Siege of Le Quesnoy (1793)

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Siege of Le Quesnoy (1793)
Part of War of the First Coalition
Le Quesnoy - remparts 01.JPG
The defenses of Le Quesnoy are preserved in a park.
Date28 August – 13 September 1793
Location
Result Coalition victory
Belligerents
Banner of the Holy Roman Emperor (after 1400).svg Habsburg Austria
Royal Standard of the King of France.svg French Royalists
Flag of France (1790-1794).svg Republican France
Commanders and leaders
Banner of the Holy Roman Emperor (after 1400).svg Count of Clerfayt Flag of France (1790-1794).svg François Goullus
Strength
18,000 5,000
Casualties and losses
208 5,000

The Siege of Le Quesnoy (28 August – 13 September 1793) saw a force made up of Habsburg Austrians and French Royalists led by François Sébastien Charles Joseph de Croix, Count of Clerfayt lay siege to a Republican French garrison commanded by François Goullus. After two and a half week siege, the French capitulated after suffering heavy losses. The War of the First Coalition operation was fought at Le Quesnoy, located near the border with Belgium about 27 kilometres (17 mi) west of Maubeuge.

Armée des Émigrés

The Armée des Émigrés were counter-revolutionary armies raised outside France by and out of Royalist Émigrés, with the aim of overthrowing the French Revolution, reconquering France and restoring the monarchy. These were aided by royalist armies within France itself, such as the Chouans, and by allied countries such as Great Britain. They fought, for example, at the sieges of Lyon and Toulon.

François Sébastien Charles Joseph de Croix, Count of Clerfayt Austrian marshal

François Sébastien Charles Joseph de Croix, Count of Clerfayt, a Walloon, joined the army of the Habsburg Monarchy and soon fought in the Seven Years' War. Later in his military career, he led Austrian troops in the war against Ottoman Turkey. During the French Revolutionary Wars he saw extensive fighting and rose to the rank of Field Marshal.

François Goullus French brigadier general

François Goullus, was a brigadier general and baron of the First French Empire during the French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars.

Contents

After the successful Sieges of Condé and Valenciennes, the Coalition divided their forces. While an Austrian army laid siege to Le Quesnoy, a British-led army marched west to the coast to operate against Dunkirk. On 11 September, two French columns marched to the relief of Le Quesnoy. The force from Cambrai on the west came to grief in the Battle of Avesnes-le-Sec while the force from Maubeuge was also repelled. The Le Quesnoy garrison laid down their arms on 13 September, but the Siege of Dunkirk was a total failure. Undeterred, the Austrian host next laid siege to Maubeuge, leading to the Battle of Wattignies in mid-October.

Siege of Condé (1793)

The Siege of Condé saw a force made up of Habsburg Austrians and French Royalists commanded by Duke Ferdinand Frederick Augustus of Württemberg lay siege to a Republican French garrison led by Jean Nestor de Chancel. After a blockade lasting about three months the French surrendered the fortress. The operation took place during the War of the First Coalition, part of a larger conflict known as the French Revolutionary Wars. Condé-sur-l'Escaut, France is located near the Belgium border about 14 kilometres (9 mi) northeast of Valenciennes.

Siege of Valenciennes (1793) 18th-century battle

The Siege of Valenciennes took place between 13 June and 28 July 1793, during the Flanders Campaign of the War of the First Coalition. The French garrison under Jean Henri Becays Ferrand was blockaded by part of the army of Prince Josias of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, commanded by the Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany. Valenciennes fell on 28 July, resulting in an Allied victory.

Dunkirk Subprefecture and commune in Hauts-de-France, France

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Siege

The Coalition besieging force under the Count of Clerfayt numbered about 18,000 troops in 24 battalions and 10 squadrons. There were five Austrian grenadier battalions, those of Attems, Sinoth, Ulm, Ulrich and Watsch. The Austrian line infantry included two battalions each of Infantry Regiments Archduke Charles Nr. 3, Deutschmeister Nr. 4, Klebek Nr. 14, Hohenlohe Nr. 17, Grand Duke of Tuscany Nr. 23, Wartensleben Nr. 28, Michael Wallis Nr. 29, Erbach Nr. 42 and Stain Nr. 50, and one battalion of Infantry Regiment Beaulieu Nr. 59. The Austrian cavalry comprised four squadrons of the Latour Chevau-léger Regiment Nr. 31 and two squadrons of the Barco Hussar Regiment Nr. 35. The French Royalist cavalry included two squadrons each of the Bérchény and Saxe Hussars. [1]

Chevau-léger generic French name for several units of light and medium cavalry

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Hussar light cavalry originally from Hungary

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Results

The Coalition admitted losses of 208 killed and wounded during the siege. The French lost about 1,000 killed out of a garrison of 5,000 troops. The 4,000 survivors became prisoners of war. [1]

Notes

  1. 1 2 Smith, Digby (1998). The Napoleonic Wars Data Book. London: Greenhill. p. 55. ISBN   1-85367-276-9.

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Coordinates: 50°14′59″N3°38′18″E / 50.24972°N 3.63833°E / 50.24972; 3.63833

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