Siege of Sluis (1587)

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Siege of Sluis (1587)
Part of the Eighty Years' War and the Anglo-Spanish War (1585–1604)
Sluis 1586 1.JPG
Engraving of the Siege of Sluis of 1587 by Frans Hogenberg.
Collection Rijksmuseum Amsterdam.
Date12 June – 4 August 1587
Location Sluis, Zeeland, Low Countries
(present-day the Netherlands)
Result Spanish victory [1] [2]
Belligerents
Flag of England.svg  England
Statenvlag.svg  United Provinces
Flag of Cross of Burgundy.svg  Spain
Commanders and leaders
Flag of England.svg Earl of Leicester
Flag of England.svg Roger Williams
Flag of Cross of Burgundy.svg Duke of Parma
Casualties and losses
700 killed and 400 wounded [3] 92 killed and 243 wounded [3]

The Siege of Sluis of 1587 took place between 12 June and 4 August 1587, as part of the Eighty Years' War and the Anglo-Spanish War (1585–1604). [1] [2] On 12 June 1587, Don Alexander Farnese, Duke of Parma (Spanish: Alejandro Farnesio), Governor-General of the Spanish Netherlands, and commander-in-chief of the Army of Flanders, laid siege to the strategic deep-water port of Sluis, defended by English and Dutch troops under Sir Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester, Governor-General of the United Provinces, and Sir Roger Williams. [2] [4] [5] On 24 June, the bombardment began, and on 4 August, after of 13 days of constant fighting around the walls, the English garrison surrendered. [6] The loss of the English-held port of Sluis revealed the inability of Leicester to assert his authority over the Dutch allies, who refused to cooperate in relieving the town, [7] and led to recriminations between the governor-general and the States of Holland. [4] [8]

Eighty Years War 16th and 17th-century Dutch revolt against the Habsburgs

The Eighty Years' War or Dutch War of Independence (1568–1648) was a revolt of the Seventeen Provinces of what are today the Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg against Philip II of Spain, the sovereign of the Habsburg Netherlands. After the initial stages, Philip II deployed his armies and regained control over most of the rebelling provinces. Under the leadership of the exiled William the Silent, the northern provinces continued their resistance. They eventually were able to oust the Habsburg armies, and in 1581 they established the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands. The war continued in other areas, although the heartland of the republic was no longer threatened; this included the beginnings of the Dutch Colonial Empire, which at the time were conceived as carrying overseas the war with Spain. The Dutch Republic was recognized by Spain and the major European powers in 1609 at the start of the Twelve Years' Truce. Hostilities broke out again around 1619, as part of the broader Thirty Years' War. An end was reached in 1648 with the Peace of Münster, when the Dutch Republic was definitively recognised as an independent country no longer part of the Holy Roman Empire. The Peace of Münster is sometimes considered the beginning of the Dutch Golden Age.

Anglo-Spanish War (1585–1604) 1585–1604 war between the kingdoms of Spain and England

The Anglo-Spanish War (1585–1604) was an intermittent conflict between the kingdoms of Spain and England that was never formally declared. The war was punctuated by widely separated battles, and began with England's military expedition in 1585 to the Netherlands under the command of the Earl of Leicester in support of the resistance of the States General to Spanish Habsburg rule.

Alexander Farnese, Duke of Parma Duke of Parma

Alexander Farnese was an Italian noble and condottiero who was Duke of Parma, Piacenza and Castro from 1586 to 1592, as well as Governor of the Spanish Netherlands from 1578 to 1592. He is best known for his successful campaign 1578-1592 against the Dutch Revolt, in which he captured the main cities in the south and returned them to the control of Catholic Spain. During the French Wars of Religion he relieved Paris for the Catholics. His talents as a field commander, strategist and organizer earned him the regard of his contemporaries and military historians as the first captain of his age.

Contents

Other notable English soldiers under Leicester's command were Sir Thomas Baskerville and Sir Francis Vere. [9] In the following months, the Earl of Leicester launched a series of unsuccessful attacks against the Spaniards. [10] In September 1587, Leicester attempts to capture Leiden, but failed, [10] and his plans to capture Enkhuizen and Hoorn, two important ports of West Friesland, also failed. [9] On 16 December 1587, Leicester returned to England. [9]

Sir Thomas Baskerville, was an English general and MP.

Francis Vere English soldier

Sir Francis Vere was an English soldier, famed for his successful military career in the Low Countries.

Leiden City and municipality in South Holland, Netherlands

Leiden is a city and municipality in the province of South Holland, Netherlands. The municipality of Leiden had a population of 123,856 in August 2017, but the city forms one densely connected agglomeration with its suburbs Oegstgeest, Leiderdorp, Voorschoten and Zoeterwoude with 206,647 inhabitants. The Netherlands Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS) further includes Katwijk in the agglomeration which makes the total population of the Leiden urban agglomeration 270,879, and in the larger Leiden urban area also Teylingen, Noordwijk, and Noordwijkerhout are included with in total 348,868 inhabitants. Leiden is located on the Oude Rijn, at a distance of some 20 kilometres from The Hague to its south and some 40 km (25 mi) from Amsterdam to its north. The recreational area of the Kaag Lakes (Kagerplassen) lies just to the northeast of Leiden.

See also

Battle of Zutphen

The Battle of Zutphen was fought on 22 September 1586, near the village of Warnsveld and the town of Zutphen, the Netherlands, during the Eighty Years' War. It was fought by the forces of the United Provinces of the Netherlands, aided by the English, against the Spanish. In 1585, England signed the Treaty of Nonsuch with the States-General of the Netherlands and formally entered the war against Spain. Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester, was appointed as the Governor-General of the Netherlands and sent there in command of an English army to support the Dutch rebels. When Alessandro Farnese, Duke of Parma and commander of the Spanish Army of Flanders, besieged the town of Rheinberg during the Cologne War, Leicester, in turn, besieged the town of Zutphen, in the province of Gelderland and on the eastern bank of the river IJssel.

Dutch Revolt war in the 16th century

The Dutch Revolt (1568–1648) was the revolt of the northern, largely Protestant Seven Provinces of the Low Countries against the rule of the Roman Catholic Habsburg King Philip II of Spain, hereditary ruler of the provinces. The northern provinces (Netherlands) eventually separated from the southern provinces, which continued under Habsburg Spain until 1714.

Notes

  1. 1 2 Parker/Martin p.126
  2. 1 2 3 Van Nimwegen p.153
  3. 1 2 Vázquez, p. 307
  4. 1 2 Parker p. 126
  5. To replenish the companies of Englishmen, he brought with him 3,000 fresh troops on the Queen's payroll, and 1,500 for units on the payroll of the States General. Tracy. Insubordinations, sedition, and mutiny, 1587–1588
  6. Parker/Martin p. 126–127
  7. Wilson p. 291–294
  8. The surrender of Sluis (5 August) was but another occasion for mutual recriminations between the Governor-General and the States of Holland. Tracy. Insubordinations, sedition, and mutiny, 1587–1588
  9. 1 2 3 Olaf Van Nimwegen p. 153
  10. 1 2 The Eighty Years War 1568–1648

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References

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