Simeon Solomon

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Simeon Solomon
Wynfield, David Wilkie (1837-1887), Simeon Solomon.jpg
Simeon Solomon in Oriental costume, a photograph by David Wilkie Wynfield
Born9 October 1840
England
Died14 August 1905 (aged 64)
NationalityEnglish
EducationCarey's Art Academy (1852); Royal Academy, London
Known forPainter
Movement Orientalist

Simeon Solomon (9 October 1840 – 14 August 1905) was an English painter associated with the Pre-Raphaelites who was noted for his depictions of Jewish life [1] and same-sex desire. [2] [3] His career was cut short following arrests and convictions for sodomy in 1873 and 1874. [4]

Contents

Biography

Sappho and Erinna in a Garden at Mytilene, 1864
Watercolour on paper, Tate Britain Sappho and Erinna in a Garden at Mytilene.jpg
Sappho and Erinna in a Garden at Mytilene, 1864
Watercolour on paper, Tate Britain

Solomon was born into a prominent Jewish family. He was the eighth and last child born to merchant Michael (Meyer) Solomon and artist Catherine (Kate) Levy. Solomon was a younger brother to fellow painters Abraham Solomon (18241862) and Rebecca Solomon (18321886).

Born and educated in London, Solomon started receiving lessons in painting from his older brother around 1850. He started attending Carey's Art Academy in 1852. His older sister first exhibited her works at the Royal Academy during the same year.

As a student at the Royal Academy Schools, Solomon was introduced through Dante Gabriel Rossetti to other members of the Pre-Raphaelite circle, as well as the poet Algernon Charles Swinburne and the painter Edward Burne-Jones in 1857. His first exhibition was at the Royal Academy in 1858. He continued to hold exhibitions of his work at the Royal Academy between 1858 and 1872. In addition to the literary paintings favoured by the Pre-Raphaelite school, Solomon's subjects often included scenes from the Hebrew Bible and genre paintings depicting Jewish life and rituals. His association with Swinburne led to his illustrating Swinburne's controversial novel Lesbia Brandon in 1865. [5]

In 1873, Simeon was arrested for "cruising public restrooms" and having sex with a 60-year-old stableman named George Roberts. Both men were charged with indecent exposure and an attempt to commit "buggery." Both were found guilty, fined 100 pounds and sentenced to 18 months of hard labor. [4] . [6] He was arrested again in 1874 in Paris, after which he was sentenced to spend three months in prison. [6] [7] [8] [9]

After his prosecutions he no longer exhibited, but achieved a degree of celebrity amongst those who shared his sensibilities: Oscar Wilde, John Addington Symonds, Count Eric Stenbock, and Walter Pater all collected his works. [10]

In 1884 he was admitted to the workhouse where he continued to produce work, but his life and talent were blighted by alcoholism. Twenty years later in 1905, he died from complications brought on by his alcoholism. He was buried at the Jewish Cemetery in Willesden.

Examples of his work are on permanent display at the Victoria and Albert Museum, Wightwick Manor in Wolverhampton, and at Leighton House in west London. Retrospectives of his work have been held at the Birmingham Museum and Art Gallery in 2005–6, and in London at the Ben Uri Gallery in 2006.

Exhibitions

1906

1907

1908

1913

1923

1934

1946

1964

1965

1966

1985

2001

2002

2005

2006

2008

2010

2017

In literature

In Oscar Wilde's long prison letter to Lord Alfred Douglas, De Profundis , Wilde writes of his bankruptcy: “That all my charming things were to be sold: my Burne-Jones drawings: my Whistler drawings: my Monticelli: my Simeon Solomons: my china: my Library…”

References and sources

References
  1. Cohen, Richard I.Jewish Icons: Art and Society in Modern Europe, University of California Press, 1998, p160
  2. 'Cruise, Colin, ed., Love Revealed: Simeon Solomon and the Pre-Raphaelites, London: Merrell, 2005, p9
  3. Seymour, Gayle M. Simeon Solomon and the Biblical Construction of Marginal Identity in Victorian England, Journal of Homosexuality, Volume 33, Issue 3-4, 1997
  4. 1 2 "Let's Examine 150 Years of Men Cruising Public Restrooms (and Its Social Consequences)". Hornet Stories. 25 October 2017. Retrieved 20 August 2018.
  5. Peter Horne, Reina Lewis, Outlooks: lesbian and gay sexualities and visual cultures, Routledge, 1996, ISBN   0-415-12468-9, p. 70
  6. 1 2 William A. Peniston, "Pederasts and others: urban culture and sexual identity in nineteenth-century Paris", Haworth gay & lesbian studies, Routledge, 2004, ISBN   1-56023-486-5, pp. 77–78
  7. Lockard, Ray Anne (2002), "Solomon, Simeon", glbtq.com , archived from the original on 12 February 2007, retrieved 19 September 2007
  8. Michael Matthew Kaylor, "Secreted Desires: The Major Uranians: Hopkins, Pater and Wilde", Michael Matthew Kaylor, 2006, ISBN   80-210-4126-9, p. 81
  9. Jeffrey Merrick, Bryant T. Ragan, "Homosexuality in modern France", Studies in the history of sexuality, Oxford University Press US, 1996, ISBN   0-19-509303-8, p. 134
  10. Kaylor, Michael Matthew, Secreted Desires: The Major Uranians - Hopkins, Pater and Wilde, Masaryk University, Brno: 2006, p82 Note 1
  11. "Pre-Raphaelite Painters from Collections in Lancashire | Tate". www.tate.org.uk. Retrieved 22 May 2016.
  12. McKenzie, Janet. "Love Revealed: Simeon Solomon and the Pre-Raphaelites, Studio International". Studio International – Visual Arts, Design and Architecture. Retrieved 22 May 2016.
  13. "Posthumous Exhibitions". Simeon Solomon Research Archive. Retrieved 22 May 2016.
Sources

Further reading

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