|Administrative region||Central Macedonia|
|• Municipal unit||196.6 km2 (75.9 sq mi)|
|• Municipal unit||9,294|
|• Municipal unit density||47/km2 (120/sq mi)|
|• Population||5,693 (2011)|
|Time zone||UTC+2 (EET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+3 (EEST)|
Sidirokastro (Greek : Σιδηρόκαστρο; Bulgarian and Macedonian: Валовища/ВаловиштаValovišta; Turkish : Demirhisar) is a town and a former municipality in the Serres regional unit, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Sintiki, of which it is the seat and a municipal unit. It is built near the fertile valley of the river Strymonas, on the bank of the Krousovitis River. Sidirokastro is situated on the European route E79 and the main road from northern Greece (Thessaloniki) to Bulgaria. It has a number of tourist sights, such as the medieval stone castle, Byzantine ruins, and natural spas.
Sidirokastro is located 25 km to the northwest of the town of Serres, between the Vrontous and Angistro mountains (to the north) and the river Strymonas (to the west). The 2011 census recorded 9,294 residents in the municipal unit of Sidirokastro, while there were 5,693 residents recorded in the community of Sidirokastro and 5,177 in the settlement. The municipal unit has an area of 196.554 km2. The town is crossed by the Krousovitis River, one of the Strymonas' tributaries, which divides the town into two sections. These sections are connected by two bridges: Stavrou and Kalkani. The landscape is made even prettier thanks to the Maimouda rivulet and its miniature bridges. Sidirokastro's population is a blend of indigenous people and descendants of the early 20th century waves of refugees from Asia Minor (people who sought asylum in Greece from the wars and conflicts of that period). Sidirokastro took in refugees from Melnik in 1913; from East Thrace (European Turkey) after the 1922 onslaught that followed the Greco-Turkish Wars in Asia Minor; from Pontus, Vlachs and people from all over Greece.
Sidirokastro's history reaches a long way back in time. There are Palaeolithic ruins here, and references to the area are found in Homer and Herodotus. Its ancient inhabitants migrated to Sidirokastro from the island of Limnos. The area's first inhabitants were of the Sintian tribe, after which Sintiki Province is named.
According to the statistics of Geographers Dimitri Mishev and D.M. Brancoff, the town had a total Christian population of 1.535 people in 1905, consisting of 864 Bulgarian Patriarchist Grecomans, 245 Greek Christians, 240 Vlachs, 162 Roma people and 24 Exarchist Bulgarians.
On September 20, 1383, Sidirokastro was overtaken by Ottoman forces and remained under their rule for 529 years. Its name was changed to "Demir Hisar" (Also called "Timurhisar"). Demirhisar was a kaza centre in the Sanjak of Serres before the Balkan Wars.In 1912, Sidirokastro was captured by the Bulgarians under general Georgi Todorov, but some months later it came under Greek control when the Balkan Wars ended. In 1915, during World War I, it came under the control of the Central Powers (Especially Bulgarians), but it remained part of the Greek state when the war ended (1918). In April 1941, after the surrender of the Roupel fortress and the German army's invasion of Greece, the Bulgarian army occupied Sidirokastro, as part of the triple Axis Occupation of Greece. The Bulgarians left in 1944 with the rest of the retreating Axis powers.
The Struma or Strymónas is a river in Bulgaria and Greece. Its ancient name was Strymṓn. Its drainage area is 17,330 km2 (6,690 sq mi), of which 10,797 km2 (4,169 sq mi) in Bulgaria, 6,295 km2 (2,431 sq mi) in Greece and the rest in North Macedonia. It takes its source from the Vitosha Mountain in Bulgaria, runs first westward, then southward, forming a number of gorges, enters Greek territory at the Kula village. In Greece it is the main waterway feeding and exiting from Lake Kerkini, a significant centre for migratory wildfowl. The river flows into the Strymonian Gulf in Aegean Sea, near Amphipolis in the Serres regional unit. The river's length is 415 kilometres (of which 290 kilometres in Bulgaria, making it the country's fifth-longest and one of the longest rivers that run solely in the interior of the Balkans.
Gotse Delchev, is a town in Gotse Delchev Municipality in Blagoevgrad Province of Bulgaria.
Serres is one of the regional units of Greece, in the geographic region of Macedonia. It is part of the Region of Central Macedonia. Its capital is the city of Serres. The total population reaches just over 175,000.
Vyroneia is a town located in the municipal unit of Petritsi in the northwestern part of Serres regional unit, Greece. It is situated near the Bulgarian border, on the right bank of the river Strymon, south of the Kerkini mountains, and east of the Lake Kerkini. Vyroneia is 4 km west of Neo Petritsi and 12 km northwest of Sidirokastro. Vyroneia had 923 inhabitants at the 2011 census.
Melnik is a town in Blagoevgrad Province, Southwestern Bulgaria, in the Southwestern Pirin Mountains, about 440 m above sea level. The town is an architectural reserve and 96 of its buildings are cultural monuments. With a population of 385, it is the smallest town in Bulgaria, retaining its town status today for historical reasons. It is situated on the foothills of the Pirin mountain range and is overlooked by the Melnik Earth Pyramids.
Gevgelija is a town with a population of 15,685 located in the very southeast of the North Macedonia along the banks of the Vardar River, situated at the country's main border with Greece (Bogorodica-Evzoni), the point which links the motorway from Skopje and three regional capitals, Belgrade, Zagreb, and Sofia with Thessaloniki in Greece. The town is the seat of Gevgelija municipality.
Strumica is the largest city in southeastern North Macedonia, near the Novo Selo-Petrich border crossing with Bulgaria. About 55,000 people live in the region surrounding the city. It is named after the Strumica River which runs through it. The city of Strumica is the seat of Strumica Municipality.
Axioupoli, known until 1927 as Boymitsa, is a small town and a former municipality in the former Paionia Province of Kilkis regional unit, Greek Macedonia. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Paionia, of which it is a municipal unit. The municipal unit has an area of 284.406 km2. In 2011 the town had a population of 2,897, and the municipal unit 5,619.
Demir Hisar, also known as Železnec (Железнец), is an area spreading on the South West part of Macedonia to the North West of the Pelagonian plain, around the river flow of the Black River with her inflows. The greater parts of the surrounding area of Demir Hisar are smaller hills and mountains, and a small part which is spread around the mentioned river is low lands. A signature of this area are the mountains Bigla, Ilinska and Plakenska, on which is the highest peak reaching 2000 m which separates the region of Demir Hisar with the lake regions of Prespa and Ohrid.
Ano Vrontou is a remote mountain village and a former community in the northern Serres regional unit, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Serres, of which it is a municipal unit. Each year on August astrophotography hobbyists gather there due to the clear view of the night sky, a result of the villages high elevation. The municipal unit has an area of 47.306 km2. In 2011 its population was 199. Ano Vrontou is situated in the northeastern part of the Vrontous mountains, at about 1060 m elevation. It borders on the Drama regional unit to the north and east. Ano Vrontou is 6 km northwest of Kato Vrontou, 12 km east of Achladochori, 13 km northeast of Oreini, 16 km southwest of Kato Nevrokopi and 26 km northeast of Serres.
Demir Hisar is a small town in North Macedonia. It is the seat of Demir Hisar Municipality. This small settlement has an absolute Macedonian ethnic majority. The name of the town translates to "Iron Castle" in Turkish, and dates back to the time when Macedonia was ruled by the Ottoman Empire.
Demir Hisar can refer to:
Ano Poroia is a village in Greece, located in Macedonia. The population was 965 people (2011).
Idomeni or Eidomene is a small village in Greece, near the border with North Macedonia. The village is located in the municipality of Paeonia, Kilkis regional unit of Central Macedonia (Greece).
Sintiki is a municipality in the Serres regional unit, Central Macedonia, Greece. The seat of the municipality is the town Sidirokastro. The municipality has an area of 1,103.431 km2.
Nižepole is a village in the municipality of Bitola, North Macedonia and is an alpine settlement 7.85 kilometers from Bitola.
Emmanouil Pappas is a village in the Serres regional unit, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform, it has been part of the municipality of Emmanouil Pappas. It is situated in the foothills of mountain Menoikio, 17 km east of Serres, and 101 km northeast of Thessaloniki. The former name of the village was Dovista. It was renamed Emmanouil Pappas in 1927, after the hero of the Greek War of Independence in Macedonia who was born there in 1773.
Nikolaos Gousios was a Greek chieftain of the Macedonian Struggle.
Doukas Gaitatzis also known under the nom de guerre as Captain Zervas was a significant Greek chieftain of the Macedonian Struggle.
Platanakia, known before 1922 as Sugova / Shugovo is a village in Serres, Greece. It is situated in the municipal unit of Kerkini, in the Sintiki municipality, within the Serres region of Central Macedonia. The village had 697 inhabitants according to the 2001 census. The population was 444 according to the 2011 census.
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