The Siege of Grave was a siege that took place between 18 July to 20 September 1602 as part of the Eighty Years' War and the Anglo–Spanish War. The Spanish held city of Grave was besieged by a Dutch and English army led by Maurice of Orange and Francis Vere respectively.After a siege of nearly two months the city surrendered when a Spanish relief army under Francisco de Mendoza was defeated just outside the city by the besiegers. The defeat was severe enough to cause a major mutiny in the Spanish army.
Prince Maurice of Orange had been actively campaigning against the Spanish armies in the Southern Netherlands and had successfully made sure that Ostend then under siege by the Albert of Austria would be a key distraction while he took the rest of the Spanish garrisons that were still in the Republic.Maurice in his first objective successfully besieged and took Rheinberg an important stronghold on the Rhine from the Spanish in July 1601.
Meanwhile, Francis Vere had successfully defeated a massive Spanish assault in Ostend in January the same year.The veteran Englishman with his troops stuck in Ostend proved an issue - the states general demanded that Vere would be better served in the field with Maurice. After this had been agreed the garrison of Ostend was replaced by fresh troops along with a new governor - Frederick van Dorp. Vere left in March and was back in the field with a large portion of English troops (many newly recruited) numbering 8,000 men and many of them veterans from the siege at Ostend.
On arriving at the Hague, Vere at once joined the army of Maurice and as soon as both forces had assembled which then numbered nearly 20,000 men, they crossed the Waal at Nijmegen, and the Maas at Mook, advanced thence into the heart of Brabant.Maurice found his progress towards Tienen opposed by Francisco López de Mendoza, who was strongly entrenched - he refused to be tempted out while Maurice refused to engage or pass while leaving a large force in his rear. Maurice then turned back to the north with the intention of besieging Grave or Venlo; the former was chosen.
Grave was an important town on the Maas and had been captured in 1586 by Alexander Farnese, Duke of Parma and from then was under Spanish control.Grave's defences were steadily improved and was completely surrounded with field fortifications making any frontal assault out of the question.
By mid July the Dutch and English forces had marched towards the city of Grave; the right wing composed of the English foot commanded by Sir Francis Vere, the centre corps by the Count William Louis and the left by Count Ernest of Nassau.The Commentaries of Vere showed that the army moved in three columns on as many contiguous lines of march. The defenders of the city numbered over 1,500 Spanish and Italian soldiers under the command of Don Antonio Gonzalez and were hoping to hold out for more than two months before a relief column could arrive. At the same time a detached number of Spanish forces led by Mendoza and Ambrosio Spinola pursued Maurice but undeterred the besiegers pressed on towards Grave.
On 18 July the Anglo-Dutch force had arrived, surrounded Grave and soon dug in around the city - laying and constructing a trench system.The now besieged tried to bring in as many reinforcements as possible but this was in vain when it was cut off. The Dutch and English siege positions were large in scale with every redoubt having its own wet ditch and drawbridge, and of which took nearly five hours to complete a circuit.
The Spanish garrison in the city were in the hope that there would be relief relied on from nearby Venlo under Francisco Mendoza who had arrived with a force in late July.Mendoza went out with the aim of relieving Grave but soon discovered the significant size of the Dutch and English besieging force when the leading part of the Spanish column ran into strong positions and were repelled with loss. The city garrison on hearing the news of Mendoza close by at the same time made several unsuccessful sallies on the besieging army wasting men and supplies. This abruptly stopped when they heard news that the Mendoza's troops were forced to turn back to Venlo in late August; mutinies also played their part in the Spanish retreat.
During the relief attempt Vere was inspecting the English trenches when heavy fighting broke out as a sally was launched on the position. The Spanish were repelled but Vere was severely injured when a bullet went through his head beneath his eye and became embedded in his skull.For Vere it would be the end of the war but the bullet was removed as he took up rest in Ryswick and was not able to take to the field again by the end of the year. As a consequence of Vere's wound the young Frederick Henry who was only eighteen years old took over Vere's command, while Horace Vere (brother to Francis) took over the English troops in the field. The Earl of Leicester arrived at the siege in late August in case Francis' wound was mortal and needed to fill in his command but this was denied by Queen Elizabeth I.
At the beginning of September the besiegers were running into trouble as the water levels from the Mass caused by heavy rains began to rise rapidly.Before long it had risen so quickly that Maurice even considered raising the whole siege altogether and pondered to make a hasty retreat - he and made calls for the garrison to surrender. Luckily for Maurice the Grave garrison was on it knees and on 20 September Gonzalez accepted Maurice's terms and surrendered. Breakout of diseases, rising waters, a severe lack of food and news that the relief force had been turned back which as a result initiated a large mutiny meant that the Spanish had no choice.
After a total of sixty days and with the siege over, the Spanish army were allowed to leave with arms and colours and the Dutch and English entered Grave triumphantly the following day.
On 28 September Maurice was inaugurated as count of the country in Grave in a building of its suburbs that in 1559 was given to his father, William of Orange.
With the failure of the break up of the siege, a mutiny broke out amongst the Spanish troops because of arrears of pay and about 1,200 soldiers deserted in Venlo.As a force they captured Hamont and then fled to Hoogstraten with the rest of the Spanish troops on their heels before making a deal with Maurice. In the terms given to the mutineers by Maurice Grave was to be garrisoned by them and kept in their hands before being returned to Dutch control by the end of 1603. While Grave surrendered Maurice heard the news that Albert's troops were making no progress in the siege at Ostend.
The following year was one of indecision by both Maurice and the states general.In addition the death of Elizabeth and the crowning of King James I of England put operations on hold whilst Grand pensionary Johan van Oldenbarnevelt made talks with the English court and parliament. The talks however got nowhere and the campaign resumed in 1603 with Ostend still under siege. Maurice managed to retake Wachtendonk in March 1603 and Sluis in the Southern Netherlands in August 1604, but the Spanish forces despite suffering heavy losses did not raise the siege of Ostend and it capitulated in September 1604.
Grave would stay in Dutch hands for the rest of the war ad was garrisoned largely by English troops until 1648.
The Siege of Ostend was a three-year siege of the city of Ostend during the Eighty Years' War and the Anglo–Spanish War. A Spanish force under Archduke Albrecht besieged the fortress being held initially by a Dutch force which was reinforced by English troops under Francis Vere who became the town's governor. It was said "the Spanish assailed the unassailable; the Dutch defended the indefensible." The commitment of both sides in the dispute over the only Dutch ruled area in the province of Flanders, made the campaign continue for more than any other during the war. This resulted in one of the longest and bloodiest sieges in world history: more than 100,000 people were killed, wounded or succumbed to disease during the siege.
The Siege of Zutphen was an eleven-day siege of the city of Zutphen by Dutch and English troops led by Maurice of Nassau, during the Eighty Years' War and the Anglo–Spanish War. The siege began on 19 May 1591 after a clever ruse by the besiegers. The city was then besieged for eleven days, after which the Spanish garrison surrendered.
The Siege of Lingen took place during the Eighty Years' War and the Anglo–Spanish War by a Dutch and English army led by Maurice of Orange. Frederik van den Bergh defended Lingen for Philip II of Spain which was besieged from 25 October 1597. After a siege of more than two weeks, Van den Bergh surrendered on 12 November 1597. The siege was part of Maurice's successful 1597 campaign against the Spaniards.
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The Capture of Ootmarsum in 1597 was a short siege, that took place during the Eighty Years' War and the Anglo–Spanish War by a Dutch and English army led by Count Van Duivenvoorde while Maurice of Nassau was besieging Oldenzaal. The siege lasted from 19 to 21 October, where the Spanish garrison of Ootmarsum under the governor, Otto Van Den Sande surrendered and was then occupied by the besiegers. The siege was part of Maurice's successful offensive against the Spaniards during the same year.
The Mutiny of Hoogstraten was the longest mutiny by soldiers of the Army of Flanders during the Eighty Years' War. Frederick Van den Berg's attempt to end the mutiny by force, with a siege to recapture the town, ended in defeat at the hands of an Anglo-Dutch army under of Maurice of Nassau. After a period of nearly three years the mutineers were able either to join Maurice's army or rejoin the Spanish army after a pardon had been ratified.
The Siege of 's-Hertogenbosch of 1601(Sitio de Bolduque de 1601 in Spanish) was an unsuccessful Dutch attempt led by Prince Maurice of Nassau and William Louis of Nassau-Dillenburg to capture the city of 's-Hertogenbosch, North Brabant, Spanish Netherlands, garrisoned by about 1,500–2,000 Spanish soldiers led by Governor Anthonie Schetz, Baron of Grobbendonck, between 1 and 27 November 1601, during the Eighty Years' War and the Anglo-Spanish War (1585–1604), in the context of the long and bloodiest Siege of Ostend.
The Siege of Sluis (1604) also known as the Sluis Campaign or the Battle of the Oostburg Line was a series of military actions that took place during the Eighty Years' War and the Anglo–Spanish War from 19 May to 19 August 1604. A States and English army under Prince Maurice of Orange and Horace Vere respectively crossed the Scheldt estuary and advanced on land taking Cadzand, Aardenburg and IJzendijke in the Spanish Netherlands. This soon led to the culmination of the siege of the Spanish held inland port of Sluis.
The Siege of Hulst of 1596 was a Spanish victory led by Archduke Albert that took place between mid-July and August 18, 1596, at the city of Hulst, Province of Zeeland, Low Countries, during the Eighty Years' War, the Anglo-Spanish War (1585–1604). After a short siege, during which Maurice of Orange launched a failed attempt to relieve the city – the garrison of Dutch and English troops fell into Spanish hands on August 18, 1596.
The Siege of Steenwijk was a siege that took place between 30 May - 5 July 1592 as part of the Eighty Years' War and the Anglo–Spanish War by a Dutch and English force under Maurice of Orange. By taking Steenwijk the Republic's army would take out one of the two main transport routes overland to the Drenthe capital of Groningen, the other lay at Coevorden. After a failed bombardment an assault was made in conjunction with the detonation of mines under important bastions and with two out of three successfully assaulted; the Spanish troops surrendered on 5 July 1592 and handed over the city to the Dutch and English army. This siege was one of the first in history to make use of pioneers as a separate military unit although they were still at the time regarded as soldiers.
The Siege of Knodsenburg, Relief of Knodzenburg or also known as Battle of the Betuwe was a military action that took place during the Eighty Years' War and the Anglo–Spanish War at a sconce known as Knodsenburg in the district of Nijmegen. A siege by a Spanish army under the command of the Duke of Parma took place from 15th to the 25th July 1591. The fort was defended by the Dutch Republic's commander Gerrit de Jong and his company which was then subsequently relieved through the intervention of a Dutch and English army led by Maurice of Orange and Francis Vere respectively on July 25. As a result, the Spanish army was defeated and Parma managed to retreat by getting his army across the River Waal.
The Siege of Hulst was a siege of the city of Hulst that took place between 20–24 September 1591 by a Dutch and English army under the leadership of Maurice of Orange during the Eighty Years' War and the Anglo–Spanish War. The siege was part of Maurice's famous campaign of 1591.
The Siege of Coevorden was a siege that took place between 26 July and 2 September 1592 during the Eighty Years' War and the Anglo–Spanish War at the city of Coevorden by a Dutch and English force under overall command of Maurice of Nassau. The city was defended by Frederik van den Bergh who had been commissioned for the defence by King Philip II of Spain.
The Siege of Rheinberg also known as the Rhine campaign of 1601 was the siege of the towns of Rheinberg and Meurs from 12 June to 2 August 1601 during the Eighty Years' War and the Anglo–Spanish War. Maurice of Orange with an Anglo-Dutch army besieged the Spanish held cities in part to distract them before their impending siege at Ostend. Rheinberg, an important city, eventually capitulated on 28 July after a Spanish relief force under Herman van den Bergh failed to relieve the city. The towns of Meurs surrendered soon after.
The Siege of Geertruidenberg was a siege of the city of Geertruidenberg that took place between 27 March and 24 June 1593 during the Eighty Years' War and the Anglo–Spanish War. Anglo-Dutch troops under the commands of Maurice of Nassau and Francis Vere laid siege to the Spanish garrisoned city. The siege was unique in that the besiegers used a hundred ships, forming a semicircle in a chain on the Mass river to form a blockade. A Spanish relief force under the command of the Count of Mansfeld was attempted in May but this was defeated and he was later forced to withdraw. Three Governors of the city were killed - after the last fatality and as a result of the failed relief, the Spanish surrendered the city on 24 June 1593. The victory earned Maurice much fame and had thus become a steadfast strategist in the art of war.
The Siege of Nijmegen was a military engagement during the Eighty Years' War and the Anglo–Spanish War which took place from 17 to 21 October 1591. The Spanish garrison in Nijmegen was besieged by a Dutch and English force under Maurice of Nassau and Francis Vere respectively, which soon surrendered.
The Siege of Zaltbommel was a campaign that took place during the Eighty Years' War and the Anglo–Spanish War from May 15 to July 22, 1599. The Spanish led by Francisco López de Mendoza y Mendoza launched an offensive campaign around Bommelerwaard which was defended by an Anglo-Dutch force under the command of Maurice of Orange. A siege on the town of Zaltbommel by Spanish troops was attempted but they had to lift the siege and were defeated in subsequent attempts to regain the initiative. Mendoza retreated and the Spanish army then found itself in chaos: mutinies took effect and as a result further operations were suspended for a number of years. As a result, the Dutch and English followed with a counter-offensive in the Spanish Netherlands.
The Siege of Groningen was a two-month siege which commenced on May 19, 1594 took place during the Eighty Years' War and the Anglo–Spanish War. The Spanish held city of Groningen was besieged by a Dutch and English army led by Prince Maurice of Orange. The Spanish surrendered the city on July 22 after a failed relief attempt by the Count of Fuentes.
The Siege of San Andreas also known as the Siege of Sint-Andries was a military event that took place during the Eighty Years' War and the Anglo–Spanish War from 28 January to 6 march 1600. The Spanish garrison of San Andreas was besieged by an Anglo-Dutch force led by Maurice of Nassau. A Spanish relief force under the command of Luis de Velasco failed to relieve the fort after having been turned back by the besiegers. The fort surrendered after the garrison mutinied and accepted payment from Maurice.