Sima Zhen (Chinese :司馬貞; Wade–Giles :Ssu-ma Chen; 679–732), courtesy name Zizheng (Tzu-cheng; 子正), was a Tang dynasty Chinese historian born in what is now Jiaozuo, Henan.
Sima Zhen was one of the most important commentators on the Shiji . 史記索隱), which means "Seeking the Obscure in the Records of the Grand Historian".His commentary is known as the Shiji Suoyin (
Sima Qian was a Chinese historian of the early Han dynasty. He is considered the father of Chinese historiography for his Records of the Grand Historian, a general history of China in the Jizhuanti style (紀傳體) covering more than two thousand years beginning from the rise of the legendary Yellow Emperor and the formation of the first Chinese polity to the reigning sovereign of Sima Qian's time, Emperor Wu of Han. As the first universal history of the world as it was known to the ancient Chinese, the Records of the Grand Historian served as a model for official history-writing for subsequent Chinese dynasties and the Chinese cultural sphere up until the 20th century.
The Records of the Grand Historian, also known by its Chinese name Shiji, is a monumental history of ancient China and the world finished around 94 BC by the Western Han Dynasty official Sima Qian after having been started by his father, Sima Tan, Grand Astrologer to the imperial court. The work covers the world as it was then known to the Chinese and a 2500-year period from the age of the legendary Yellow Emperor to the reign of Emperor Wu of Han in the author's own time.
Shennong (神農), variously translated as "Divine Farmer" or "Divine Husbandman", was a mythological Chinese ruler who has become a deity in Chinese and Vietnamese folk religion. He is venerated as a culture hero in China and Vietnam.
Dayuan is the Chinese exonym for a country that existed in Ferghana valley in Central Asia, described in the Chinese historical works of Records of the Grand Historian and the Book of Han. It is mentioned in the accounts of the famous Chinese explorer Zhang Qian in 130 BCE and the numerous embassies that followed him into Central Asia. The country of Dayuan is generally accepted as relating to the Ferghana Valley, controlled by the Greek polis Alexandria Eschate.
Sima Tan was a Chinese astrologer and historian during the Western Han dynasty. He studied astronomy with Tang Du, the I Ching under Yang He, and Daoism under Master Huang. He held the position of Court Astrologer (太史令) between 140-110 BC. While Sima Tan had begun the Records of the Grand Historian (Shiji), he died before it was finished. It was left to his son, Sima Qian, to complete. The year of Sima Tan's death is the year of the great imperial sacrifice fengshan zh:封禅 by Han Wudi, for which the emperor appointed the fangshi, leaving Sima behind and thus probably causing him much frustration.
Duke Jing of Jin was according to Sima Qian's Records of the Grand Historian (Shiji) the last ruler of the State of Jin during the early Warring States period of ancient China. His given name was Jùjiǔ, and he supposedly succeeded his father Duke Xiao of Jin but reigned for only two years before being overthrown by the states of Han, Zhao, and Wei that were founded by former aristocratic clans of Jin.
Guifang was an ancient ethnonym for a northern people that fought against the Shang Dynasty. Chinese historical tradition identified the Guifang with the Xirong, Xunyu, or Xiongnu peoples. This Chinese exonym combines gui and fang, a suffix referring to "non-Shang or enemy countries that existed in and beyond the borders of the Shang polity." The sinologist Herrlee Glessner Creel translated Guifang as "Demon Territory".
Chunwei is a name associated with north-western nomads who raided Ancient China.
Elai was a bodyguard for King Zhou during the Shang Dynasty of ancient China. He was an ancestor of Feizi, the founder of the state of Qin. His brother Jisheng (季勝) was an ancestor of Zaofu, the founder of the state of Zhao. According to the Records of the Grand Historian (Shiji) by Sima Qian, Elai was known for his immense physical strength.
Xiong Qu was the sixth viscount of the state of Chu during the early Zhou Dynasty of ancient China. Like other early Chu rulers, he held the hereditary noble rank of viscount first granted to his ancestor Xiong Yi by King Cheng of Zhou. Xiong Qu succeeded his father Xiong Yang.
Xiong Kang, also called Xiong Wukang, was the seventh viscount of the state of Chu during the early Zhou Dynasty of ancient China. Like other early Chu rulers, he held the hereditary noble rank of viscount first granted to his ancestor Xiong Yi by King Cheng of Zhou.
Xiong Zhi was the eighth viscount of the state of Chu during the early Zhou Dynasty of ancient China. Like other early Chu rulers, he held the hereditary noble rank of viscount first granted to his ancestor Xiong Yi by King Cheng of Zhou.
Xiong Yan was the ninth viscount of the state of Chu during the Western Zhou Dynasty of ancient China. Like other early Chu rulers, he held the hereditary noble rank of viscount first granted to his ancestor Xiong Yi by King Cheng of Zhou.
Duke Huan of Jin was from 388 to 369 BC the titular ruler of the State of Jin during the beginning of the Warring States period of ancient China. His ancestral name was Ji, given name Qi, and Duke Huan was his posthumous title recorded in the Bamboo Annals, while the Records of the Grand Historian refers to him as Duke Xiao of Jin (晉孝公).
Duke Jian of Qin was, from 414 to 400 BC, the 26th ruler of the Zhou Dynasty Chinese state of Qin that eventually united China to become the Qin Dynasty. His ancestral name was Ying (嬴), and Duke Jian was his posthumous title.
Lady Xiu, formerly romanized as Lady Hsiu, is a figure in Chinese mythology.
Tantai Mieming or Dantai Mieming, also known by his courtesy name Ziyu, was a major disciple of Confucius. He was known for being very ugly, but was morally upright. He started his own school in the Yangtze River region, and became a major transmitter of Confucian thoughts. Confucius initially misjudged him because of his bad looks, but later expressed his regret.
Gongxi Ai, courtesy name Jici, was a disciple of Confucius. Sima Zhen's Shiji Suoyin says his name was Gongxi Ke, citing the Kongzi Jiayu.
This is a family tree of Chinese kings during the Warring States period, from 475 BCE to 251 BCE.
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