Sigurd the Crusader

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Sigurd the Crusader
Magnussonnenes saga 4 - G. Munthe.jpg
King Sigurd rides into Constantinople
King of Norway
Reign1103 – 26 March 1130
Predecessor Magnus III
Successor Magnus IV and Harald IV
Born1089
Died26 March 1130
Oslo, Kingdom of Norway
Burial
Spouse Bjaðmunjo Mýrjartaksdóttir
Malmfred of Kiev
Cecilia (disputed)
Issue Kristin Sigurdsdatter
Magnus IV of Norway
Full name
Sigurd Magnusson
House Hardrada
Father Magnus III of Norway
MotherTora (concubine)
Religion Roman Catholicism

Sigurd I Magnusson (1089 [1] – 26 March 1130), also known as Sigurd the Crusader (Old Norse: Sigurðr Jórsalafari, Norwegian: Sigurd Jorsalfar), was King of Norway from 1103 to 1130. His rule, together with his half-brother Øystein (until Øystein died in 1123), has been regarded by historians as a golden age for the medieval Kingdom of Norway. He is otherwise famous for leading the Norwegian Crusade (1107–1110), earning the eponym "the Crusader", and was the first European king to personally participate in a crusade. [2] [3]

Old Norse North Germanic language

Old Norse was a North Germanic language that was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and their overseas settlements from about the 9th to the 13th centuries.

Norwegian language North Germanic language spoken in Norway

Norwegian is a North Germanic language spoken mainly in Norway, where it is the official language. Along with Swedish and Danish, Norwegian forms a dialect continuum of more or less mutually intelligible local and regional varieties, and some Norwegian and Swedish dialects, in particular, are very close. These Scandinavian languages, together with Faroese and Icelandic as well as some extinct languages, constitute the North Germanic languages. Faroese and Icelandic are hardly mutually intelligible with Norwegian in their spoken form because continental Scandinavian has diverged from them. While the two Germanic languages with the greatest numbers of speakers, English and German, have close similarities with Norwegian, neither is mutually intelligible with it. Norwegian is a descendant of Old Norse, the common language of the Germanic peoples living in Scandinavia during the Viking Era.

Eystein I of Norway King of Norway

Eystein Magnusson was King of Norway from 1103 to 1123 together with his brothers Sigurd the Crusader and Olaf Magnusson, although since Olaf died before adulthood, only Eystein and Sigurd were effective rulers of the country.

Contents

Biography

Sigurd was one of the three sons of King Magnus III, the other two being Øystein and Olaf. They were all illegitimate sons of the king with different mothers. To avoid feuds or war, the three half-brothers co-ruled the kingdom from 1103. Sigurd would rule alone after Olaf died in 1115 and Øystein in 1123. [4]

Before being proclaimed King of Norway, Sigurd was styled as King of the Isles and Earl of Orkney. [5] Sigurd would pass the Earl of Orkney title on to Haakon Paulsson, a son of Paul Thorfinnsson. [6]

Earl of Orkney Norwegian, then Scottish, noble title over the Northern Isles and northern Scotland

The Earl of Orkney was originally a Norse jarl ruling the the archipelagos of Orkney and Shetland (Norðreyjar). Originally founded by Norse invaders, the status of the rulers of the Norðreyjar as Norwegian vassals was formalised in 1195. Although the Old Norse term jarl looks similar to "earl", and the jarls were succeeded by earls in the late 15th century, a Norwegian jarl is not the same thing. In the Norse context the distinction between jarls and kings did not become significant until the late 11th century and the early jarls would therefore have had considerable independence of action until that time. The position of Jarl of Orkney was eventually the most senior rank in mediaeval Norway except for the king himself.

Haakon Paulsson was a Norwegian Jarl (1105–1123) and jointly ruled the Earldom of Orkney with his cousin Magnus Erlendsson. Their lives and times are recounted in the Orkneyinga Saga, which was first written down in the early 13th century by an unknown Icelandic author.

Many historians have viewed Sigurd and Øystein's rule as a golden age for the medieval Kingdom of Norway. The country flourished economically and culturally, [7] allowing Sigurd's participation in the Crusades and gaining international recognition and prestige. [8]

Crusades A series of religious wars sanctioned by the Latin Church in the medieval period

The crusades were a series of religious wars sanctioned by the Latin Church in the medieval period. The most commonly known crusades are the campaigns in the eastern Mediterranean aimed at recovering the Holy Land from Muslim rule. The term crusade is also applied to other church-sanctioned campaigns. These were fought for a variety of reasons including the suppression of paganism and heresy, the resolution of conflict among rival Roman Catholic groups, or for political and territorial advantage. At the time of the early crusades, the word did not exist and it only became the leading descriptive term in English around the year 1760.

Coin thought to represent the co-rule of Oystein and Sigurd, and thus dated to before 1115 Oystein-Sigurd mynt.png
Coin thought to represent the co-rule of Øystein and Sigurd, and thus dated to before 1115

Expedition with Magnus III

In 1098, Sigurd accompanied his father, King Magnus III, on his expedition to the Orkney Islands, Hebrides and the Irish Sea. He was made Earl of Orkney the same year, following the swift removal of the incumbent Earls of Orkney, Paul and Erlend Thorfinnsson. He was also apparently, made King of the Isles in that same year, following the overthrow of their king by his father, Magnus. Although Magnus was not directly responsible for the death of the previous King of the Isles, he became the next ruler of the kingdom, most likely due to his conquest of the islands. This was the first time the kingdom had been under direct control of a Norwegian king. It is not certain whether Sigurd returned home with his father to Norway after the 1098 expedition. However, it is known that he was in Orkney when Magnus returned west in 1102 for his next expedition. While there, a marriage alliance was negotiated between Magnus and Muircheartach Ua Briain. He was High King of Ireland, [9] one of the most powerful rulers in Ireland, as well as the ruler of Dublin. Sigurd was to marry Muirchertach's daughter Bjaðmunjo, a young Irish princess and for a short period, Queen consort. [10]

Hebrides archipelago off the west coast of mainland Scotland

The Hebrides comprise a widespread and diverse archipelago off the west coast of mainland Scotland. There are two main groups: the Inner and Outer Hebrides.

Irish Sea Sea which separates the islands of Ireland and Great Britain

The Irish Sea separates the islands of Ireland and Great Britain; linked to the Celtic Sea in the south by St George's Channel, and to the Inner Seas off the West Coast of Scotland in the north by the Straits of Moyle. Ireland and all countries that comprise the United Kingdom are on its shoreline: Scotland on the north, England on the east, Wales on the southeast, and Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland on the west.

Paul Thorfinnsson and Erlend Thorfinnsson were brothers who ruled together as Earls of Orkney. Paul and Erlend were the sons of Thorfinn Sigurdsson and Ingibiorg Finnsdottir. Through Ingibiorg's father Finn Arnesson and his wife, the family was related to the Norwegian Kings Olav II and Harald II. They are both described as "tall, handsome men, shrewd and gentle, taking rather more after their mother's side of the family. Their lives and times are recounted in the Orkneyinga Saga, which was first written down in the early 13th century by an unknown Icelandic author.

When King Magnus was ambushed and killed in Ulaid by an Irish army in 1103, the 14-year-old Sigurd returned to Norway along with the rest of the Norwegian army, leaving his child-bride behind. Upon arriving in Norway, he and his two brothers, Øystein and Olav, were proclaimed kings of Norway and jointly ruled the kingdom together for some time. The expeditions conducted by Magnus were somewhat profitable to the Kingdom of Norway, as the many islands under Norwegian control generated wealth and manpower. However the Hebrides and Man quickly re-asserted their independence after Magnus' death. [11]

Ulaid

Ulaid or Ulaidh ) was a Gaelic over-kingdom in north-eastern Ireland during the Middle Ages, made up of a confederation of dynastic groups. Alternative names include Ulidia, which is the Latin form of Ulaid, as well as in Cóiced, which in Irish means "the Fifth". The king of Ulaid was called the rí Ulad or rí in Chóicid.

Ireland Island in north-west Europe, 20th largest in world, politically divided into the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland (a part of the UK)

Ireland is an island in the North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel, the Irish Sea, and St George's Channel. Ireland is the second-largest island of the British Isles, the third-largest in Europe, and the twentieth-largest on Earth.

Isle of Man British Crown dependency

The Isle of Man, often referred to simply as Mann, is a self-governing British Crown dependency in the Irish Sea between Great Britain and Ireland. The head of state is Queen Elizabeth II, who holds the title of Lord of Mann and is represented by a lieutenant governor. Defence is the responsibility of the United Kingdom.

Norwegian Crusade

King Sigurd and King Baldwin ride to the river Jordan Magnussonnenes saga 3 - G. Munthe.jpg
King Sigurd and King Baldwin ride to the river Jordan

In 1107, Sigurd led the Norwegian Crusade to support the newly established Kingdom of Jerusalem which had been founded after the First Crusade. He was the first European king to lead a crusade, and his feats earned him the nickname Jorsalafari. Sigurd possessed a total force of about 5000 men in about 60 ships, as recorded by the sagas. The two kings, Øystein and Sigurd, initially disputed about who should lead the contingent and who should remain home to rule the kingdom. Sigurd was eventually chosen to lead the crusade, possibly because he was a more experienced traveler, having been on several expeditions with his father, Magnus III, to Ireland and islands in the seas around Scotland.

Sigurd fought in Lisbon, various Mediterranean islands and Palestine. He would often fight the enemies himself, amongst his loyal soldiers and kinsmen; they were continually victorious and vastly successful, gaining considerable amounts of treasure and booty. However, the loot probably never reached Norway, as Sigurd left almost everything he had gained in Constantinople. On his way to Jerusalem (Jorsalaland) he visited the Norman King Roger II of Sicily in his castle at Palermo. [12]

Upon arriving in the Holy Land he was greeted by Baldwin I, King of Jerusalem. He received a warm welcome, and spent much time with the king. The two kings rode to the Jordan River, where Sigurd might have been baptized. King Baldwin asked Sigurd to join him and Ordelafo Faliero, Doge of Venice in the capture of the coastal city of Sidon, which had been re-fortified by the Fatimids in 1098. The Siege of Sidon was a great success for the crusaders, and the city was conquered on 5 December 1110. Eustace Grenier was granted the Lordship of Sidon after the city was captured. By order of Baldwin and the Patriarch of Jerusalem, Ghibbelin of Arles, a splinter was taken from the True Cross and given to Sigurd after the siege, as a token of friendship and as a relic for his heroic participation in the crusades. Thereafter, King Sigurd returned to his ships and prepared to leave the Holy Land. They sailed north to the island of Cyprus, where Sigurd stayed for a time. Sigurd then sailed to Constantinople (Miklagard) and entered the city through the gate called the Gold Tower, riding in front of his men. He stayed there for a while, meeting and spending much time with the Emperor Alexios I Komnenos.

Route of the Norwegian Crusade taken by Sigurd the Crusader. Red: Sea, Green: Land. SigurdNorwegianCrusade1107-1111OldNorse.png
Route of the Norwegian Crusade taken by Sigurd the Crusader. Red: Sea, Green: Land.

Return to Norway

Before leaving Constantinople, Sigurd gave all of his ships and many treasures away to the Byzantine Emperor. In return the emperor gave him many strong horses, for him and his fellow kinsmen. Sigurd planned to return to Norway over land, but many of his men stayed behind in Constantinople, to take up service for the emperor as part of his Varangian Guard. The trip took three years and he visited many countries en route. Sigurd traveled from Serbia and Bulgaria (Bolgaraland), through Hungary (Ungararíki), Pannonia, Schwabia (Sváva), and Bavaria (Beiaraland) where he met with the Emperor Lothar of the Holy Roman Empire (Rómaborg). He later arrived in Denmark where he was greeted by King Niels of Denmark, who eventually gave him a ship in which to sail to Norway.

Upon returning to Norway in 1111, Sigurd came back to a flourishing and prosperous kingdom. King Eystein had created a strong and stable country. The church had especially gained . [13] During Sigurd's reign, the tithe (a 10% tax to support the church) was introduced in Norway, which greatly strengthened the church in the country. Sigurd also founded the diocese of Stavanger. He had been denied divorce by the bishop in Bergen, so he simply installed another bishop further south and had him perform the divorce. [14]

Sigurd made his capital in Konghelle (in the vicinity of Kungälv in present-day Sweden) and built a strong castle there. He also kept the relic given to him by King Baldwin, a splinter reputed to be from the True Cross. In 1123, Sigurd once again set out to fight in the name of the church, this time in the Swedish Crusade to Småland in Sweden. The inhabitants had reportedly renounced their Christian faith and were again worshiping Old Norse deities. [15]

Death

Sigurd died in 1130 and was buried in Hallvard's church (Hallvardskirken) in Oslo. [16] Sigurd and his Queen Malmfred (a daughter of Grand Prince Mstislav I of Kiev and granddaughter of King Inge I of Sweden) had a daughter, Kristin Sigurdsdatter. He left no legitimate male heirs. Magnus, his illegitimate son with his mistress Borghild Olavsdotter, became king of Norway. He shared the throne in an uneasy peace with another claimant, Harald Gille. This led to a power struggle following Sigurd's death between various illegitimate sons and other royal pretenders, which escalated into a lengthy and devastating civil war. This gave rise to long feuds over who should rule the Kingdom of Norway in the 12th century and early 13th century. [17] [18] [19] [20]

Civil war

The civil war era in Norway (Borgerkrigstida) lasted from 1130 until 1240 and involved several conflicts of varying scales and intensities. The conflicts arose in a background of ambivalent Norwegian succession laws, social discontents, and struggles between various parties of nobles vying for ascendancy. Towards the end, there were two main parties, the Bagler and Birkebeiner . The rallying point for a given party would be a royal son, or a person claimed by his followers to be a royal son, who was set up as the head figure of the party in question, to oppose the rule of a king from the contesting party. In the traditions of succession of the day, there was little or no difference between a legitimate and an illegitimate son of a king. The competence and popularity of the potential heir were supposed to be the deciding factors. [21] [22]

Ancestry

See also

Primary sources

Most of the information gathered about the saga of Sigurd and his brothers is taken from the Heimskringla, written by Snorri Sturluson around 1225. The accuracy of this work is still debated by scholars. In the 19th century, Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson wrote an historical drama based on the life of the king, with incidental music composed by Edvard Grieg. Sigurd is also mentioned in various European sources. [23]

Notes

  1. https://nbl.snl.no/Sigurd_1_Magnusson_Jorsalfare
  2. Literally "Jerusalem-farer", but commonly translated into English as "the Crusader".
  3. Riley-Smith, Jonathan (1996). The First Crusade and the Idea of Crusading. University of Pennsylvania Press. p. 132. ISBN   0812213637.
  4. Per G. Norseng. "Sigurd Jorsalfare". Store norske leksikon. Retrieved April 1, 2016.
  5. Neither Øystein nor Olav received such prestigious titles.
  6. Claus Krag. "Sigurd 1 Magnusson Jorsalfare, Konge". Norsk biografisk leksikon. Retrieved April 1, 2016.
  7. The building of Norway was mainly overseen by Øystein while Sigurd was away on the crusades. Øystein built several constructions and worked to expand the economic and cultural progress in Norway. His grandest and famous construction was Munkeliv Abbey, which he built in Bergen.
  8. Sigurd Jorsalfare, Lokalhistoriewiki, retrieved April 1, 2016
  9. He was the self proclaimed High King of Ireland, the title was not inherited or given to him.
  10. The marriage might not even have been consummated.
  11. Duffy, Seán (1992). "Irishmen and Islesmen in the Kingdom of Dublin and Man 1052–1171". Ériu (43): 93–133 [125–26]. JSTOR   30007421.
  12. Jakobsson, Ármann (2013-09-13). "Image is Everything: The Morkinskinna Account of King Sigurðr of Norway's Journey to the Holy Land". Parergon. 30 (1): 121–140. doi:10.1353/pgn.2013.0016. ISSN   1832-8334.
  13. The church would gain even more wealth, power and prestige when Sigurd returned.
  14. This was allegedly the reason he was able to marry the woman, Cecilia.
  15. Knut Are Tvedt. "Konghelle". Store norske leksikon. Retrieved April 1, 2016.
  16. "Hallvardskatedralen". Lokalhistoriewiki. Retrieved April 1, 2016.
  17. Nils Petter Thuesen. "Magnus 4 Sigurdsson Blinde, Konge". Norsk biografisk leksikon. Retrieved April 1, 2016.
  18. Knut Peter Lyche Arstad. "Gilchrist Harald 4 Gille, Konge". Norsk biografisk leksikon. Retrieved April 1, 2016.
  19. "Magnus 4 Sigurdsson Blinde". Lokalhistoriewiki. Retrieved April 1, 2016.
  20. "Saga of Magnus the Blind and of Harald Gille". Heimskringla. Retrieved April 1, 2016.
  21. "Borgerkrigstida". Lokalhistoriewiki. Retrieved April 1, 2016.
  22. Per Sveaas Andersen & Per G. Norseng. "Norsk historie fra 800 til 1130". Store norske leksikon. Retrieved April 1, 2016.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  23. "Saga of Sigurd the Crusader and His Brothers Eystein and Olaf". Heimskringla. Retrieved April 1, 2016.

Other sources

Sigurd Jorsalafar
Cadet branch of the Fairhair dynasty
Born:c. 1090 Died: 26 March 1130
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Paul and Erlend Thorfinnsson
Earl of Orkney
1098–1103
Succeeded by
Haakon Paulsson
Preceded by
Magnus III
King of the Isles
1102–1103
Succeeded by
Lagman
King of Norway
1103–1130
with Olaf Magnusson (1103–1115)
Eystein I (1103–1123)
Succeeded by
Magnus IV
Harald IV

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