Sihai, Manipur

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Sihai

Saanhee
village
India Manipur location map.svg
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Sihai
Location in Manipur, India
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Sihai
Sihai (India)
Coordinates: 25°10′00″N94°29′50″E / 25.16667°N 94.49722°E / 25.16667; 94.49722 Coordinates: 25°10′00″N94°29′50″E / 25.16667°N 94.49722°E / 25.16667; 94.49722
CountryFlag of India.svg  India
State Manipur
District Ukhrul
Population
  Total1,239
Languages
  Official Tangkhul (Sihai Tui)
Time zone UTC+5:30 (IST)
PIN
795142
Vehicle registration MN
Nearest cityUkhrul
Literacy64%
Lok Sabha constituencyOuter Manipur
Vidhan Sabha constituencyUkhrul
Website manipur.gov.in

Sihai (pronounced as "SI-HAI") is a general reference to a group of villages (settlements: Sihai Khullen, Sihai Khunou and Sihai Kahaophung) in the north of Ukhrul District headquarters in Manipur. Sihai Khullen, the nearest from Ukhrul is about 37 kilometers from Ukhrul, connected partially by National Highway 150 (Imphal-Kohima via Ukhrul and Jessami Highway).

Ukhrul district district in Manipur, India

Ukhrul is a district in the north eastern state of Manipur in India. It lies about 84 kilometres (52 mi) north east of Imphal.

Manipur State in North-east India

Manipur is a state in northeastern India, with the city of Imphal as its capital. It is bounded by Nagaland to the north, Mizoram to the south, and Assam to the west; Myanmar lies to its east. The state covers an area of 22,327 square kilometres (8,621 sq mi) and has a population of almost 3 million, including the Meitei, who are the majority group in the state, the Pangals or the Pangans, Naga tribes, Kuki/Zo tribes and other communities, who speak a variety of Sino-Tibetan languages. Manipur has been at the crossroads of Asian economic and cultural exchange for more than 2,500 years. It has long connected the Indian subcontinent to Southeast Asia, China, Siberia, Micronesia and Polynesia, enabling migration of people, cultures, and religions.

Contents

View of Sihai Phangrei from Shirui Peak Sihai Phangrei.jpg
View of Sihai Phangrei from Shirui Peak

Sihai Khullen is about 7 miles from Zero Point, a small hamlet at the foothill of Sihai Phangrei. [1] Sihai phangrei is a long flat hill range, one of the favorite picnic spots in Ukhrul district. The hill range joins with the Shirui Peak/Shirui Kashong, home of the famous flower Shirui Lily (Lilium mackliniae)

Neighboring villages of the settlements are Khamasom, Longpi, Lunghar, Shirui, Mapum and Zingsui.

Khamasom Village in Manipur, India

Khamasom is a generic reference to four villages located north of Ukhrul in Ukhrul district, Manipur state, India. The four villages are Khamasom Khayangkho, Khamasom Walely, Khamasom Phungdhar and Khamasom Phungrei. The settlement is approximately 25 kilometers from Ukhrul and partially connected by National Highway 150, Imphal-Kohima road via Jessami. Khamasom is flanked by Sihai in the south, Huishu in the north west Nungbi Khullen in the west and Myanmar in the east. The inhabitants speak Khamasom dialect which belongs to the Tibeto-Burman language family. The four villages are under one chieftain.

Longpi town in Manipur, India

Longpi is a general reference to two villages in the Ukhrul District of the Indian state of Manipur. Longpi is about 37 kilometres (23 mi) north of Ukhrul, connected by National Highway 150. The two villages together have a population of over 8,000.

Lunghar Village in Manipur, India

Lunghar, also incorrectly called Nunghar, is a village located north of Ukhrul in Ukhrul district, Manipur state, India. Lunghar villagers call Lunghar as Lunghir, Lunghar village is very fertile and rich in vegetation and fruits. People all around the Manipur are enchanted by the beautiful spot in the village such as Phangrei, Jorcheng, Tingloi, Phungrim which is just 25 km from Ukhrul Town. National Highway 150, Imphal-Kohima road via Jessami passes through Lunghar and the village is about 18 kilometers from Ukhrul. Lunghar is flanked by Sihai in the east, Longpi in the north, Phungcham and Halang in the west and Shirui in the south. Locally inhabitants speak Lunghir dialect which belongs to the Tibeto-Burman language family. The village is divided into five major tangs; Soso tang, Layin tang, Hashunao tang (Haotang), Asai tang and Jorcheng tang.

Population

According to 2011 census, [2] Sihai Khullen has 188 households with the total of 867 people of which 448 are male and 419 are female. Of the total population, 145 were in the age group of 0–6 years. The average sex ratio of the village is 938 female to 1000 male which is lower than the state average 985. The literacy rate of the village stands at 72.58% which is lower than the state average 76.94%. Male literacy rate stands at 77.42% while female literacy rate was 67.43%.

According to 2011 census, [3] Sihai Khunou has 80 households with the total of 372 people of which 194 are male and 178 are female. Of the total population, 73 were in the age group of 0–6 years. The average sex ratio of the village is 918 female to 1000 male which is lower than the state average 985. The literacy rate of the village stands at 51.51% which is lower than the state average 76.94%. Male literacy rate stands at 58.13% while female literacy rate was 43.88%.

History

The original name of the settlement is 'Saanhee' meaning 'cow's gem' in the local dialect and 'Sei-hai' in Tangkhul dialect, the common vernacular of the Tangkhul Naga tribe.'The settlement became better known as Sihai as outsiders find it hard to call the settlement by the local name. However, the neighboring villages refer to the settlements as Cow's Jewel in their respective dialects.

Tangkhul Naga

The Tangkhuls are a major Naga ethnic group living in the Indo-Burma border area occupying the Ukhrul district in Manipur, India and the Somra tract hills, Layshi township, Homalin township in Upper Burma and Tamu Township in Burma. Despite this international border, many Tangkhul have continued to regard themselves as "one nation".Tangkhuls living in Burma are also known as Hogo Naga or Eastern Tangkhul or Somra Tangkhul. Also Kokak Naga, Akyaung Ari Naga and Hogo Naga are included tribally within Tangkhul Naga tribe but their language are quite distinct. The Tangkhul (Somra/Hogo) language in Mayanmar is very different from Tangkhul (Ukhrul) spoken in India. The villages in the north like jessami, soraphung and Chingjaroi (swimai) have quite a different culture than the main tangkhul group but have more cultural ties with that of the chakhesang(jessami and soraphung) and poumai(chingjaroi) tribes

Sihai Khullen Waterfall Sihai Waterfall.png
Sihai Khullen Waterfall

The origin of the name is traced back to the time of migration and settlement based on a legend believed by the settlers. According to the legend, a cow was slaughtered as sacrifice to commemorate the occasion of the settlement and that a jewel was found in the cow's bowel.

The jewel found inside the cow as said by the settlers was given away to the daughter of the village chief as a marriage gift who married the son of Phungcham Chief. Phungchamis a village approximately 35 kilometers north of Ukhrul. The jewel till then was in the custody of the village chief and his predecessors for several generations. [4]

After staying together in a single location for several centuries, the original settlement got bifurcated into two, with almost half of the settlers moving further east in the 19th century. The main reason for the relocation was to occupy and cultivate more of the inherited fertile arable land that lies beyond the river. The old settlement was named Sihai Khullen/Phungcham (old settlement) and the new settlement was named Sihai Khunou/Phungdhar (new settlement). [5]

Sihai Khunou later got bifurcated into Sihai Khunou and Sihai Kahaophung. Until recently the three settlements were under one chief.

Orchid in full bloom Harthaowon.png
Orchid in full bloom

People and Occupation

Agriculture is the main occupation of the settlers. The main crops grown in these settlements are rice, corn, and pulses of many varieties. Sihai Khullen is well known in Ukhrul district for cabbage cultivation and its large scale export. Sihai in general is also famous for it traditional bamboo handicrafts. Bamboo products from the village include various types of baskets locally called sopkai, pengkai, luk, ngala shung, kashai, shung, etc. [6] [7] Sihai is also famous in the district for uniqueness of the folk songs and folk dance. [8] 99.9% of the population are Christians. Literacy rate of the settlements is 64%.

Vegetation

The settlements as a whole has a rich reserve of both rare and common flora and fauna. The place is famous for the rich variety of rhododendrons that bloom in the spring season. During April and May one can see the whole spring beds covered with white and red rhododendrons, locally called as Anyii-van/Ngayawon and Koktaa-van/Kokluiwon. Sihai also is home to various varieties of orchids that blooms round the year. Fruits grown in Sihai are peach, plum, grapes, passion fruit, pear, and apple.

Related Research Articles

Khangkhui Village in Manipur, India

Khangkhui is a Tangkhul Naga village in the North-eastern part of Ukhrul district of Manipur, India. The village is about 16 kilometer from Ukhrul District headquarters. The village is flanked by Choithar in the west, Nungshong in the south, Pushing in the east and Langdang and Shirui in the north.

Phungcham Village in Manipur, India

Phungcham is a village located north of Ukhrul in Ukhrul district, Manipur state, India. The village is approximately 28 kilometers from Ukhrul and is connected by inter village road constructed under PMGSY. Phungcham is flanked by Longpi and Lunghar in the east, Peh in the north, Ukhrul and Halang in the south and Talui in the west.

Chingjaroi village in Manipur, India

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Tusom New Tusom and Tusom CV in Manipur, India

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Halang, Ukhrul Village in Manipur, India

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Kalhang Village in Manipur, India

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Shirui Village in Manipur, India

Shirui also misnomerly called 'Shiroy'/Shiroi is a village located north of Ukhrul in Ukhrul district, Manipur state, India. The village is 15 kilometers from Ukhrul. National Highway 150 Imphal-Kohima via Jessami passes through the village. The village is divided into two parts Shirui ato and Shirui aze, however, both the parts are under one chief. Shirui is famous for the rich and flora found on Shirui Kashong or Shirui peak and especially for blooming of the rare Lilium mackliniae during the start of Monsoon. The village is flanked by Ukhrul in the west, Langdang in the south, Mapum in the east, Sihai in the North east and Lunghar in the north. Locally inhabitants speak Shirui dialect which belongs to the Tibeto-Burman language family.

Langdang Village in Manipur, India

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Nungshong Village in Manipur, India

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Shangshak Village in Manipur, India

Shangshak is a generic reference to two villages viz. Shangshak Khullen and Shangshak Khunou located south of Ukhrul in Ukhrul district, Manipur state, India. The village is about 15 kilometers from Ukhrul via National Highway 150 and the state highway that connects Ukhrul-Kamjong via Shangshak. Shangshak is flanked by Hungpung in the north, Koso in the south, Ramva in the west and Gamnom and Yengtem in the east. The first battle in Indian soil during the Second World War between the Japanese and the allied forces was fought in Shangshak. The battle of Shangshak fought for two weeks from 21 to 26 March 1944 is considered as one of the bloodiest battles of the Second World War. Locally, the residents speak Shangshak dialect which belongs to the Tibeto-Burman language family.

Tangkhul Hundung Village in Manipur, India

Tangkhul Hundung is a village south of Ukhrul in Ukhrul district, Manipur, India. The village is about 65 kilometres (40 mi) from Ukhrul and about 45 kilometres (28 mi) from Imphal and is partially connected by National Highway 150 that connects Imphal and Kohima via Ukhrul and Jessami. Tangkhul Hundung is divided into two major parts, Tangkhul Hundung Khullen and Tangkhul Hundung Khunou. The village is flanked by Thoyee in the west, Shingkap in the north, Itham in the south and Alang in the east. Locally, the inhabitants speak Tangkhul Hundung tui, which belongs to the Tibeto-Burman language family.

Zingsui Village in Manipur, India

'Zingsui' is a village located east of Ukhrul in Ukhrul district, Manipur state,India. The village is flanked by Mapum and Pushing in the south, Sihai and Khamasom in the north, Ukhrul and Shirui in the west and Khayang in the east.

Chatric Village in Manipur, India

Chatric also known as Siyang is a village located southeast of [Kamjong] in Kamjong district, Manipur state, India.The village is about 80 kilometers from Ukhrul and is partially connected by Ukhrul-Kamjong State highway. The village is flanked by Chamu in the north, Chahong village in the south, the Chindwin river (Myanmar) in the east and Chahong in the west. Chatric is an Indian border village with Myanmar. Locally, the inhabitants speak Chatric tui which belongs to the Tibeto-Burman language family. The village is divided into two major parts with separate settlements; Chatric Khullen and Chatric Khunou.

Bungpa Village in Manipur, India

Bungpa is a generic reference to two villages, Bungpa Khullen and Bungpa Khunou located south of Ukhrul in Ukhrul district, Manipur state, India. The village falls under Kamjong sub division. The villages are connected by Ukhrul-Kamjong state highway. Bungpa is flanked by Phungyar in the west, Grihang in the south, Lakhan in the east and Kamjong in the north. Locally, the inhabitants speak Bungpa dialect that belongs to the Tibeto-Burman language family.

Kangpat Village in Manipur, India

Kangpat is a generic reference to two villages, Kangpat Khullen and Kangpat Khunou located south of Ukhrul in Ukhrul district, Manipur state, India. The village falls under Kamjong sub division. The two villages are connected by Ukhrul-Kamjong state highway. Kangpat is flanked by Sorbung in the west, Choro in the south, Skipe in the east and Nambisha in the north. Locally, the inhabitants speak Kangpat dialect that belongs to the Tibeto-Burman language family. Some researchers are of the view that the dialect spoken by the inhabitants has some affinity to that of the Koireng tribe.

Nungbi Khullen Village in Manipur, India

Nungbi Khullen locally called as Loree is a village located north of Ukhrul in Ukhrul district, Manipur state, India. The village falls under Chingai sub division. National Highway 150 that connects Imphal-Kohima via Ukhrul and Jessami passes through the village. Nungbi Khullen is about 35 kilometers from Ukhrul; and is flanked by Loree Kaju in the west, Lunghar in the south, Khamasom in the east and Kalhang in the north. Locally, the inhabitants speak Loree dialect that belongs to the Tibeto-Burman language family.

Razai, Ukhrul Village in Manipur, India

Razai is a generic reference two villages, Razai Khullen and Razai Khunou Ukhrul in Ukhrul district, Manipur state, India. The village falls under Chingai sub division. National Highway 150 that connects Imphal-Kohima via Ukhrul and Jessami passes through the village. Razai is about 50 kilometers from Ukhrul; and is flanked by Peh in the west, Awang Kasom in the south, Chingai in the east and Maremphung in the north. Locally, the inhabitants speak Razai dialect that belongs to the Tibeto-Burman language family.

References

  1. "Brief history of Sihai". Untold stories. Retrieved 28 December 2015.
  2. "Sihai Khullen population". Census 2011. Retrieved 11 October 2015.
  3. "Sihai Khunou population". Census 2011. Retrieved 11 October 2015.
  4. "Sihai Khullen, Khunou, Kahaophung". Times of India. Retrieved 28 December 2015.
  5. "About Sihai". Angamkhangrah blog. Retrieved 28 December 2015.
  6. "Handicraft promotion". The Sangai Express. Retrieved 30 March 2017.
  7. "Basket weaving competition". E-Pao. Retrieved 30 March 2017.
  8. "Handicraft and art forms". E-pao. Retrieved 28 December 2015.