Sigmaringen

Last updated

Sigmaringen
Sigmaringen August 2015.jpg
Wappen Sigmaringen.svg
Coat of arms
Location of Sigmaringen within Sigmaringen district
Karte Sigmaringen.png
Germany adm location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Sigmaringen
Baden-Wuerttemberg location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Sigmaringen
Coordinates: 48°5′12″N9°12′59″E / 48.08667°N 9.21639°E / 48.08667; 9.21639 Coordinates: 48°5′12″N9°12′59″E / 48.08667°N 9.21639°E / 48.08667; 9.21639
Country Germany
State Baden-Württemberg
Admin. region Tübingen
District Sigmaringen
Subdivisions6
Government
   Mayor Thomas Schärer
Area
  Total92.85 km2 (35.85 sq mi)
Elevation
580 m (1,900 ft)
Population
 (2018-12-31) [1]
  Total17,278
  Density190/km2 (480/sq mi)
Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)
Postal codes
72488
Dialling codes 07571, 07570 (Gutenstein), 07577 (Jungnau)
Vehicle registration SIG
Website www.sigmaringen.de

Sigmaringen is a town in southern Germany, in the state of Baden-Württemberg. Situated on the upper Danube, it is the capital of the Sigmaringen district.

Contents

Sigmaringen is renowned for its castle, Schloss Sigmaringen, which was the seat of the principality of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen until 1850 and is still owned by the Hohenzollern family.

Geography

Sigmaringen lies in the Danube valley, surrounded by wooded hills in the south of the Swabian Alb around 40 km away from Lake Constance.

The surrounding towns are on the north, Winterlingen (in the district of Zollernalb) and Veringenstadt, on the east, Bingen, Sigmaringendorf, and Scheer, on the south, Mengen, Krauchenwies, Inzigkofen, and Meßkirch, and on the west, Leibertingen, Beuron, and Stetten am kalten Markt. The city is made up from the following districts: Sigmaringen (inner-city), Gutenstein, Jungnau, Laiz, Oberschmeien and Unterschmeien.

History

Sigmaringen was first documented in 1077 and was in the principality of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen until 1850, after which it became the Prussian Province of Hohenzollern.

Prehistory and early history

The history of settlement in the territory of the present town Sigmaringen dates back to the Paleolithic. [2]

Middle Ages

In the 11th century, the end of the Early Middle Ages, the first castle was built on the rock that protected the valley. The first written reference [3] is from 1077, when King Rudolf of Rheinfelden tried in vain to conquer Sigmaringen castle. The official city foundation was in 1250. In 1325 the city was sold to Ulrich III, Count of Württemberg. In 1460 and 1500, the castle was rebuilt into a chateau. About the county of Werdenberg Sigmaringen came in 1535 to the high noble family of the Hohenzollern.

Modern times

Sigmaringen, ca. 1900 Sigmaringen schloss.jpg
Sigmaringen, ca. 1900

In 1632 the Swedes occupied the castle during the Thirty Years' War.

From 1806 to 1849 Sigmaringen was the capital of the sovereign Principality Hohenzollern and residence of the princes of Hohenzollern. As a result of the Revolution in Sigmaringen of 1848, the Princes of Hechingen and Sigmaringen waived on their rule, whereby both principalities in 1850 fell to Prussia. From 1850 to 1945 Sigmaringen was the seat of Prussian Government for the Province of Hohenzollern. Karl Anton von Hohenzollern was 1858-1862 Prime Minister of Prussia. From 1914 to 1918 around 150 men from the town lost their lives during World War I. In the Nazi era a Gestapo office was in Sigmaringen. From 1937 it belonged to the Gestapo Stuttgart. [4]

Between 1934 and 1942 more than 100 men were sterilized because of "hereditary diseases". During the Nazi medical murders, the "T4", became on 12 December 1940 for the first time 71 mentally handicapped and mentally ill patients victims of Nazi injustice. The deportation led them into the Grafeneck Euthanasia Centre, where the men and women were murdered as "unworthy of life". [5] After the closure of Grafeneck in December 1940, on 14 March 1941 a further deportation to the Hadamar Euthanasia Centre was made.

Vichy French enclave (1944–1945)

See also Commission gouvernementale de Sigmaringen (in French).
The Castle of Sigmaringen Sigmaringen Schloss 2015-04-29 15-52-34.jpg
The Castle of Sigmaringen

On September 7, 1944, following the Allied invasion of France, Philippe Pétain and members of the Vichy government cabinet were relocated to Germany. A city-state ruled by the government in exile headed by Fernand de Brinon was established at Sigmaringen. There were three embassies in the city-state, representing each of Vichy-France's allies: Germany, Italy, and Japan.

French writers Louis-Ferdinand Céline, Lucien Rebatet and Roland Gaucher, fearing for their lives because of their political and anti-Semitic writings, fled along with the Vichy government to Sigmaringen. Céline's novel D'un château l'autre (English: Castle to Castle ) describes the fall of Sigmaringen. The city was taken by Free French forces on April 22, 1945. Pétain returned voluntarily to France, where he stood trial for treason.

Religions

The following religions are present in Sigmaringen:[ citation needed ]

Transportation infrastructure

Three railways meet in Sigmaringen, the Danube Valley Railway leading from Donaueschingen to Ulm, the Tübingen–Sigmaringen railway from Tübingen to Aulendorf, and the line operated by the Hohenzollerische Landesbahn from Sigmaringen to Hechingen.

Sigmaringen lies in the serving area of Verkehrsverbund Neckar-Alb-Donau (NALDO) [6] .

Notable residents

Sigmaringen was the birthplace of Saint Fidelis of Sigmaringen, a Roman Catholic martyr of the Counter-Reformation in Switzerland, and Ferdinand of Romania, King of Romania. It was one of the residences of deceased Prince Friedrich Wilhelm of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, the late representative of the house, who was the first in the line of succession to the throne of Romania, by Salic law. Frederick Miller, founder of the Miller Brewing Company, was living in Sigmaringen during the start of his brewing career.

People who worked locally

Notable people

Bibliography

Related Research Articles

House of Hohenzollern dynasty of former princes, electors, kings, and emperors of Hohenzollern, Brandenburg, Prussia, the German Empire, and Romania

The House of Hohenzollern is a German dynasty whose members were variously princes, electors, kings and emperors of Hohenzollern, Brandenburg, Prussia, the German Empire, and Romania. The family arose in the area around the town of Hechingen in Swabia during the 11th century and took their name from Hohenzollern Castle. The first ancestors of the Hohenzollerns were mentioned in 1061.

Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen historical principality in Germany

Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen was a principality in southwestern Germany. Its rulers belonged to the senior Swabian branch of the House of Hohenzollern. The Swabian Hohenzollerns were elevated to princes in 1623. The small sovereign state with the capital city of Sigmaringen was annexed to the Kingdom of Prussia in 1850 following the abdication of its sovereign in the wake of the revolutions of 1848, then became part of the newly created Province of Hohenzollern.

The Zollernalbkreis is a Landkreis (district) in the middle of Baden-Württemberg, Germany. The district is located in the Swabian Alb, and contains the second highest elevation of this range, the 1,011-metre (3,317 ft) high Oberhohenberg. In the south-east the district nearly reaches to the river Danube.

Province of Hohenzollern Historical province in Prussia

The Province of Hohenzollern or the Hohenzollern Lands was a province of Prussia from 1850 to 1946.

Hechingen Place in Baden-Württemberg, Germany

Hechingen is a town in central Baden-Württemberg, Germany. It is situated about 60 kilometres (37 mi) south of the state capital of Stuttgart and 90 kilometres (56 mi) north of Lake Constance and the Swiss border.

Horb am Neckar Place in Baden-Württemberg, Germany

Horb am Neckar is a town in the southwest of the German state of Baden-Württemberg. It is located on the Neckar river, between Offenburg to the west and Tübingen to the east. It has around 25,000 inhabitants, of whom about 6,000 live in the main town of Horb, and the remainder in 18 associated villages and districts which form part of the same municipality. If the entire municipality is counted, it is the largest town in the District of Freudenstadt.

Upper Swabia

Upper Swabia is a region in Germany in the federal states of Baden-Württemberg and Bavaria. The name refers to the area between the Swabian Jura, Lake Constance and the Lech. Its counterpart is Lower Swabia (Niederschwaben), the region around Heilbronn.

Gammertingen Place in Baden-Württemberg, Germany

Gammertingen is a town in the district of Sigmaringen, in Baden-Württemberg, Germany. It is situated 18 km north of Sigmaringen.

Leopold, Prince of Hohenzollern Prince of Hohenzollern

Leopold, Prince of Hohenzollern was the head of the Swabian branch of the House of Hohenzollern, and played a fleeting role in European power politics, in connection with the Franco-Prussian War.

Karl Anton, Prince of Hohenzollern Prince of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen

Prince Karl Anton of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen was head of the Princely House of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, Hohenzollern from 1869 and Prime Minister of Prussia. He was the son of Karl, Prince of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, who abdicated in favour of his son on 27 August 1848, and his first wife Marie Antoinette Murat, niece of Joachim Murat.

Grafeneck Euthanasia Centre building in Gomadingen, Tübingen Government Region, Bade-Württemberg, Germany

The Grafeneck Euthanasia Centre housed in Grafeneck Castle was one of Nazi Germany's killing centres as part of their forced euthanasia programme. Today, it is a memorial site dedicated to the victims of the state-authorised programme also referred to since as Action T4. At least 10,500 mentally and physically disabled people, predominantly from Bavaria and Baden-Württemberg, were systematically killed during 1940. It was one of the first places in Nazi Germany where people were killed in large numbers in a gas chamber using carbon monoxide. This was actually the beginning of the Euthanasia Programme. Here was also settled the central office of "Charitable Ambulance Transport GmbH" (Gekrat), which was responsible for the transport of T4 and was headed by Reinhold Vorberg.

Sigmaringen Castle building in Sigmaringen, Tübingen Government Region, Baden-Württemberg, Germany

Sigmaringen Castle was the princely castle and seat of government for the Princes of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen. Situated in the Swabian Alb region of Baden-Württemberg, Germany, this castle dominates the skyline of the town of Sigmaringen. The castle was rebuilt following a fire in 1893, and only the towers of the earlier medieval fortress remain. Schloss Sigmaringen was a family estate of the Swabian Hohenzollern family, a cadet branch of the Hohenzollern family, from which the German Emperors and kings of Prussia came. During the closing months of World War II, Schloss Sigmaringen was briefly the seat of the Vichy French Government after France was liberated by the Allies. The castle and museums may be visited throughout the year, but only on guided tours. It is still owned by the Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen family, although they no longer reside there.

Krauchenwies Place in Baden-Württemberg, Germany

Krauchenwies is a municipality in the district of Sigmaringen in Baden-Württemberg in Germany.

Gomadingen Place in Baden-Württemberg, Germany

Gomadingen is a town in the district of Reutlingen in Baden-Württemberg in Germany. About 85% of its territory is located on the Swabian Alps. It's the district where the Grafeneck Castle is situated. During the II World War, the castle was home of the Grafeneck Euthanasia Centre, one of the main Nazi Germany's killing centres part of their Action T4 programme.

Hohenzollern-Haigerloch was a small county in southwestern Germany. Its rulers belonged to the Swabian branch of the House of Hohenzollern. It became part of the neighboring Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen in 1767.

Franz Joseph, Prince of Hohenzollern-Emden German prince

Franz Joseph Maria Ludwig Anton Thassilo Prinz von Hohenzollern-Emden was a member of the Roman Catholic branch of the House of Hohenzollern. He was born as Prince Franz Joseph of Hohenzollern and adopted the surname Prinz von Hohenzollern-Emden in 1933.

Princess Maria Alix of Saxony Princess of Hohenzollern-Emden

Princess Maria Alix of Saxony, Duchess of Saxony was the sixth child and third-eldest daughter of Frederick Augustus III of Saxony and his wife Archduchess Luise of Austria, Princess of Tuscany and a younger sister of Georg, Crown Prince of Saxony and Friedrich Christian, Margrave of Meissen. Through her marriage to Franz Joseph, Prince of Hohenzollern-Emden, Maria Alix was a member of the House of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen.

Danube Valley Railway (Baden-Württemberg) railway in Germany

The Danube Valley Railway in Baden-Württemberg in south-western Germany is a 133.8-kilometre-long railway running from the city of Ulm to Immendingen, which is largely single-tracked and for the most part not electrified. The line is famous especially for its charming course through the Upper Danube Nature Park, and is particularly attractive to bicycle tourists. The Royal Württemberg State Railways and the Grand Duchy of Baden State Railways built the line as part of the railway projects undertaken between 1865 and 1890. The construction of the section between Tuttlingen and Inzigkofen was pushed through by the German general staff, for whom the Danube Valley Railway was seen as a strategic railway in case of another war with France. Since 1901, the Danube Valley Railway, together with the Höllentalbahn (Schwarzwald), form part of the pan-regional railway link from Ulm to Freiburg im Breisgau.

Tübingen–Sigmaringen railway railway line

The Tübingen Hbf–Sigmaringen railway is a main line railway in the German State of Baden-Württemberg. It runs from Tübingen to Sigmaringen. It is consistently single track and non-electrified, but it is equipped for the operation of tilting trains.

Hohenzollerische Landesbahn German railway company

The Hohenzollerische Landesbahn (HzL) is the largest non-federally owned railway company in the German state of Baden-Württemberg after the Albtal-Verkehrs-Gesellschaft and Südwestdeutsche Verkehrs-Aktiengesellschaft. It has operates passenger and freight traffic since 1900. Its field of activity now extends to large parts of southern Baden-Württemberg. In 2018, the HzL will merge with the Südwestdeutsche Verkehrs-Aktiengesellschaft (SWEG).

References

  1. "Bevölkerung nach Nationalität und Geschlecht am 31. Dezember 2018". Statistisches Landesamt Baden-Württemberg (in German). July 2019.
  2. name="Stadtporträt"
  3. Bericht in der Chronik des Kloster Petershausen: Von dort zog König Rudolf von Schwaben nach Burg Sigimaringin und belagerte sie. Als er aber erfuhr, dass König Heinrich IV. mit einem Heer über die Alpenpässe herannahte, um die Festung zu entsetzen, zog er ab und ging nach Sachsen.
  4. Ingrid Bauz, Sigrid Brueggemann, Roland Maier (eds.). The secret police in Württemberg and Hohenzollern. Stuttgart 2013, ISBN   3-89657-138-9, p 90ff.
  5. Thomas Stöckle, Grafeneck 1940. The euthanasia crimes in East Germany. 2nd Edition. Silberburg-Verlag, Tübingen 2005, ISBN   3-87407-507-9. Thomas Stöckle, head of Memorial in Grafeneck emphasizes that these are preliminary. Basis of the figures are statistical material from the Grafeneck process of 1949 and reports of the individual dispensing stations
  6. de:Verkehrsverbund Neckar-Alb-Donau