Sidon Eyalet revolt (1834)

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Sidon Eyalet Revolt
Part of the Syrian Peasant Revolt (1834–35)
DateMay–July 1834;
1835
Location
Result

Revolt suppressed

  • Some rebel leaders executed
  • Egyptian rule reasserted
  • Conscription orders carried out
Belligerents

Flag of Egypt (1844-1867).svg Egypt Eyalet


Druze of Mount Lebanon
Commanders and leaders

Flag of Egypt (1844-1867).svg Muhammad Ali
Flag of Egypt (1844-1867).svg Ibrahim Pasha

Chehab Emirate flag.svg Bashir Shihab II

Mas'ud al-Madi   Skull and Crossbones.svg
Isa al-Madi  Skull and Crossbones.svg

Aqil Agha

Sidon Eyalet Revolt refers to events in Ottoman Syria during the Syrian Peasant Revolt (1834–35), when in parallel to the Peasant uprising in Palestine and Transjordan (south of the Damascus Eyalet), Galilee-based rebels captured Safad and Tiberias in the eastern Galilee. [1] The Hauran was also encompassed by the rebellion. In 1835, some Druze clans of Mount Lebanon rose in another revolt.

Ottoman Syria parts of modern-day Syria or Greater Syria which were subjected to Ottoman rule

Ottoman Syria refers to divisions of the Ottoman Empire within the Levant, usually defined as the region east of the Mediterranean Sea, west of the Euphrates River, north of the Arabian Desert and south of the Taurus Mountains.

The Syrian Peasant Revolt was an armed uprising of Arab peasant classes against the rule of Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt in 1834–35. The revolt took place in areas of Ottoman Syria, at the time ruled by the semi-independent ruler of Egypt, who conquered the region from loyal Ottoman forces in 1831.

Tiberias Israeli city on the western shore of the Sea of Galilee

Tiberias is an Israeli city on the western shore of the Sea of Galilee. Established around 20 CE, it was named in honour of the second emperor of the Roman Empire, Tiberius. In 2017 it had a population of 43,664.

Contents

Timeline

In parallel to the Peasant uprising in Palestine and Transjordan (south of the Damascus Eyalet), Galilee-based rebels captured Safad and Tiberias in the eastern Galilee. [1] The Hauran was also encompassed by the rebellion.

Galilee large region in northern Israel

Galilee is a region in northern Israel. The term Galilee traditionally refers to the mountainous part, divided into Upper Galilee and Lower Galilee.

Hauran mountain range

The Hauran also spelled Hawran or Houran) is a region that spans parts of southern Syria and northern Jordan. It is bound in the north by the Ghouta oasis, in the east by the al-Safa field, to the south by Jordan's desert steppe and to the west by the Golan Heights. Traditionally, the Hauran consists of three subregions: the Nuqrah and Jaydur plains, the Jabal al-Druze massif, and the Lajat volcanic field. The population of the Hauran is largely Arab, but religiously heterogeneous; most inhabitants of the plains are Sunni Muslims belonging to large agrarian clans, while Druze form the majority in the eponymous Jabal al-Druze and a significant Greek Orthodox and Greek Catholic minority inhabit the western foothills of Jabal al-Druze. The region's largest towns are Daraa, al-Ramtha and al-Suwayda.

The most severe events took place in Galilee, climaxing with the 1834 looting of Safed which was mostly an attack against the Jewish community of the city, which began on Sunday 15 June 1834, and lasted for the next 33 days. [2] [3] The governor of Safed and thirteen of the ringleaders were taken captive, summarily tried, and put to death. The district governor tried to quell the violent outbreak, but failed to do so and fled. [4]

1834 looting of Safed A series of riots conducted by local Arab and Muslim villagers in the Jewish community of Safed during the 1834 Palahan uprising

The 1834 looting of Safed was prolonged attack against the Jewish community of Safed, Ottoman Empire, during the 1834 Peasants' Revolt. It began on Sunday June 15, the day after the Jewish holiday of Shavuot, and lasted for the next 33 days. Most contemporary accounts suggest it was a spontaneous attack which took advantage of a defenceless population in the midst of the armed uprising against Egyptian rule. The district governor tried to quell the violent outbreak, but failed to do so and fled. The event took place during a power vacuum, whilst Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt was fighting to quell the wider revolt in Jerusalem.

Safed Place in Israel

Safed is a city in the Northern District of Israel. Located at an elevation of 900 metres (2,953 ft), Safed is the highest city in the Galilee and in Israel. Due to its high elevation, Safed experiences warm summers and cold, often snowy, winters.

Upon arrival of Muhammad Ali was in Damascus Eyalet, he requested military assistance from Emir Bashir Shihab II of Mount Lebanon, via an emissary, Emir Shihab's son Amin. The arrival of Bashir's Druze troops followed intervention of foreign consuls. In late July 1834, Emir Bashir led his forces toward Galilee, but before advancing further southward, he made a number of proclamations advising that the rebels of Safad surrender. The rebel leadership in Safad agreed to negotiate and sent Sheikh Salih al-Tarshihi as an emissary to Bashir to arrange a meeting. Bashir invited the leaders of Safad to the village of Bint Jbeil where they agreed to surrender and submit to Egyptian authority. Afterward, Bashir arrived in Safad where he arranged for rebel leaders from nearby areas to surrender as well. [5] Bashir's Druze forces under the command of his son Amin, [6] entered Safad without resistance on 18 July 1834, making way for the displaced residents from its Jewish quarter to return. [7] The instigators were arrested and later executed in Acre.[ citation needed ]

Damascus Eyalet Ottoman province

Damascus Eyalet was an eyalet of the Ottoman Empire. Its reported area in the 19th century was 51,900 square kilometres (20,020 sq mi). It became an eyalet after the Ottomans conquered it from the Mamluks in 1516. Janbirdi al-Ghazali, a Mamluk traitor, was made the first beylerbey of Damascus. The Damascus Eyalet was one of the first Ottoman provinces to become a vilayet after an administrative reform in 1865, and by 1867 it had been reformed into the Syria Vilayet.

Bashir Shihab II Emir of Lebanon

Bashir Shihab II was a Lebanese emir who ruled Lebanon in the first half of the 19th century. Born in a family who had converted from Sunni Islam, the religion of previous Shihabi Emirs, he was the only Maronite ruler of the Emirate of Mount Lebanon.

Mount Lebanon mountain range in Lebanon

Mount Lebanon is a mountain range in Lebanon. It averages above 2,500 m (8,200 ft) in elevation.

In 1835, some Druze clans of Mount Lebanon rose up in another revolt.

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Safad Sanjak

Safad Sanjak, also referred as Early Ottoman Galilee was a sanjak (district) of Damascus Eyalet during 16th and early 17th centuries, later becoming part of the Sidon Eyalet.

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The Alawite revolt, also known as the Nusayri rebellion, was one of the arenas of the Syrian Peasant Revolt (1834–35). Between 1834 and 1835, the Alawites (Nusayris) rose up against Egyptian rule of the region, while pro-Egyptian governor of Homs Salim Beg and the forces of Emir Bashir Shihab II of Mount Lebanon's, commanded by Khalil and his relatives, participated in the suppression of revolts in Akkar, Safita, the Krak des Chevaliers and an Alawite revolt in the mountainous region of Latakia.

References

  1. 1 2 Rood, 2004, p. 131
  2. Bloch, Abraham P. One a day: an anthology of Jewish historical anniversaries, 1987. pg. 168.
  3. Louis Finkelstein (1960). The Jews: their history, culture, and religion. Harper. p. 679. Retrieved 17 February 2012. Rabbi Isaac b. Solomon Farhi records that the pillage continued for 24 days.
  4. Andrew G. Bostom (2008). The legacy of Islamic antisemitism: from sacred texts to solemn history. Prometheus Books. p. 594.
  5. Safi, Khaled M. (2008), "Territorial Awareness in the 1834 Palestinian Revolt", in Roger Heacock (ed.), Of Times and Spaces in Palestine: The Flows and Resistances of Identity, Beirut: Presses de l'Ifpo, ISBN   9782351592656
  6. Farah 2000, p. 22.
  7. Lieber, Sherman (1992). Mystics and Missionaries: The Jews in Palestine, 1799-1840. University of Utah Press. p. 215. ISBN   9780874803914.