylvanian Saxon: Härmeschtat, Hungarian : Nagyszeben [ˈnɒt͡sːɛbɛn] ) is a city in Romania, in the historical region of Transylvania. Located some 275 km (171 mi) north-west of Bucharest, [4] the city straddles the Cibin River, a tributary of the river Olt. Now the capital of the Sibiu County, between 1692 and 1791 and 1849–65 Sibiu was also the capital of the Principality of Transylvania.

Contents

Nicknamed The City with Eyes, the city is a well-known tourist destination for both domestic and foreign visitors. Known for its culture, history, gastronomy and diverse architecture, which includes the iconic houses with eyes that gave Sibiu its nickname, the city has garnered significant attention since the beginning of the 21st century. In 2004, its historical center began the process of becoming a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Sibiu was designated the European Capital of Culture in 2007. [5] One year later, it was ranked "Europe's 8th-most idyllic place to live" by Forbes . [6] In 2019, Sibiu was named the European Region of Gastronomy. [7] Sibiu hosted the European Wandering Capital event in 2021, the most important tourist wandering event in Europe. [8] [9] A European Union summit was also hosted by the town in 2019.

Sibiu is also known for its Christmas market. [10] [11] Personalities include Conrad Haas and Hermann Oberth, who were pioneers of rocketry.[ citation needed ] The company Elrond, which created the eGold cryptocurrency (among the biggest in the world), was founded by people from Sibiu. [12]

As of 2011, the city has a population of 147,245, [13] while a 2019 estimate puts it at 169,056. [14] The proposed Sibiu metropolitan area has a population of 267,170. The city also administers the village of Păltiniș, a ski resort located 35 kilometres to the southwest.

Historically, Sibiu has been one of the most important centres of the Transylvanian Saxons. [15] It is called Härmeschtat in their own local dialect. [16]

Name

The name of the city derives from the Bulgar-Turkic name Sibin<Sebin<Säbin, meaning "rejoice". [17] An archaic version of the Romanian name Sibiu is Sibiiu, while an obsolete folk name is Sâghii, formerly spelled Sîghii. Its Hungarian name is Nagyszeben ("Big/Greater Sibiu"), or colloquially, Szeben.

In German, it is called Hermannstadt ("Hermann's city"), while in the local Transylvanian Saxon dialect, it is known as Härmeschtat. In Yiddish, it is called סעבען Seben or הערמאנשטאט Hermanshtat.

A number of other languages also have their own variants of the city's name, like Czech Sibiň, Polish Sybin, Serbo-Croatian Sibinj, Old Bulgarian Sibin (Сибин) and the proposed Esperanto name Sibio.

History

Historical affiliations

Flag of Matthias I of Hungary (variant).svg Kingdom of Hungary 1191–1526
Coa Hungary Country History John I of Hungary (Szapolyai) (1526-1540).svg Eastern Hungarian Kingdom 1526–1570
Arms of Transylvania in Cod. icon. 391.svg Principality of Transylvania 1570–1804
Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy.svg  Austrian Empire 1804–1867
Flag of Austria-Hungary (1867-1918).svg  Austria-Hungary 1867–1918 (de jure Hungary until 1920)
Flag of Romania.svg  Kingdom of Romania 1920–1947 (de facto from 1918)
Flag of Romania (1952-1965).svg  Romanian People's Republic 1947–1965
Flag of Romania (1965-1989).svg  Socialist Republic of Romania 1965–1989
Flag of Romania.svg  Romania 1989–present

Sibiu was initially a Daco-Roman city called Cedonia. [18] The town was refounded by Saxon (German) settlers brought there by king Géza II of Hungary. They came from territories of the Holy Roman Empire and Kingdom of France (nowadays parts of Germany, France and the Benelux countries) and arrived at around 1147. [19] [20] The first references to the area were Cibinium and Cipin from 1191 when Pope Celestine III confirmed the existence of the free prepositure of the Saxons in Transylvania, having its headquarters in Sibiu. [21] [22] The city also used the names Prepositus Cibiniensis (1192–1196) and Prepositus Scibiniensis (1211). In 1223, it was renamed to Villa Hermanni, [23] either in honor of archbishop Hermann II of Cologne [19] or after a man who is believed to have founded the city, Hermann of Nuremberg. [23] The actual German name of Hermannstadt ("Hermann's city") dates from 1366, while an earlier form, Hermannsdorf ("Hermann's village") was recorded in 1321. [24]

In the 14th century, it was already an important trade centre. In 1376, the craftsmen were divided in 19 guilds. Sibiu became the most important ethnic German city among the seven cities that gave Transylvania its German name Siebenbürgen (literally seven citadels). [25] [26] It was home to the Universitas Saxorum (Community of the Saxons), a network of pedagogues, ministers, intellectuals, city officials, and councilmen of the German community forging an ordered legal corpus and political system in Transylvania since the 1400s. [27] [28] In 1699, after the Ottomans withdrew to their base of power in Hungary and Transylvania, the town became capital of Principality of Transylvania (since 1570 the principality was mostly under suzerainty of the Ottoman Empire, however often had a dual vassalage). [29] During the 18th and 19th centuries, the city became the second- and later the first-most important centre of Transylvanian Romanian ethnics. The first Romanian-owned bank had its headquarters here (The Albina Bank), as did the ASTRA (Transylvanian Association for Romanian Literature and Romanian's People Culture). After the Romanian Orthodox Church was granted status in the Austrian Empire from the 1860s onwards, Sibiu became the Metropolitan seat, and the city is still regarded as the third-most important centre of the Romanian Orthodox Church. Between the Hungarian Revolution of 1848 and 1867 (the year of the Ausgleich ), Sibiu was the meeting-place of the Transylvanian Diet, which had taken its most representative form after the Empire agreed to extend voting rights in the region.

After World War I, when Austria-Hungary was dissolved, Sibiu became part of Romania; the majority of its population was still ethnic German (until 1941) and counted a large Romanian community, as well as a smaller Hungarian one. Starting from the 1950s and until after 1990, most of the city's ethnic Germans emigrated to Germany and Austria. Among the roughly 2,000 who have remained is Klaus Iohannis, the current President of Romania.

Geography

Topographic map of the Sibiu region Sibiu region.png
Topographic map of the Sibiu region
Fagaras Mountains Fagaras Mountains Carpathians Romania 2017 (233304217).jpeg
Făgăraș Mountains

Sibiu is situated near the geographical center of Romania at 45°47′34″N24°09′07″E / 45.792784°N 24.152069°E / 45.792784; 24.152069 . Set in the Cibin Depression, the city is about 20 km (12 mi) from the Făgăraș Mountains, 12 km (7.5 mi) from the Cibin Mountains, and about 15 km (9.3 mi) from the Lotru Mountains, which border the depression in its southwestern section. The northern and eastern limits of Sibiu are formed by the Târnavelor Plateau, which descends to the Cibin Valley through Gușteriței Hill.

The Cibin river as well as some smaller streams runs through Sibiu. The geographical position of Sibiu makes it one of the most important transportation hubs in Romania with important roads and railway lines passing through it.

Climate

Sibiu's climate is humid continental (Köppen: Dfb), with average temperatures of 8 to 9 °C (46 to 48 °F). The average rainfall is 627 litres per square metre (12.8 imp gal/sq ft), and there are about 120 days of hard frost annually.

Climate data for Sibiu (1981–2010)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)15.6
(60.1)
21.3
(70.3)
30.6
(87.1)
30.2
(86.4)
32.1
(89.8)
35.4
(95.7)
38.3
(100.9)
38.4
(101.1)
39.5
(103.1)
32.5
(90.5)
27.0
(80.6)
19.3
(66.7)
39.5
(103.1)
Average high °C (°F)1.8
(35.2)
4.5
(40.1)
10.1
(50.2)
16.0
(60.8)
21.3
(70.3)
24.2
(75.6)
26.3
(79.3)
26.2
(79.2)
21.4
(70.5)
16.2
(61.2)
9.1
(48.4)
3.1
(37.6)
15.0
(59.0)
Daily mean °C (°F)−2.8
(27.0)
−1.2
(29.8)
3.8
(38.8)
9.6
(49.3)
14.9
(58.8)
18.0
(64.4)
19.7
(67.5)
19.1
(66.4)
14.4
(57.9)
9.1
(48.4)
3.4
(38.1)
−1.3
(29.7)
8.9
(48.0)
Average low °C (°F)−6.9
(19.6)
−5.9
(21.4)
−1.2
(29.8)
3.9
(39.0)
8.6
(47.5)
11.6
(52.9)
13.3
(55.9)
12.7
(54.9)
8.7
(47.7)
3.5
(38.3)
−1.2
(29.8)
−5.3
(22.5)
3.5
(38.3)
Record low °C (°F)−31.8
(−25.2)
−31.0
(−23.8)
−24.5
(−12.1)
−12.0
(10.4)
−3.6
(25.5)
1.0
(33.8)
4.2
(39.6)
1.0
(33.8)
−3.6
(25.5)
−9.4
(15.1)
−21.3
(−6.3)
−29.8
(−21.6)
−31.8
(−25.2)
Average precipitation mm (inches)24.9
(0.98)
25.0
(0.98)
33.9
(1.33)
52.8
(2.08)
69.0
(2.72)
92.9
(3.66)
92.0
(3.62)
76.7
(3.02)
59.8
(2.35)
39.9
(1.57)
31.3
(1.23)
31.0
(1.22)
629.2
(24.77)
Average snowfall cm (inches)11.0
(4.3)
11.0
(4.3)
7.4
(2.9)
4.8
(1.9)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
1.7
(0.7)
4.5
(1.8)
6.5
(2.6)
46.9
(18.5)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)11.210.511.213.115.214.513.310.410.69.09.712.1140.8
Average relative humidity (%)87797167687171727678808675
Mean monthly sunshine hours 689713816421522824823817214889611,866
Source 1: World Meteorological Organization, [30] Ogimet (mean temperatures and sun 1981–2010) [31]
Source 2: Romanian National Statistic Institute (extremes 1901–2000), [32] NOAA (snowfall 1961–1990), [33] Deutscher Wetterdienst (humidity, 1989–2008) [34]

Tourism

In 2007, Sibiu was the European Capital of Culture (together with Luxembourg). This was the most important cultural event that has ever happened in the city, and a great number of tourists came, both domestic and foreign.

The city of Sibiu and its surroundings are one of the most visited areas in Romania, as it holds one of the best preserved historical sites in the country, many of its medieval fortifications having been kept in excellent state. Its old center has begun the process for becoming a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2004. Sibiu and its surrounding area have many significant museums, with 12+ institutions housing art collections, paintings, and exhibits in decorative arts, archeology, anthropology, history, industrial archeology and history of technology and natural sciences.

The city also lies close to the Făgăraș Mountains – a popular trekking destination, close to the city of Păltiniș and Arena Platoș ski resorts – both winter holiday destinations, and it is at the heart of the former Saxon communities in Transylvania renowned for its fortified churches.

Fortified Lutheran church of Gusterita neighbourhood, 13th century Sibiu Biserica evanghelica Gusterita (5).JPG
Fortified Lutheran church of Gușterița neighbourhood, 13th century

Since 2007, a traditional Christmas market has been held in Sibiu. The first of its kind in Romania, it is inspired by Viennese Christmas markets, being a project developed by the Social Attaché of the Austrian Embassy in Romania, dr.h.c. Barbara Schöfnagel. It was held in the "Lesser Square" (Piața Mică) with 38 small stalls, a small stage and an area dedicated to children, having several mechanical attractions installed there. Since 2008, the market is held in the "Grand Square" (Piata Mare) grew to a number of about 70 stalls, a bigger stage was set up, where Christmas carols concerts are held. An ice skating rink and a children's workshop are also attractions which have been added in the following years. [35] It was the first Christmas Market in Romania, but soon other Christmas markets emerged across the country. In 2013, the Sibiu Christmas markets was included in the "15 Of the Most Beautiful Christmas Markets in Europe" [36]

In 2019, Sibiu had planned to host the European Gastronomical capital, by encouraging the local producers and businesses in the field of food production and culinary and gourmet culture, traditional workshops in the villages of the region, promoting farms and gastronomic circuits, or developing public programs to support small businesses in gastronomy and of the hospitality industry in the Sibiu region. [7]

Culture

Sibiu is one of Romania's most culturally lively cities. It has 2 theatres and a philharmonic orchestra along with other smaller private theatrical venues and a theatre studio housed by the Performing Arts and Acting section of Lucian Blaga University, where students hold monthly representations.

The Radu Stanca National Theatre [37] is one of the leading Romanian theatres. With origins dating back to 1787, it attracts some of the best-known Romanian directors, such as Gábor Tompa and Silviu Purcărete. It has both a Romanian-language and a German-language section, and presents an average of five shows a week.

The Gong Theatre is specialised in puppetry, mime and non-conventional shows for children and teenagers. It also presents shows in both Romanian and German.

The State Philharmonic of Sibiu [38] presents weekly classical music concerts, and educational concerts for children and teenagers. The concerts take place in the newly restored Thalia Hall, a concert and theatre hall dating from 1787, situated along the old city fortifications. Weekly organ concerts are organised at the Evangelical Cathedral during summers, and thematic concerts are presented by the Faculty of Theology choir at the Orthodox Cathedral.

The Sibiu International Theatre Festival is an annual festival of performing arts. Since 2016, it is the largest performance arts festival in the world. [39]

Brukenthal National Museum, Sibiu. Brukenthalpalais Hermannstadt.jpg
Brukenthal National Museum, Sibiu.

Museums and parks

Sibiu's museums are organised around two entities: the Brukenthal National Museum and the ASTRA National Museum Complex. The Brukenthal Museum consists of an Art Gallery and an Old Books Library located inside the Brukenthal Palace, a History Museum located in the old town hall building, a Pharmacy Museum located in one of the first apothecary shops in Europe, dating from the 16th century, a Natural History Museum and a Museum of Arms and Hunting Trophies.

The ASTRA National Museum Complex focuses on ethnography, and consists of a Traditional Folk Civilisation Museum, a 96-hectare open-air museum located in Dumbrava Forest south of Sibiu, a Universal Ethnography Museum, a Museum of Transylvanian Civilisation and a Museum of Saxon Ethnography and Folk Art. Also planned is a Museum of the Culture and Civilisation of the Romany People.

The Dumbrava Sibiului Natural Park stretches over 960 ha (2,400 acres) and it is 4 km (2.5 mi) away from the center of the city in the southwest direction along the road towards Răşinari. Also, here you can find the Zoological Garden and Ethnography Museum.

There is a Steam Locomotives Museum close to the railway station, sheltering around 40 locomotives, two of which are functional.

The first park in the city was The Promenade, later called "The Disabled Promenade." established in 1791, today part of Parcul Cetății (Citadel Park). Current arrangement of the park, including the space between the walls, dates from 1928.

The Sub Arini Park, established between 1857 and 1859 based on plans of military engineer Michael Seyfried, [40] is one of the biggest and best-maintained parks in Romania. There are other green spaces in the city center, the best known being Astra Park, established in 1879.

Other parks:

Tineretului Park, Reconstrucției Park, Corneliu Coposu Park, Petöfi Sándor Park, Piața Cluj Park, Ștrand Park, Cristianului Park, Țițeica Park, Vasile Aaron Park, Lira Park.

The distribution of green space is good compared to other Romanian cities.

Events

Citadel Park, with the 16th century city wall Parcul Cetatii.jpg
Citadel Park, with the 16th century city wall

Several festivals are organised yearly in Sibiu, the most prestigious of them being the Sibiu International Theatre Festival, organized each spring at the end of May. Medieval Festival organized every year in August, reviving the medieval spirit of Transylvania. The Artmania Festival is held every Summer since 2006 and as of 2008 the Rockin' Transilvania Festival is also held in Sibiu. The oldest Jazz Festival in Romania is organized here, as well as the "Carl Filtsch" festival for young classical piano players, the "Astra Film" documentary film festival, the Transylvania calling Festival a Multi Cultural 6-day Open Air Music festival! 26–31 July 2007, a medieval arts festival and many more smaller cultural events. [41] Feeric Fashion Week is also hosted here. Sibiu was awarded by IGCAT (International Institute of Gastronomy, Culture, Arts and Tourism) to be part of the European Regions of Gastronomy program, event that will promote in 2019 the region's culinary heritage, multi-ethnic traditions and multi-cultural community.

European Cultural Capital

The designation as a European Cultural Capital for 2007, owed greatly to the excellent collaboration with Luxembourg, but also to what many regard as a miraculous social rebirth taking place in the city during the last years. The Cultural Capital status was expected to bring about an abrupt increase in quantity and quality of cultural events in 2007.

Administration

Incumbent mayor Astrid Fodor (FDGR/DFDR) Astrid-fodor.jpg
Incumbent mayor Astrid Fodor (FDGR/DFDR)

The town government is headed by a mayor. [42] Since 2014, the office is held by Astrid Fodor from the Democratic Forum of Germans in Romania (FDGR/DFDR), who replaced Klaus Iohannis, the latter having become the 5th president of Romania. Iohannis, a Transylvanian Saxon, was mayor from 2000 to 2014, despite ethnic Germans nowadays making up less than 2% of Sibiu's population. Decisions are approved and discussed by the local government (consiliu local) made up of 23 elected councillors. [42] Sibiu is the capital of the Sibiu County.

   PartySeatsCurrent Council
  National Liberal Party (PNL)9         
  Democratic Forum of Germans in Romania (FDGR/DFDR)8         
  Save Romania Union (USR)4     
  Social Democratic Party (PSD)2         

City districts

Sibiu is divided into the following districts:

Some of them were villages annexed by the city as it grew, others were built as the city developed and increased its surface.

The ASTRA National Museum Complex and the Zoo, located in the south, also fall within city limits. The Păltiniș ski resort, located 35 kilometres to the south, is also administered by Sibiu.

While Șelimbăr and the Arhitecților district of Cisnădie are not part of Sibiu proper, they are adjacent to the city limits and often considered part of it.

Demographics

As of 2011 census data, Sibiu has a population of 147,245, a decrease from the figure recorded at the 2002 census, [13] making it the 14th-largest city in Romania. The ethnic breakdown was as follows: [43]

A 2017 estimate placed the population at 169,316, a 14.98 percent increase since 2011. This increase makes Sibiu's population surpass the numbers observed in 1992 when the previously highest population was recorded. [44]

Population dynamics

Census [45] Ethnic structure
YearPopulation Romanians Hungarians Germans
185012,7652,0899778,790
188019,446+ 41.4%2,8102,06514,327
189021,465+ 9.8%4,5813,19913,148
190029,577+ 31.7%7,1065,74716,141
191033,489+ 12.4%8,8247,25216,832
192032,748– 2.2%8,5534,29118,218
193049,345+ 40.4%19,0066,78222,045
194163,765+ 25.5%33,8294,26223,574
194860,602– 5%37,3715,06016,359
195690,475+ 39.5%60,5264,77224,636
1966109,515+ 19%78,5485,12425,387
1977151,005+ 31.8%119,5075,11125,403
1992169,610+ 11.6%158,8634,1635,605
2002154,892– 9%148,2693,1352,508
2011147,245– 5%131,4142,1311,481

Population by religious denomination

Today, most of the population is Romanian Orthodox. Protestants and Roman Catholics represent about 5% of the population.

Confessions in Sibiu
Confession19102002
Eastern Orthodox 18%91%
Greek-Catholic (Uniate) 8%1%
Roman Catholic 20%2%
Evangelical Lutheran 42%2%
Reformed 7%1%
Jewish4%< 1%
Other1%4%

Economy

Sibiu is an important economic hub for Romania, with a high rate of foreign investments. It is also an important hub for the manufacturing of automotive components and houses factories belonging to ThyssenKrupp Bilstein-Compa, Takata Corporation, Continental Automotive Systems, Marquardt Group and NTN-SNR ball bearings. Other local industries are machine components, textiles, agro-industry, and electrical components (Siemens).

The city also contained Romania's second-largest stock exchange, the Sibiu Stock Exchange which merged with the Bucharest Stock Exchange in 2018. [46]

The main industrial activities of Sibiu take place in two industrial zones located on the outskirts of the city:

A commercial zone located in the Șelimbăr commune plays an important role in the economy of Sibiu. It houses a mall and other large retailers.

Another factor that plays an important role in the economy of the city is tourism, which has been increasing at a steady rate since 2007.

Transport

Sibiu International Airport Location Sibiu International Airport Location.png
Sibiu International Airport Location

Sibiu is well served in terms of transport and infrastructure. In 2010 a city bypass was opened, significantly reducing the road traffic inside the city.

Tursib [48] is the city's internal transportation system operator.

Air

Sibiu Airport, Blue Air flight. Blue-air-sibiu-airport.jpg
Sibiu Airport, Blue Air flight.

Sibiu International Airport is one of the most modern international airports in Romania, with direct connections to Germany, Austria, United Kingdom, Ireland and Spain.

Road

Sibiu is an important node in the European road network, being on two different European routes (E68 and E81). At a national level, Sibiu is located on three different main national roads, DN1, DN7 and DN14.

The Romanian Motorway A1 will link the city with Pitești and the Romanian western border, near Arad. From the remaining 332 km (206 mi) of motorway towards the border with Hungary Nadlac, a total of 276 km (171 mi) is completed and the last 56 km (35 mi) are currently under construction, while the timeline for the segment towards Pitești is targeted for completion for the year 2025 (construction will start no sooner than 2019). Sibiu' s ring road as part of A1 motorway was completed on 1 December 2010.

Sibiu is also an important hub for the international bus links with the biggest passenger transporter in Romania, Atlassib, based here. Transport companies are also providing coach connections from Sibiu to a large number of locations in Romania.

Public bus transportation in Sibiu Sibiu MAZ bus 3.jpg
Public bus transportation in Sibiu

Rail

Sibiu is situated on the CFR-Romanian Railways Main Line 200 (Brasov – Făgăraș – Sibiu – Simeria – Arad – Romanian Western Border) and on Line 206 (Sibiu – Mediaș).

The city is served by five rail stations: the Main Station (Gara Mare), the Little Station (Gara Mică), Turnișor, Sibiu Triaj, Halta Ateliere Zonă . It has an important diesel-powered locomotives depot and a freight terminal.

Numerous Inter Regional trains (nicknamed Blue Arrows) connect Sibiu to other major cities in Romania: Cluj-Napoca, Brașov, Craiova, Timișoara and Bucharest.

Cycling

Over the last six years, Sibiu has enjoyed a revival of cycling. The bicycle way in the city spans for 43 kilometers.

Bicycle rentals have offered a boost for the local economy with several small rental centers and a bigger rental center that is administered by the I'Velo Bike Sharing group.

Health

Sibiu County Hospital Spitalul Judetean Sibiu.jpg
Sibiu County Hospital

Sibiu is one of the important medical centers of Romania, housing many important medical facilities:

The city also houses one of the largest private hospitals in the country, Polisano.

Education

Samuel von Brukenthal High School Liceul Samuel von Brukenthal.jpg
Samuel von Brukenthal High School

Sibiu is an important centre of higher education, with over 23,000 students in four public and private higher institutions. [49] [50] [51] [52]

The Lucian Blaga University of Sibiu was founded in 1990, with five faculties: Engineering and Sciences; Language Sciences; History and Law; Medicine; Food and Textile Processing Technology. Nowadays, there are 10 faculties and departments.

Sibiu also houses the Nicolae Bălcescu Land Forces Academy and the Military Foreign Language Center as well as two private universities, Romanian-German University and Alma Mater University.

In Sibiu there are 20 educational institutions on the secondary level, the most important of which are:

Sports

Sala Transilvania Sibiu, Transilvania 2006.jpeg
Sala Transilvania
Stadionul Municipal, currently under renovation. Stadion-renovat-Sibiu.jpg
Stadionul Municipal, currently under renovation.

The city houses a football stadium, a multi-functional arena building (Sala Transilvania), a rugby court, a municipal pool and several private tennis courts.

Also, several sports international competitions are taking place every year: Sibiu Cycling Tour (in July), Red Bull Romaniacs Hard Enduro Rallye (around July), Sibiu Open (formerly held in September), Sibiu Rally (currently held in October).

Football

Sibiu has had a long football tradition, starting in 1913 with the founding of Șoimii Sibiu, which was the launchpad of Ilie Oană's career, who later became a star of FC Petrolul Ploiești. Later came Societatea Gimnastică Sibiu, a sport club of Sibiu's Transylvanian Saxon community, which's best performance was reaching the Divizia A final in the 1930–31 season. The best ever football team from Sibiu, based on performances, was Inter Sibiu, which had finished 4th after the 1990–91 season and had won the Balkans Cup during the same season. During the 21st century, the city has been represented by FC Sibiu and Voința Sibiu (of which only the latter has reached Liga I). Currently, FC Hermannstadt is the only major football team representing Sibiu.

Basketball

CSU Sibiu, one of the best Romanian basketball teams at the moment, represents Sibiu in the top tier of Romanian basketball, Liga Națională.

Handball

The city's handball team is called CSM Sibiu. Additionally, the nearby town of Cisnădie has a women's team in the first league, CS Măgura.

Rugby

Volleyball

Speed Skating

Natives

International relations

Twin towns

Sibiu has twinning agreements with:

Consulates

The following countries have consulates in Sibiu:

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Transylvania</span> Historical region of Romania

Transylvania is a historical and cultural region in Central Europe, encompassing central Romania. To the east and south its natural border is the Carpathian Mountains, and to the west the Apuseni Mountains. Broader definitions of Transylvania also include the western and northwestern Romanian regions of Crișana and Maramureș, and occasionally Banat.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Sibiu County</span> County of Romania

Sibiu County is a county of Romania, in the historical region of Transylvania. Its county seat is the namesake town of Sibiu.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Agnita</span> Town in Sibiu, Romania

Agnita is a town on the Hârtibaciu river in Sibiu County, Transylvania, central Romania. It is considered the locality in the center of the country. The town administers two villages, namely Coveș and Ruja.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Transylvanian Saxons</span> German minority in Romania, in the Transylvanian region

The Transylvanian Saxons are a people of German ethnicity who settled in Transylvania in waves starting from the mid-12th century until the mid 19th century.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Avrig</span> Town in Sibiu, Romania

Avrig is a town in Sibiu County, Transylvania, central Romania. It has a population of 12,815 and the first documents attesting its existence date to 1346. It officially became a town in 1989, as a result of the Romanian rural systematization program.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Cisnădie</span> Town in Sibiu, Romania

Cisnădie is a town in Sibiu County, Transylvania, central Romania, approximately 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) south of Sibiu. One village, Cisnădioara, is administered by the town.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Klaus Iohannis</span> President of Romania since 2014

Klaus Werner Iohannis is a Romanian politician, physicist and former teacher who has been serving as the president of Romania since 2014. Ideologically a conservative, he became leader of the National Liberal Party (PNL) in 2014, after serving as leader of the Democratic Forum of Germans in Romania (FDGR/DFDR) between 2002 and 2013. Prior entering politics, Iohannis was a physics teacher.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hârtibaciu</span> River in Sibiu, Romania

The Hârtibaciu is a river in the Transylvania historical region of Romania. It develops in the South Carpathians and flows into the Cibin, a tributary of the Olt, in Mohu, southeast of Sibiu. It flows through the towns and villages Bărcuț, Retiș, Brădeni, Netuș, Agnita, Benești, Alțâna, Nocrich, Hosman, Cornățel and Cașolț. Its length is 110 km (68 mi) and its basin size is 1,025 km2 (396 sq mi).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Mărginimea Sibiului</span> Area comprising 18 Romanian localities in Sibiu County

Mărginimea Sibiului is an area which comprises 18 Romanian localities in the south-western part of the Sibiu County, in southern Transylvania, all of them having a unique ethnological, cultural, architectural, and historical heritage.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Germans of Romania</span> Ethnic minority in Romania

The Germans of Romania represent one of the most significant historical ethnic minorities of Romania. During the interwar period, the total number of ethnic Germans in this country amounted to as much as c. 800,000, a figure which has subsequently fallen to c. 36,000.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Biertan</span> Commune in Sibiu, Romania

Biertan is a commune in Transylvania, Romania, in the north of the Sibiu County, 80 km north of Sibiu and 29 km east of Mediaș. Biertan is one of the most important Saxon villages with fortified churches in Transylvania, having been on the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites since 1993. The Biertan fortified church was the seat of the Lutheran Evangelical Bishop in Transylvania between 1572 and 1867.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Săliște</span> Town in Sibiu, Romania

Săliște is a town in Sibiu County, in the centre of Romania, 21 km (13 mi) west of the county capital, Sibiu. Declared a town in 2003, it is the main locality in the Mărginimea Sibiului area.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Miercurea Sibiului</span> Town in Sibiu, Romania

Miercurea Sibiului is a town in the west of Sibiu County, in southern Transylvania, central Romania, 34 km (21 mi) to the west of the county capital, Sibiu.

The Democratic Forum of Germans in Romania is a political party organised on ethnic criterion representing the interests of the German minority in Romania.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Orlat</span> Commune in Sibiu, Romania

Orlat is a commune in Sibiu County, Transylvania, Romania, 17 km (11 mi) west of the county capital, Sibiu, in the Mărginimea Sibiului ethnographic area. It is composed of a single village, Orlat.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">ASTRA National Museum Complex</span>

"ASTRA" National Museum Complex is a museum complex in Sibiu, Romania, which gathers under the same authority four ethnology and civilisation museums in the city, a series of laboratories for conservation and research, and a documentation centre. It is the successor of the ASTRA Museum that has existed in the city since 1905. Its modern life started with the opening of The Museum of Folk Technology in 1964, now The "ASTRA" Museum of the Traditional Folk Civilization.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hoghilag</span> Commune in Sibiu, Romania

Hoghilag is a commune located in Sibiu County, Transylvania, central Romania. It is composed of three villages, namely: Hoghilag, Prod, and Valchid. The fortified church of Prod was demolished in 1902, while the fortified church of Valchid is still in a relatively good shape.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">House of Soterius von Sachsenheim</span>

Soterius von Sachsenheim is a Transylvanian Saxon noble family originating from the village Stein, in the former Saxon Repser Stuhl administrative division. Among its members were politicians and bureaucrats in the Transylvanian state administration and also army officers, scholars, pastors and artists.

The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Sibiu, Transylvania, Romania.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Archita, Mureș</span> Place in Mureș County, Romania

Archita is a village in Romania. Specifically, it lies within the commune of Vânători in Mureș County, Transylvania.

References

  1. Heck, Pete (11 August 2014). "The Romania Eyes". www.hecktictravels.com. Hecktic Travels. Retrieved 2 May 2020.
  2. "Results of the 2020 local elections". Central Electoral Bureau. Retrieved 14 June 2021.
  3. "Sibiu in the Lexico dictionary (powered by Oxford)". lexico.com. Oxford. Archived from the original on 26 February 2020. Retrieved 2 May 2020.
  4. City Distance Tool Archived 5 October 2010 at the Wayback Machine at geobytes.com
  5. "Sibiu Cultural Capital Website". sibiu2007.ro. Archived from the original on 15 October 2006. Retrieved 28 April 2018.
  6. Beckett, Edward; Olson, Parmy. "In Pictures: Europe's Most Idyllic Places To Live". Forbes. Archived from the original on 13 February 2018.
  7. 1 2 "Sibiu 2019 – European Regions of Gastronomy". europeanregionofgastronomy.org. International Institute of Gastronomy, Culture, Arts and Tourism (IGCAT). Retrieved 2 May 2020.
  8. Laicauf, Denisa (22 November 2019). "Sibiu – Capitala Europeana a Drumetiei" . Retrieved 2 May 2020.
  9. "Eurorando – Sibiu 2021". eurorando.eu. Retrieved 2 May 2020.
  10. "El Mundo – Best Christmas Markets in the World". elmundo.es. El Mundo. 21 December 2012. Retrieved 2 May 2020.
  11. Brooking, Francesca. "European Christmas Markets: Top 5". abouttimemagazine.co.uk. Retrieved 2 May 2020.
  12. Moldovan, Octavian (3 February 2021). "Cum au reușit doi frați din Sibiu să construiască o companie care valorează 1 miliard $". stirileprotv.ro. Retrieved 4 February 2021.
  13. 1 2 "Population as of 20 October 2011" (in Romanian). INSSE. 5 July 2013. Retrieved 5 July 2013.
  14. Roșu, Madalina (6 May 2019). "2019 population estimate". oradesibiu.ro. Retrieved 2 May 2020.
  15. Victor Rouă (3 October 2015). "The History Of The Transylvanian Saxons". The Dockyards. Retrieved 9 March 2021.
  16. Victor Rouă (19 August 2015). "A Brief History Of The Transylvanian Saxon Dialect". The Dockyards. Retrieved 24 June 2020.
  17. Rásonyi, László (1979), "Bulaqs and Oguzs in Medieval Transylvania" (PDF), Acta Orientalia Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae, Akadémiai Kiadó, 33: 135
  18. "Sibiu on Britannica". britannica.com. Britannica. Retrieved 2 May 2020.
  19. 1 2 "Hermannstadt (Sibiu) in Siebenbürgen". skr.de. Retrieved 2 May 2020.
  20. Hannover Moser, Birgitta Gabriela (2011). Siebenbürgen: Rund um Kronstadt, Schäßburg und Hermannstadt. Germany: Trescher Verlag. p. 107. ISBN   978-3-89794-157-1.
  21. Archived 22 April 2009 at the Wayback Machine
  22. "A szebeni városi nyomda". typographia.oszk.hu. Retrieved 2 May 2020.
  23. 1 2 "Enciclopedia României". enciclopediaromaniei.ro. Retrieved 3 May 2020.
  24. "Sibiu Official Website – History". www.sibiu.ro. Primaria Sibiu. Retrieved 3 May 2020.
  25. Victor Rouă (3 October 2015). "The History Of The Transylvanian Saxons". The Dockyards. Retrieved 23 June 2020.
  26. Sibiu, or Hermannstadt? A Romanian City with German TraditionsPublished/Revised June 11, 2014 Archived 4 January 2016 at the Wayback Machine , europeupclose.com
  27. The vanished Romanian German community through Hitler's population transfer, soviet deportation, & mass emigration Archived 16 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine , expelledgermans.org
  28. The Saxons’ Land, or the Royal Domain (Fundus Regius) Archived 15 July 2015 at the Wayback Machine , alanier.at
  29. Columbia Lippincott Gazetteer of the World
  30. "World Weather Information Service – Sibiu". World Meteorological Organization. Archived from the original on 26 July 2017. Retrieved 25 July 2017.
  31. "CLIMAT summary for 15260: Sibiu (Romania) – Section 2: Monthly Normals". CLIMAT monthly weather summaries. Ogimet. Retrieved 25 July 2017.
  32. "AIR TEMPERATURE (monthly and yearly absolute maximum and absolute minimum)" (PDF). Romanian Statistical Yearbook: Geography, Meteorology, and Environment. Romanian National Statistic Institute. 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 9 July 2015.
  33. "Sibiu Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration . Retrieved 9 July 2015.
  34. "Klimatafel von Hermannstadt (Sibiu), Siebenbürgen / Rumänien" (PDF). Baseline climate means (1961–1990) from stations all over the world (in German). Deutscher Wetterdienst. Retrieved 23 November 2016.
  35. Târgul de Crăciun din Sibiu Archived 1 December 2009 at the Wayback Machine
  36. "Christmas Traveling: 15 Of the Most Beautiful Christmas Markets in Europe". tourismontheedge.com. 7 December 2012. Archived from the original on 13 April 2014. Retrieved 28 April 2018.
  37. Radu Stanca National Theatre Archived 9 September 2006 at the Wayback Machine – Official Site
  38. State Philharmonic of Sibiu Archived 20 November 2012 at the Wayback Machine – Official Site
  39. Insider, Ro (17 January 2017). "Sibiu International Theater Festival becomes world's biggest". romania-insider.com. Archived from the original on 13 February 2018. Retrieved 28 April 2018.
  40. Klein, Konrad (17 October 2014). "Eine Gräfin mit Herz". siebenbuerger.de. Retrieved 3 May 2020.
  41. 2006 Cultural Programme Archived 1 May 2006 at the Wayback Machine
  42. 1 2 "Law no. 215 / 21 April 2001: Legea administrației publice locale" (in Romanian). Parliament of Romania. Retrieved 12 March 2008.
  43. "2011 census data" (PDF). insse.ro. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 February 2017. Retrieved 28 April 2018.
  44. "Statistică: în șase ani Sibiul a crescut cu aproape 70.000 de locuitori | Turnul Sfatului Online". Turnul Sfatului Online (in Romanian). 1 October 2017. Archived from the original on 26 May 2015. Retrieved 8 October 2017.
  45. "Erdély etnikai és felekezeti statisztikája". varga.adatbank.transindex.ro. Archived from the original on 22 October 2007. Retrieved 28 April 2018.
  46. "Capital". capital.ro. Retrieved 27 September 2020.
  47. "West industrial zone" (PDF).
  48. Tursib Archived 22 May 2007 at the Wayback Machine – Official Site
  49. ULBS, Departamentul de Comunicaţii și Marketing al. ":: L B U S :: About LBUS". www.ulbsibiu.ro. Archived from the original on 4 April 2015. Retrieved 28 April 2018.
  50. Land Forces Military Academy Archived 30 January 2015 at the Wayback Machine at mediafax.ro
  51. "Universitatea Romano-Germana din Sibiu". www.roger-univ.ro. Archived from the original on 19 February 2015. Retrieved 28 April 2018.
  52. "Istoricul Universitatii Alma Mater Sibiu – Universitatea Alma Mater Sibiu". www.uamsibiu.ro. Archived from the original on 4 May 2015. Retrieved 28 April 2018.
  53. (in Romanian) Sibiu Town Hall Official Site, Acordul de infratire intre Sibiu si orasul Deventer din Olanda Archived 27 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine , 23 May 2007

Bibliography