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Simon Boerum (February 29, 1724 – July 11, 1775) was a farmer, miller, and political leader from Brooklyn, New York. He represented New York in the Continental Congress in 1774 and 1775.
Brooklyn is the most populous borough of New York City, with an estimated 2,648,771 residents in 2017. Named after the Dutch village of Breukelen, it borders the borough of Queens at the western end of Long Island. Brooklyn has several bridge and tunnel connections to the borough of Manhattan across the East River, and the Verrazzano-Narrows Bridge connects it with Staten Island. Since 1896, Brooklyn has been coterminous with Kings County, the most populous county in the U.S. state of New York and the second-most densely populated county in the United States, after New York County.
The Continental Congress was initially a convention of delegates from several British American colonies at the height of the American Revolution era, who spoke and acted collectively for the people of the Thirteen colonies that ultimately became the United States of America. The term most specifically refers to the First Continental Congress of 1774 and the Second Continental Congress of 1775–81. More broadly, it also refers to the Congress of the Confederation of 1781–89, thus covering the entire period the Continental Congress served as the chief legislative and executive body of the U.S. government.
Boerum's family settled on Long Island when it was a part of the Dutch Colony of New Netherland. His parents were William Jacob Boerum (1687–1766) and Rachel (Bloom) Boerum (1690–1738), who farmed in the town of New Lots, in Kings County, New York, which is now part of Brooklyn. Simon was born there on February 29, 1724, and was baptized in the Dutch Reformed Church on 8 March. He attended and graduated from the Dutch school in Flatbush.
Long Island is a densely populated island off the East Coast of the United States, beginning at New York Harbor approximately 0.35 miles (0.56 km) from Manhattan Island and extending eastward into the Atlantic Ocean. The island comprises four counties in the U.S. state of New York. Kings and Queens Counties and Nassau County share the western third of the island, while Suffolk County occupies the eastern two-thirds. More than half of New York City's residents now live on Long Island, in Brooklyn and Queens. However, many people in the New York metropolitan area colloquially use the term Long Island to refer exclusively to Nassau and Suffolk Counties, which are mainly suburban in character, conversely employing the term the City to mean Manhattan alone.
The Netherlands is a country located mainly in Northwestern Europe. The European portion of the Netherlands consists of twelve separate provinces that border Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, and the North Sea to the northwest, with maritime borders in the North Sea with Belgium, Germany and the United Kingdom. Together with three island territories in the Caribbean Sea—Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba— it forms a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. The official language is Dutch, but a secondary official language in the province of Friesland is West Frisian.
New Netherland was a 17th-century colony of the Dutch Republic that was located on the east coast of America. The claimed territories extended from the Delmarva Peninsula to southwestern Cape Cod, while the more limited settled areas are now part of New York, New Jersey, Delaware, and Connecticut, with small outposts in Pennsylvania and Rhode Island.
Simon farmed and operated a mill in Flatbush. In 1748, he bought a home and garden at what is today is the southwest corner of Fulton and Hoyt streets in downtown Brooklyn. On 30 September of that year, he married Maria Schenck (1726–1771) and the house became their home for the rest of their lives.
In 1750, Governor Clinton appointed Simon Boerum the County Clerk for Kings County. He would hold that office for the rest of his life, as well as a seat in the Province of New York Assembly after 1761.
Admiral of the Fleet The Hon. George Clinton was a Royal Navy officer and politician. Benefiting from the patronage of Thomas Pelham-Holles, 1st Duke of Newcastle, he served as a naval captain during the 1720s and 1730s.
The Province of New York (1664–1776) was a British proprietary colony and later royal colony on the northeast coast of North America. As one of the Thirteen Colonies, New York achieved independence and worked with the others to found the United States.
In 1774, the Assembly could not reach agreement about the Continental Congress. Kings County selected him to represent them, and on October 1, 1774, the Congress added him to the New York delegation. In the congress, he supported the non-importation agreement, and the more radical members in general. He helped to defeat the Galloway Plan for union and reconciliation with England.
Galloway's Plan of Union was put forward in the First Continental Congress of 1774 but was rejected. Joseph Galloway was a Pennsylvania delegate who wanted to keep the Thirteen Colonies in the British Empire.
Early in 1775, the Colony's Assembly rejected the work of the first Congress, and was hurriedly adjourned to prevent further measures from consideration. In April, Boerum was elected to the revolutionary New York Provincial Congress. That body in turn named him once again to the Continental Congress, but illness soon forced his return from Philadelphia.
The New York Provincial Congress (1775–1777) was an organization formed by colonists in 1775, during the American Revolution, as a pro-American alternative to the more conservative New York General Assembly, and as a replacement for the Committee of One Hundred. The Fourth Provincial Congress, resolving itself as the Convention of Representatives of the State of New York, adopted the first Constitution of the State of New York on April 20, 1777.
Philadelphia, known colloquially as Philly, is the largest city in the U.S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, and the sixth-most populous U.S. city, with a 2018 census-estimated population of 1,584,138. Since 1854, the city has been coterminous with Philadelphia County, the most populous county in Pennsylvania and the urban core of the eighth-largest U.S. metropolitan statistical area, with over 6 million residents as of 2017. Philadelphia is also the economic and cultural anchor of the greater Delaware Valley, located along the lower Delaware and Schuylkill Rivers, within the Northeast megalopolis. The Delaware Valley's population of 7.2 million ranks it as the eighth-largest combined statistical area in the United States.
Simon died at home on July 11, 1775, and was originally buried in the Dutch Burying Ground in New Lots. In 1848, he and his wife, Maria, were re-interred in the Green-Wood Cemetery in Brooklyn.
Green-Wood Cemetery is a cemetery in Brooklyn, New York City, founded in 1838 as a rural cemetery. Like other early rural cemeteries, Green-Wood was founded in a time of rapid urbanization when churchyards in New York City were becoming overcrowded.
Henry Laurens was an American merchant, slave trader, and rice planter from South Carolina who became a political leader during the Revolutionary War. A delegate to the Second Continental Congress, Laurens succeeded John Hancock as President of the Congress. He was a signatory to the Articles of Confederation and President of the Continental Congress when the Articles were passed on November 15, 1777.
Philip Livingston was an American merchant and statesman from New York City. He was a delegate for New York to the Continental Congress from 1775 to 1778, and signed the Declaration of Independence.
Charles DeWitt was an American statesman and miller from the U.S. state of New York. He served as a delegate to the Continental Congress.
Andrew Allen was a lawyer and official from the Province of Pennsylvania. Born into an influential family, Allen initially favored the colonial cause in the American Revolution, and represented Pennsylvania in the Second Continental Congress in 1775 and 1776. Like many other wealthy elites in Pennsylvania, however, he resisted radical change, and became a Loyalist after the Declaration of Independence and the Pennsylvania Constitution of 1776.
John De Hart was an American lawyer, jurist, and statesman from Elizabeth, New Jersey. He represented New Jersey as a delegate to the Continental Congress in 1774 and 1775.
Frederick Frelinghuysen was an American lawyer, soldier, and senator from New Jersey. A graduate of the College of New Jersey, Frederick went on to become an officer during the American Revolutionary War. In addition, he served as a delegate to the Continental Congress. He was a United States Senator from New Jersey from 1793 until 1796, and served as the United States Attorney for the District of New Jersey in 1801.
Joseph Galloway was an American politician. He became a Loyalist during the American Revolutionary War, after serving as delegate to the First Continental Congress from Pennsylvania. For much of his career in Pennsylvania politics, he was a close ally of Benjamin Franklin, and he became a leading figure in the colony. As a delegate to the Continental Congress, Galloway was a moderate, and he proposed a Plan of Union which would have averted a full break from Britain. When this was rejected, he moved increasingly towards Loyalism.
John Morton was a farmer, surveyor, and jurist from the Province of Pennsylvania and a Founding Father of the United States. As a delegate to the Continental Congress during the American Revolution, he was a signatory to the Continental Association and the United States Declaration of Independence. Morton provided the swing vote that allowed Pennsylvania to vote in favor of the United States Declaration of Independence. Morton chaired the committee that wrote the Articles of Confederation.
John Haring was an American lawyer from New York City. He was a delegate for New York to the Continental Congress.
James Kinsey was an American lawyer from Burlington, New Jersey.
James Schureman was an American merchant and statesman from New Brunswick, New Jersey. He represented New Jersey in the Continental Congress as well as the United States House of Representatives and United States Senate.
Allen Jones was an American planter, American Revolution brigadier general of the Halifax District Brigade, and statesman from Edgecombe County, North Carolina.
Philip Schuyler Crooke was a United States Representative from New York.
Reuben Locke Haskell was a U.S. Representative from New York.
Warren Isbell Lee was a U.S. Representative from New York.
The Committee of Sixty or Committee of Observation was a committee of inspection formed in the City and County of New York, in 1775, by rebels to enforce the Continental Association, a boycott of British goods enacted by the First Continental Congress. It was the successor to the Committee of Fifty-one, which had originally called for the Congress to be held, and was replaced by the Committee of One Hundred.
The Lefferts Historic House is a historic house located within Prospect Park in Brooklyn, New York City. It is the former home of Continental Army Lieutenant Pieter Lefferts built circa 1783. It currently operates as a museum of family life in Brooklyn in the 19th century. The museum is part of the Historic House Trust, owned by the New York City Department of Parks and Recreation and operated by the Prospect Park Alliance. It is a New York City designated landmark.
Richard Law was an American lawyer, jurist and statesman from New London, Connecticut.